Placenta Growth Factor (placenta + growth_factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Placenta growth factor stimulates the growth of Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by both autocrine and paracrine pathways

Toshiko Ikai
Abstract:, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its associated molecule, placenta growth factor (PlGF) are now known to support normal hematopoiesis, and leukemia cell growth. In this study, expression of VEGF and PlGF in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells was examined by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 20 patient samples. Expression of PlGF was more intense in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) ALL than in Ph, ALL cases. On the other hand, expression level of VEGF was not different between Ph+ and Ph, cases. Then, PlGF was added to the two ALL cell lines, CRL1929 (Ph+), and Nalm6 (Ph,). The PlGF stimulated the growth of CRL1929 in time- and dose-dependent manners, although the growth of Nalm6 was not affected by PlGF. The growth stimulation of CRL1929 by PlGF was confirmed by the increase of S phase cells. And the growth promoting effect of PlGF on CRL1929 was cancelled by simultaneous addition of VEGFR1/Fc (which binds to PlGF and abrogates its function), but was not cancelled by VEGFR2/Fc (which does not bind to PlGF). Then, addition of VEGFR1/Fc to the simple culture of CRL1929 demonstrated growth inhibitory effect. These observations demonstrated that PlGF stimulates the growth of Ph+ ALL cells by both autocrine and paracrine pathways. Finally, PlGF-VEGFR1 loop might be a therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of Ph+ ALL. [source]

Association between color doppler vascularity index, angiogenesis-related molecules, and clinical outcomes in gastric cancer

Chiung-Nien Chen MD
Abstract Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between color Doppler vascularity index (CDVI), clinical outcomes and five angiogenesis-related molecules including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placenta growth factor (PlGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and calreticulin (CRT) in gastric cancer, and to develop an effective model selected from these five molecules to predict patient survival. Patients and Methods CDVI could be obtained preoperatively by transabdominal ultrasound from 30 patients. Enzyme immunoassay was adopted to determine protein level of VEGF and PlGF, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect COX-2, iNOS and CRT expression. Correlation between CDVI and five individual molecules was assessed. Multiple molecules model was developed using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis from five molecules, and was tested for patient survival in another 45 patients. Results CDVI was significantly correlated with patient survival (P,=,0.00907) and absolute number of metastatic lymph nodes (P,=,0.01). There was no significant association between CDVI and any individual molecule. The model, developed by CART consisting of VEGF and PlGF, could differentiate high and low CDVI and survival in testing group (P,=,0.00257). Conclusions CDVI was associated with lymph node metastasis, combined VEGF and PlGF expression status and patient survival in gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;99:402,408. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Determinants of Placental Vascularity

Donald S. Torry
Problem:, Vascular growth during implantation and placentation is critical for successful gestation and it is thought that vascular insufficiencies during placentation contribute to a number of obstetrical complications. However, relatively little is known regarding the regulation of angiogenesis in the placenta. Method of study:, We review literature concerning the potential significance of inadequate placental vascularity as a contributor to the obstetrical complications of spontaneous abortion, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Gene expression assays were used to compare fluctuations of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and PlGF receptor expression in normal and preeclamptic trophoblast in vitro. Results:, Studies have shown that common obstetrical complications manifest altered placental vascularity. Both intrinsic defects (gene knockouts) and extrinsic factors (O2 tension, cytokines, etc) may be responsible for the defects. Some of these factors have been shown to influence trophoblast vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/PlGF expression suggesting this particular family of angiogenic proteins play an important role in placental angiogenesis. Conclusion:, Placental vascularization reflects a complex interaction of regulatory factors. Understanding the regulation of vascular growth in the placenta will provide much needed insight into placenta-related vascular insufficiencies. [source]

Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin are required for prostate regeneration

THE PROSTATE, Issue 5 2007
Gui-min Wang
Abstract BACKGROUND The regulation of the prostate size by androgens may be partly the result of androgen effects on the prostatic vasculature. We examined the effect of changes in androgen levels on the expression of a variety of angiogenic factors in the mouse prostate and determined if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and the angiopoietins are involved in the vascular response to androgens. METHODS Expression of angiogenic factors in prostate was quantitated using real-time PCR at different times after castration and after administration of testosterone to castrated mice. Angiopoietins were localized in prostate by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The roles of VEGF and the angiopoietins in regeneration of the prostate were examined in mice inoculated with cells expressing soluble VEGF receptor-2 or soluble Tie-2. RESULTS Castration resulted in a decrease in VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, placenta growth factor, FGF-2, and FGF-8 expression after 1 day. In contrast, VEGF-D mRNA levels increased. No changes in angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), hepatocyte growth factor, VEGF receptor-1, VEGF receptor-2, or tie-2 mRNA levels were observed. Administration of testosterone to castrated mice had the opposite effect on expression of these angiogenic factors. Ang-2 was expressed predominately in prostate epithelial cells whereas Ang-1 was expressed in epithelium and smooth muscle. Inoculation of mice with cells expressing soluble VEGF receptor-2 or Tie-2 blocked the increase in vascular density normally observed after administration of testosterone to castrated mice. The soluble receptors also blocked the increase in prostate weight and proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells. CONCLUSION VEGF-A and angiopoietins are required for the vascular response to androgens and for the ability of the prostate to regenerate in response to androgens. Prostate 67: 485,499, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Role of placenta growth factor and its receptor flt-1 in rheumatoid inflammation: A link between angiogenesis and inflammation

Seung-Ah Yoo
Objective To investigate the direct effects of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and its specific receptor, flt-1, which are known to mediate angiogenesis, on the inflammatory process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Expression of PlGF and flt-1 in the synovial tissue of RA patients was examined using immunohistochemistry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the concentrations of PlGF, tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in culture supernatants of either mononuclear cells or synoviocytes. The flt-1 expression level in mononuclear cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Experimental arthritis was induced in mice either by immunization with type II collagen (CII) or by injection of anti-CII antibody. Results PlGF was highly expressed in the synovium of RA patients, and its primary source was fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). When stimulated with IL-1,, FLS from RA patients produced higher amounts of PlGF than did FLS from patients with osteoarthritis. Exogenous PlGF specifically increased the production of TNF, and IL-6 in mononuclear cells from RA patients (but not those from healthy controls) via a calcineurin-dependent pathway. The response to PlGF was associated with increased expression of flt-1 on RA monocytes, which could be induced by IL-1, and TNF,. A novel anti,flt-1 hexapeptide, GNQWFI, abrogated the PlGF-induced increase in TNF, and IL-6 production, and also suppressed CII-induced arthritis and serum IL-6 concentrations in mice. Moreover, genetic ablation of PlGF prevented the development of anti-CII antibody,induced arthritis in mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that enhanced expression of PlGF and flt-1 may contribute to rheumatoid inflammation by triggering production of proinflammatory cytokines. The use of the novel anti,flt-1 peptide, GNQWFI, may be an effective strategy for the treatment of RA. [source]

Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment of human chronic ulcers promotes angiogenesis associated with de novo vascular endothelial growth factor transcription in the ulcer bed

F. Cianfarani
Summary Background, Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine with pleiotropic functions, has been successfully employed in the treatment of chronic skin ulcers. The biological effects underlying GM-CSF action in impaired wound healing have been only partly clarified. Objectives, To investigate the effects of GM-CSF treatment of chronic venous ulcers on lesion vascularization and on the local synthesis of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF). Methods, Patients with nonhealing venous leg ulcers were treated with intradermal injection of recombinant human GM-CSF, and biopsies were taken at the ulcer margin before and 5 days after administration. Wound vascularization was analysed by immunohistochemistry using antiplatelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1/CD31 and anti-,-smooth muscle actin antibodies. VEGF and PlGF transcription was assessed by in situ hybridization. To identify the cell populations transcribing VEGF within the ulcer bed, the VEGF hybridization signal was correlated with the immunostaining for different cell type markers on serial sections. Direct induction of VEGF transcription by GM-CSF was investigated in GM-CSF-treated cultured macrophages and keratinocytes. Results, Blood vessel density was significantly increased in the ulcer bed following GM-CSF treatment. VEGF transcripts were localized in keratinocytes at the ulcer margin both before and after GM-CSF treatment, whereas a VEGF hybridization signal was evident within the ulcer bed only following administration. PlGF mRNA was barely detectable in keratinocytes at the ulcer margin and was not visibly increased after treatment. Unlike VEGF, a specific PlGF hybridization signal could not be detected in cells within the ulcer following GM-CSF administration. Monocytes/macrophages were the main cell population transcribing VEGF after GM-CSF treatment. In vitro analysis demonstrated that VEGF transcription can be directly stimulated by GM-CSF in a differentiated monocytic cell line, but not in keratinocytes. Conclusions, Our data show that increased vascularization is associated with GM-CSF treatment of chronic venous ulcers and indicate that inflammatory cell-derived VEGF may act as an angiogenic mediator of the healing effect of GM-CSF in chronic ulcers. [source]