Placental Transfer (placental + transfer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of allopurinol in late pregnant sows and their fetuses

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 6 2008
A. J. VAN DIJK
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a key enzyme in the evolvement of reperfusion injury resulting from birth asphyxia, a common cause of decreased viability and perinatal mortality in newborn piglets under farm conditions. At present no standard pharmacological intervention strategy is available to reduce these adverse effects of birth asphyxia. In the present study we aimed to evaluate placental transfer of allopurinol, an inhibitor of XOR. For this purpose, fetal catheterization of the jugular vein was conducted in five late pregnant sows (one fetus per sow). At 24,48 h after surgery, sows received allopurinol (15 mg/kg body weight; i.v.) and pharmacokinetics of allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol were measured in both late pregnant sows and fetuses. Maternal and fetal blood samples were collected during and after allopurinol administration. Maternal Cmax values averaged 41.90 ,g/mL (allopurinol) and 3.68 ,g/mL (oxypurinol). Allopurinol crossed the placental barrier as shown by the average fetal Cmax values of 5.05 ,g/mL at 1.47 h after allopurinol administration to the sow. In only one fetus low plasma oxypurinol concentrations were found. Incubations of subcellular hepatic fractions of sows and 24-h-old piglets confirmed that allopurinol could be metabolized into oxypurinol. In conclusion, we demonstrated that allopurinol can cross the placental barrier, a prerequisite for further studies evaluating the use of allopurinol as a neuroprotective agent to reduce the adverse effects following birth asphyxia in neonatal piglets. [source]


Placental transfer of IgG subclasses in a Japanese population

PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2000
Shintaro Hashira
Abstract Background: Maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferred across the placenta to the fetus during intrauterine life, is an important component of the neonatal immunological defence mechanisms against infection. There is controversy with respect to differences in placental transfer of the different IgG subclasses, and no definite data are available on a Japanese population. Therefore, we investigated placental transfer of IgG subclasses in a Japanese population. Methods: A total of 228 matched pairs of cord and maternal serum samples (20,42 weeks gestation) were assayed for each IgG subclass by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean values and hierarchy of cord/maternal concentration ratios of IgG subclasses at 40 weeks gestation were as follows: IgGl(1.47)>IgG3(1.17)=IgG4(1.15)>IgG2(0.80). The cord/maternal concentration ratios of all IgG subclasses were positively correlated to gestational age. The mean ratios for IgG1 and IgG4 nearly reached a plateau at 39 and 37 weeks gestation, respectively, while those for IgG2 and IgG3 increased until 41 weeks gestation. The ratios of all IgG subclasses for full-term deliveries were reciprocally correlated to the respective maternal IgG subclass serum levels. Conclusions: The results suggest that although all four IgG subclasses are actively transferred across the placenta, the efficiency of their transfer ranks in the order IgGl >IgG3=IgG4>IgG2. The different results as to placental transfer of IgG subclasses in the literature might be due, at least in part, to different maternal IgG subclass serum levels in the populations studied. [source]


Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of allopurinol in late pregnant sows and their fetuses

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 6 2008
A. J. VAN DIJK
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a key enzyme in the evolvement of reperfusion injury resulting from birth asphyxia, a common cause of decreased viability and perinatal mortality in newborn piglets under farm conditions. At present no standard pharmacological intervention strategy is available to reduce these adverse effects of birth asphyxia. In the present study we aimed to evaluate placental transfer of allopurinol, an inhibitor of XOR. For this purpose, fetal catheterization of the jugular vein was conducted in five late pregnant sows (one fetus per sow). At 24,48 h after surgery, sows received allopurinol (15 mg/kg body weight; i.v.) and pharmacokinetics of allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol were measured in both late pregnant sows and fetuses. Maternal and fetal blood samples were collected during and after allopurinol administration. Maternal Cmax values averaged 41.90 ,g/mL (allopurinol) and 3.68 ,g/mL (oxypurinol). Allopurinol crossed the placental barrier as shown by the average fetal Cmax values of 5.05 ,g/mL at 1.47 h after allopurinol administration to the sow. In only one fetus low plasma oxypurinol concentrations were found. Incubations of subcellular hepatic fractions of sows and 24-h-old piglets confirmed that allopurinol could be metabolized into oxypurinol. In conclusion, we demonstrated that allopurinol can cross the placental barrier, a prerequisite for further studies evaluating the use of allopurinol as a neuroprotective agent to reduce the adverse effects following birth asphyxia in neonatal piglets. [source]


Placental transfer of IgG subclasses in a Japanese population

PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2000
Shintaro Hashira
Abstract Background: Maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferred across the placenta to the fetus during intrauterine life, is an important component of the neonatal immunological defence mechanisms against infection. There is controversy with respect to differences in placental transfer of the different IgG subclasses, and no definite data are available on a Japanese population. Therefore, we investigated placental transfer of IgG subclasses in a Japanese population. Methods: A total of 228 matched pairs of cord and maternal serum samples (20,42 weeks gestation) were assayed for each IgG subclass by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean values and hierarchy of cord/maternal concentration ratios of IgG subclasses at 40 weeks gestation were as follows: IgGl(1.47)>IgG3(1.17)=IgG4(1.15)>IgG2(0.80). The cord/maternal concentration ratios of all IgG subclasses were positively correlated to gestational age. The mean ratios for IgG1 and IgG4 nearly reached a plateau at 39 and 37 weeks gestation, respectively, while those for IgG2 and IgG3 increased until 41 weeks gestation. The ratios of all IgG subclasses for full-term deliveries were reciprocally correlated to the respective maternal IgG subclass serum levels. Conclusions: The results suggest that although all four IgG subclasses are actively transferred across the placenta, the efficiency of their transfer ranks in the order IgGl >IgG3=IgG4>IgG2. The different results as to placental transfer of IgG subclasses in the literature might be due, at least in part, to different maternal IgG subclass serum levels in the populations studied. [source]


Maternal plasma level of antimicrobial peptide LL37 is a major determinant factor of neonatal plasma LL37 level

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2010
A Mandic Havelka
Abstract Aim:, To determine cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37subcellular distribution in cord neutrophils and normal plasma LL37 levels in mothers and neonates, relate them to delivery mode and relevant biochemical markers, including 25-OHvitamin D [25(OH)D] as this molecules increases cathelicidin gene expression. Methods:, A total of 115 infants were included, n = 68 with normal delivery and n = 47 with elective Caesarean section (C-section), a subset of these being 50 mother,infant pairs. Biomarkers were determined in maternal and cord blood. Subcellular peptide LL37 distribution was analysed with immunoelectron microscopy. Results:, Cord plasma LL37 levels were three-times higher after normal delivery compared with C-section. A highly significant correlation was observed between maternal and cord plasma LL37 levels, regardless of delivery mode. No relationship was found between LL37 and 25(OH)D levels. Neutrophils from cord blood after normal delivery contained 10-times more cytoplasmatic cathelicidin peptide compared with corresponding cells after C-section where a strict granular localization was found. Conclusion:, These data are consistent with a placental transfer of LL37 and identifies maternal stores as the critical factor determining neonatal plasma LL37 level. An additional enhancement of neonatal cathelicidin mobilization and release is connected to normal delivery stress. [source]


Neonatal management of symptomatic transplacental cryoglobulinaemia

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2004
V Laugel
This study reports the first case of symptomatic placental transfer of cryoglobulins and discusses the potential pathogenic processes and the basic guidelines for neonatal management. A 32-y-old woman was affected by essential type I cryoglobulinaemia and displayed the cold-triggered cutaneous symptoms of the disease due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) cryoglobulin. She gave birth to healthy dizygotic twins who were placed in incubators immediately after birth and did not show any cutaneous or visceral lesion in the first 2 d. Cyanotic macules appeared on the hand and foot of one of the newborns when they were removed from the incubators. The same monoclonal IgG-, cryoglobulin was identified in the two newborns'cord blood and in the mother's serum. The skin lesions disappeared within 1 wk as both twins were transiently replaced in incubators. No recurrence of skin lesions was observed even at room temperature and, 6 mo later, both twins were healthy and their clinical examination was normal. Conclusion: To the authors'knowledge, this is the first report of placental transfer of cryoglobulins and the first description of any neonatal effect. Neonates born to mothers suffering from IgG cryoglobulinaemia should be protected against cold to avoid precipitation of the pathogenic cryoglobulins, until spontaneous resolution. [source]