Placebo Infusion (placebo + infusion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Reactive hypoglycaemia following GLP-1 infusion in pancreas transplant recipients

M. R. Rickels
The aim of the study was to determine whether reactive hypoglycaemia in pancreas transplant recipients that followed administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was associated with excessive insulin, insufficient glucagon, or both. Methodology involved six portally drained pancreas recipients who received GLP-1 (1.5 pmol/kg/min) or placebo infusion on randomized occasions during glucose-potentiated arginine testing. The second subject developed symptomatic hypoglycaemia [plasma glucose (PG) 42 mg/dl] 1 h after GLP-1 administration; subsequent subjects received intravenous glucose following GLP-1, but not placebo, infusion for PG levels <65 mg/dl. Following GLP-1 vs. placebo infusion, PG was lower (58 ± 4 vs. 76 ± 5 mg/dl; p < 0.05) despite administration of intravenous glucose. During hypoglycaemia, insulin levels and the insulin-to-glucagon ratio were greater after GLP-1 vs. placebo infusion (p < 0.05), while glucagon did not vary. It can be concluded from the study that GLP-1 can induce reactive hypoglycaemia in pancreas transplant recipients through excessive insulin secretion associated with an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio. [source]

The effect of glucagon-induced gastric relaxation on TLOSR frequency

H. Y. Chang
Abstract This study aimed to determine the effect of glucagon-induced gastric relaxation on the frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs). Eight normal subjects (four male, age 18,52 y) were studied after a 6-h fast using a combined manometric barostat assembly. The recording was divided into two 1-h sessions: (1) a baseline period with the barostat set at minimal distending pressure (MDP) + 2 mmHg and (2) a period with continuous glucagon or placebo infusion with barostat set at MDP + 2 mmHg. Patients were studied on two different days and randomly received glucagon (4.8 ,g kg,1 bolus followed by 9.6 ,g kg,1 h,1 infusion) on 1 day and placebo (saline) on another. Lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure, frequency of TLOSRs, and barostat bag volumes were determined for both placebo and glucagon infusion. Glucagon induced significant fundal relaxation compared with placebo (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased baseline LEOS pressure (P < 0.05). The frequency of TLOSRs was not altered by glucagon infusion compared with placebo. Despite causing substantial proximal stomach relaxation, glucagon did not increase TLOSR frequency. This suggests that the relevant gastric mechanoreceptors responsible for triggering TLOSRs do not respond to passive elongation. [source]

Use of additional oxytocin to reduce blood loss at elective caesarean section: A randomised control trial

Objective:, The purpose of this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess the effects of a 5-IU oxytocin bolus and placebo infusion versus a 5-IU oxytocin bolus and 30 IU infusion on the control of blood loss at elective lower segment caesarean section (C/S). Methods:, Participants with indication for elective C/S were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A, 360 women, received oxytocin 5 IU bolus and placebo; group B, 360 women received oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 30 IU infusion. Blood loss was estimated based on the haematocrit values before and 48 h after delivery. The primary outcome was the incidence of excessive bleeding (estimated blood loss of >1000 mL), while secondary outcomes included use of additional uterotonics, estimated blood loss, need for blood transfusion, duration of hospital stay and the incidence of adverse effects. Results:, No demographic difference was observed between groups. Mean estimated blood loss (P < 0.001) and the proportion of women with blood loss estimated to be greater than 1000 mL were significantly less for group B than for group A (relative risk (RR) 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20,0.63). In addition, more women in the group A required additional uterotonic agents (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.22,0.56) and blood transfusion (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01,0.98). Conclusion:, An additional oxytocin infusion after 5 IU oxytocin bolus infusion at elective C/S may reduce blood loss and required blood transfusion. [source]

Isosorbide dinitrate inhibits platelet adhesion and aggregation in nonthrombolyzed patients with acute myocardial infarction

Jadwiga Gebalska M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract Background: Apart from their vasodilatator properties, nitrates have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation. The effects of nitrates on platelet adhesion have not been studied. Nonselected patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been suggested to gain no benefit from administration of nitrates. However, the importance of nitrates may be greater in a subgroup of nonthrombolyzed patients with AMI. Hypothesis: Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) decreases platelet adhesion and aggregation in nonthrombolyzed patients with AMI. Methods: Consecutive 48 men with AMI, not eligible for thrombolytic therapy because of late presentation (> 12 h), were prospectively randomized 2:1 to double-blind ISDN (mean dose 2.4 ± 0.9 mg/h) (n = 33) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) (n = 15) infusion. All patients received aspirin. Blood samples were taken at baseline (no study medication) and 3 h into ISDN or placebo infusion. Platelet adhesion to collagen was measured in the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-platelet rich plasma by recording changes in light transmission with an optical aggregometer. Platelet aggregation was measured using the Born's method. Results: Isosorbide dinitrate significantly decreased both platelet adhesion and aggregation. No effect was seen in the placebo group. Conclusions: In patients with AMI who do not receive thrombolytic therapy, ISDN effectively inhibits platelet adhesion and aggregation. These effects of nitrates may be of therapeutic and prognostic significance in this group of patients. [source]

Effectiveness of rituximab treatment in primary Sjögren's syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,

J. M. Meijer
Objective To study the efficacy and safety of B cell depletion with rituximab, a chimeric murine/human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Patients with active primary SS, as determined by the revised American,European Consensus Group criteria, and a rate of stimulated whole saliva secretion of ,0.15 ml/minute were treated with either rituximab (1,000 mg) or placebo infusions on days 1 and 15. Patients were assigned randomly to a treatment group in a ratio of 2:1 (rituximab:placebo). Followup was conducted at 5, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. The primary end point was the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, while secondary end points included functional, laboratory, and subjective variables. Results Thirty patients with primary SS (29 female) were randomly allocated to a treatment group. The mean ± SD age of the patients receiving rituximab was 43 ± 11 years and the disease duration was 63 ± 50 months, while patients in the placebo group were age 43 ± 17 years and had a disease duration of 67 ± 63 months. In the rituximab group, significant improvements, in terms of the mean change from baseline compared with that in the placebo group, were found for the primary end point of the stimulated whole saliva flow rate (P = 0.038 versus placebo) and also for various laboratory parameters (B cell and rheumatoid factor [RF] levels), subjective parameters (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI] scores and visual analog scale [VAS] scores for sicca symptoms), and extraglandular manifestations. Moreover, in comparison with baseline values, rituximab treatment significantly improved the stimulated whole saliva flow rate (P = 0.004) and several other variables (e.g., B cell and RF levels, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, lacrimal gland function on the lissamine green test, MFI scores, Short Form 36 health survey scores, and VAS scores for sicca symptoms). One patient in the rituximab group developed mild serum sickness,like disease. Conclusion These results indicate that rituximab is an effective and safe treatment strategy for patients with primary SS. [source]