Placebo Groups (placebo + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

A controlled trial of paroxetine for chronic PTSD, dissociation, and interpersonal problems in mostly minority adults,

Randall D. Marshall M.D.
Abstract This study evaluated the efficacy of paroxetine for symptoms and associated features of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), interpersonal problems, and dissociative symptoms in an urban population of mostly minority adults. Adult outpatients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of chronic PTSD received 1 week of single-blind placebo (N = 70). Those not rated as significantly improved were then randomly assigned to placebo (N = 27) or paroxetine (N = 25) for 10 weeks, with a flexible dosage design (maximum 60,mg by week 7). Significantly more patients treated with paroxetine were rated as responders (14/21, 66.7%) on the Clinical Global Impression,Improvement Scale (CGI-I) compared to patients treated with placebo (6/22, 27.3%). Mixed effects models showed greater reductions on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) total score (primary plus associated features of PTSD) in the paroxetine versus placebo groups. Paroxetine was also superior to placebo on reduction of dissociative symptoms [Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) score] and reduction in self-reported interpersonal problems [Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) score]. In a 12-week maintenance phase, paroxetine response continued to improve, but placebo response did not. Paroxetine was well tolerated and superior to placebo in ameliorating the symptoms of chronic PTSD, associated features of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and interpersonal problems in the first trial conducted primarily in minority adults. Depression and Anxiety 24:77,84, 2007. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in nursing home residents with non-major depression

Adam B. Burrows M.D.
Abstract Depression is common across a broad spectrum of severity among nursing home residents. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of antidepressants in nursing home residents with major depression, but it is not known whether antidepressants are helpful in residents with less severe forms of depression. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 8-week trial comparing paroxetine and placebo in very old nursing home residents with non-major depression. The main outcome measure was the primary nurse's Clinical Impression of Change (CGI-C). Additional outcome measures were improvement on the interview-derived Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression (CS) scores. Twenty-four subjects with a mean age of 87.9 were enrolled and twenty subjects completed the trial. Placebo response was high, and when all subjects were considered, there were no differences in improvement between the paroxetine and placebo groups. Two subjects that received paroxetine developed delirium, and subjects that received paroxetine were more likely to experience a decrease in Mini Mental State Exam scores (P = .03). There were no differences in serum anticholinergic activity between groups. In a subgroup analysis of 15 subjects with higher baseline HDRS and CS scores, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the paroxetine group in an outcome measure that combined the CGI-C and interview-based measures (P = .06). Paroxetine is not clearly superior to placebo in this small study of very old nursing home residents with non-major depression, and there is a risk of adverse cognitive effects. Because of the high placebo response and the trend towards improvement in the more severely ill patients, it is possible that a larger study would have demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect for paroxetine as compared with placebo. The study also illustrates the discordance between patient and caregiver ratings, and the difficulties in studying very elderly patients with mood disorders. Depression and Anxiety 15:102,110, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of Finasteride (1 mg) on Hair Transplant

Matt Leavitt DO
Background. The improved scalp coverage achieved by hair transplant for men with androgenetic alopecia can be diminished by continued miniaturization and loss of preexisting, nontransplanted hairs. Objectives. To evaluate whether finasteride 1 mg, administered daily from 4 weeks before until 48 weeks after hair transplant, improves scalp hair and growth of nontransplanted hair in areas surrounding the transplant and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of finasteride for men undergoing hair transplant. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 79 men with androgenetic alopecia (20,45 years of age) were assigned to treatment with finasteride 1 mg (n = 40) or placebo (n = 39) once daily from 4 weeks before until 48 weeks after hair transplant. Efficacy was evaluated by review of global photographs by an expert dermatologist and by macrophotography for scalp hair counts. Results. Treatment with finasteride resulted in significant improvements from baseline, compared with placebo, in scalp hair based on global photographic assessment (p < .01) and hair counts (p < .01) at week 48. Visible increases in superior/frontal scalp hair post-transplant were recorded for 94% and 67% of patients in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. Finasteride treatment was generally well tolerated. Conclusion. For men with androgenetic alopecia, therapy with finasteride 1 mg daily from 4 weeks before until 48 weeks after hair transplant improves scalp hair surrounding the hair transplant and increases hair density. [source]

Losartan modifies glomerular hyperfiltration and insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

S. Nielsen
Aim: The effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan on renal haemodynamics and insulin-mediated glucose disposal was examined in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Methods: Diurnal blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, determined using [125I]-iothalamate), renal plasma flow (RPF, determined using [131I]-hippuran) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) were measured, and a hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamp with indirect calorimetry was performed in nine patients (age 30 ± 7 years (mean ±,s.d.), HbA1c 8.1 ± 1.1%) following 6 weeks' administration of either losartan 50 mg/day or placebo. Results: Diurnal blood pressure was significantly reduced after losartan compared with placebo (122/70 ± 11/8 vs. 130/76 ± 12/6 mmHg, p <,0.05). A significant decline in GFR (133 ± 23 vs. 140 ± 22 ml/min, p < 0.05) and filtration fraction (FF; GFR/RPF) (24.6 ± 3.5 vs. 26.2 ± 3.6%, p <,0.05) was observed in the losartan vs. placebo groups. RPF and UAE did not change. Isotopically determined glucose disposal rates were similar after losartan and placebo in the basal (2.61 ± 0.53 vs. 2.98 ± 0.93 mg/kg/min) and insulin-stimulated states (6.84 ± 2.52 vs. 6.97 ± 3.11 mg/kg/min). However, the glucose oxidation rate increased significantly after losartan vs. placebo in the basal state (1.72 ± 0.34 vs. 1.33 ± 0.18, mg/kg/min, p <,0.01) and during insulin stimulation (2.89 ± 0.75 vs. 2.40 ± 0.62 mg/kg/min, p <,0.03). Basal and insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose disposal tended to decrease after losartan; however, this was not significant. Endogenous glucose production and lipid oxidation were unchanged after treatment and similarly suppressed during hyperinsulinaemia. Glycaemic control, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides were stable in both losartan and placebo groups. Conclusions: Losartan reduces blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration and FF, and improves basal and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients. [source]

Effectiveness of Corticosteroid Treatment in Acute Pharyngitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Andrew Wing
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to examine the effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment for the relief of pain associated with acute pharyngitis potentially caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS). Methods:, This was a systematic review of the literature. Data sources used were electronic databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis Previews, Scopus, and Web of Science), controlled trial registration websites, conference proceedings, study references, experts in the field, and correspondence with authors. Selection criteria consisted of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which corticosteroids, alone or in combination with antibiotics, were compared to placebo or any other standard therapy for treatment of acute pharyngitis in adult patients, pediatric patients, or both. Two reviewers independently assessed for relevance, inclusion, and study quality. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated and are reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:, From 272 potentially relevant citations, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. When compared to placebo, corticosteroids reduced the time to clinically meaningful pain relief (WMD = ,4.54 hours; 95% CI = ,7.19 to ,1.89); however, they provided only a small reduction in pain scores at 24 hours (WMD = ,0.90 on a 0,10 visual analog scale; 95% CI = ,1.5 to ,0.3). Heterogeneity among pooled studies was identified for both outcomes (I2 = 81 and 74%, respectively); however, the GABHS-positive subgroup receiving corticosteroid treatment did have a significant mean reduction in time to clinically meaningful pain relief of 5.22 hours (95% CI = ,7.02 to ,3.42; I2 = 0%). Short-term side effect profiles between corticosteroids and placebo groups were similar. Conclusions:, Corticosteroid administration for acute pharyngitis was associated with a relatively small effect in time to clinically meaningful pain relief (4.5-hour reduction) and in pain relief at 24 hours (0.9-point reduction), with significant heterogeneity in the pooled results. Decision-making should be individualized to determine the risks and benefits; however, corticosteroids should not be used as routine treatment for acute pharyngitis. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:476,483 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

A placebo-controlled trial of mirtazapine for the management of methamphetamine withdrawal

Abstract Introduction and Aims. As an antidepressant with sedative and anxiolytic properties, mirtazapine may be an appropriate pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine withdrawal. This study sought to examine whether mirtazapine improves retention and alleviates methamphetamine withdrawal symptoms in an out-patient setting. Design and Methods. An out-patient double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of mirtazapine for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal was conducted (15 mg nocte for 2 days, 30 mg nocte for 12 days). Both groups were offered narrative therapy counselling. Measures recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 35 included: treatment retention, Amphetamine Cessation Symptoms Assessment, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Depression,Anxiety,Stress Scale (DASS), Severity of Dependence scale and the Opiate Treatment Index Drug Use subscale. Results. Thirty-one participants were recruited (18 placebo, 13 mirtazapine) and 52% completed the 2-week medication phase. No significant differences between the mirtazapine and placebo groups in retention, or any symptom measure were observed, except greater DASS,anxiety and longer sleep duration were measured at baseline among the mirtazapine group. Discussion and Conclusions. Results suggest that mirtazapine does not facilitate retention or recruitment in out-patient methamphetamine withdrawal treatment, although recruitment may have been insufficient to identify a significant treatment effect. The potential role of narrative therapy for methamphetamine dependent patients deserves further exploration. [source]

Combined therapy of silymarin and desferrioxamine in patients with ,-thalassemia major: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

Marjan Gharagozloo
Abstract Silymarin, a flavonolignan complex isolated from Silybum marianum, has a strong antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and iron chelating activities. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic activity of orally administered silymarin in patients with thalassemia major under conventional iron chelation therapy. A 3-month randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted in 59 ,-thalassemia major patients in two well-matched groups. Patients were randomized to receive a silymarin tablet (140 mg) three times a day plus conventional desferrioxamine therapy. The second group received the same therapy but a placebo tablet instead of silymarin. Clinical laboratory tests were assessed at the beginning and the end of the trial, except for serum ferritin level that was assessed at the middle of the trial as well. Results of this study revealed that the combined therapy was well tolerated and more effective than desferrioxamine in reducing serum ferritin level. Significant improvement in liver alkaline phosphatase and glutathione levels of red blood cells was also observed in silymarin-treated ,-thalassemia patients. However, no significant difference in serum ferritin levels was detected between silymarin and placebo groups after 1.5 and 3 months treatment, probably because of insufficient sample size to detect subtle changes in ferritin levels between groups. This is the first report showing the beneficial effects of silymarin in thalassemia patients and suggests that silymarin in combination with desferrioxamine can be safely and effectively used in the treatment of iron-loaded patients. [source]

Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in head and neck cancer radiation-induced mucositis: A double-blind randomized trial,,

Paulo Renato Ferreira MD
Abstract Background. the study was designed to test whether vitamin E (VE) provides oral mucosal protection in patients with irradiated cancers of the head and neck. Methods. Fifty-four patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomly assigned to rinse the oral cavity in an oil solution containing either VE or placebo before every conventional fraction of 2 Gy and again 8 to 12 hours later during the 5 to 7 weeks of radiotherapy (RT). Results. Thirty-six events/167 patient-weeks (21.6%) and 54 events/161 patient-weeks (33.5%) of symptomatic mucositis were observed in VE and placebo groups, respectively (p = .038). VE reduced the risk by 36%. Subjective data at the end of the treatment revealed that VE decreased pain grades 2 to 3 during RT (3 of 28 patients vs 14 of 26 patients, p = .0001). No significant influence was detected in survival. Conclusion. VE decreased the incidence of symptomatic oral radio-induced mucositis in patients with cancer of the oropharynx and oral cavity. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: XXX,XXX, 2004 [source]

A randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin for the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007
R Kohli
Objective We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of metformin on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), appendicular fat, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in HIV-infected persons with central adiposity and mild insulin resistance. Methods Forty-eight HIV-infected men and women with a self-reported increase in abdominal girth and an abnormal waist-to-hip ratio were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive metformin 1500 mg or placebo daily for 24 weeks. Persons with diabetes were excluded. The following measures were obtained at baseline and 24 weeks: single-slice computed tomography (CT) scan, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance test. Results The median fasting insulin concentration of all participants was 12.3 ,U/mL. The percentage change in VAT was not significantly different between the metformin and placebo groups in univariate analysis and linear regression analysis adjusting for age, height, baseline VAT and insulin area under the curve (10.1% vs 3.2%; P=0.58). Metformin was associated with a significant decrease in appendicular fat mass compared with placebo (,686.0 vs 161.0 g; P=0.03). There was no significant change in lipid profile or insulin sensitivity between the two groups at 24 weeks. Conclusion Metformin should be used with caution in the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy, and, if used, should be reserved for persons with adequate peripheral fat and marked insulin resistance. [source]

A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction

Byung-Jo Kang
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba on antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. The Ginkgo biloba (n=19) and the placebo groups (n=18) were divided; each to be administered with Ginkgo biloba and placebo respectively for 2 months by means of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The results of this 2 month trial were: (1) there was no statistical significant difference from the placebo at weeks 2, 4 and 8 after medication; (2) in comparison with baseline, both the Ginkgo biloba group and the placebo group showed improvement in some part of the sexual function, which is suggestive of the importance of the placebo effect in assessing sexual function. This study did not replicate a prior positive finding supporting the use of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant, especially SSRI, induced sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Post-treatment effects of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid transforming growth factor-,1 in severe, generalized chronic periodontitis

A Gürkan
Abstract:, Objective:, Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 3-month adjunctive subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-,1) levels in chronic periodontitis patients over 12 months. Methods:, Thirty-five patients with severe, generalized periodontitis participated in the present randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients received scaling and root planing (SRP) plus 3 months adjunctive SDD or placebo. Clinical measurements and GCF sampling were performed at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Eleven periodontally healthy subjects served as controls for GCF TGF-,1 analysis. Results:, Clinical parameters of both SDD and placebo groups significantly improved during the study (P < 0.0125). SDD group exhibited significantly higher PD reduction at deep sites (baseline PD ,7 mm) compared with placebo group at 6 months (P < 0.05). In SDD group significantly higher percentage of deep pockets resolved (PD reduction ,3 mm from baseline) when compared with placebo group at 6 and 9 months (73.4% versus 49.7%; 79.9% versus 50.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). PD reduction ,4 mm for deep pockets from baseline was also greater in SDD group than placebo at 6 months (53.4% versus 36.3%, P < 0.05). GCF TGF-,1 levels of SDD group was significantly higher than baseline (P < 0.0125) and placebo group (P < 0.017) at 3 months. Conclusions:, These results ensure further data for beneficial effects of adjunctive SDD therapy in the management of severe chronic periodontitis. [source]

A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin in patients with knee effusion due to osteoarthritis

Abstract Objective:, The efficacy of erythromycin in treatment of knee effusion due to osteoarthritis was evaluated. Method:, We assessed efficacy and safety of erythromycin during 16 weeks in patients enrolled in a randomized double-blind study. One hundred and eight patients with knee effusion due to osteoarthritis (OA) received 12-week courses of erythromycin or placebo allocated randomly, and were followed for 4 months. Acetaminophen 650 mg/day was used in both groups, while they received no other anti-inflammatory drugs (such as corticosteroid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) during the course of the study. Our patients were divided in two groups, erythromycin in doses of 200 mg four times per day was given to the first group (51 patients) over the first 3 months of the study and in the second group we used placebo with the same dosage and schedule (53 patients). Outcomes improvement for the erythromycin-treated group was assessed by a significantly higher mean score from baseline to the end of the trial, compared with placebo group. Patients were examined monthly during the treatment period. Measurement values included recording of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire subscales (pain, stiffness and function), range of motion and knee circumference. Results:, Erythromycin produced a higher response rate than placebo in treatment of knee effusion due to OA. Significant reduction in knee circumference (P < 0.0005) and pain (P < 0.001) with functional improvement (P < 0.0005) were seen. At the first month after treatment, 11.8% (6 patients) in erythromycin and 9.4% (5 patients) in placebo groups had 50% pain reduction, which was not significant (P = 0.75). At the fourth month, 50% reduction of pain was seen in 45.1% (23 patients) of the erythromycin and 11.3% (6 patients) of the placebo group. This was statistically significant (P < 0.0005). Erythromycin treatment was well tolerated and mild adverse events caused no discontinuation during the study. Conclusion:, This is a placebo-controlled study of macrolid efficacy on knee effusion due to OA in a short period. Results of this research showed the better efficacy of erythromycin in controlling effusion and pain with functional improvement in patients with knee effusion due to OA. [source]

Effect of ipriflavone on pain due to recent osteoporotic vertebral crush fracture

Mohammad M. Rahman
Abstract Aim:,Ipriflavone conserves bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Salmon calcitonin and alendronate, two other anti-resorptive drugs, have been found to have analgesic effects in osteoporotic acute vertebral fracture. This study aimed to determine if ipriflavone also possesses such an effect. Methods:,Thirty-two women with recent osteoporotic vertebral fractures were randomly assigned to ipriflavone treatment or placebo groups. Ipriflavone was given at the dose of 200 mg three times a day. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were given ad libitum in both groups. Calcium carbonate (1 g daily) was administered to all subjects. Intensity of pain at rest, on movement and on pressure, pain rating on a 10-point visual analogue scale, degree of mobility impairment, and supplementary analgesic were assessed at the end of a 3-month period in both groups to assess the analgesic effect of ipriflavone. Results:,Fourteen subjects in the ipriflavone group and 12 in the placebo group completed the trial. After 3 months, all pain variables had decreased significantly in both groups. Intensity of pain at rest and on pressure and supplementary analgesic use were significantly lower in the ipriflavone group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion:,The study shows that ipriflavone has an analgesic adjuvant effect in acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture. [source]

Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Cognitive Effect, Safety, and Tolerability of Oral Extended-Release Oxybutynin in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Urge Urinary Incontinence

Thomas E. Lackner PharmD
OBJECTIVES: Determine the cognitive effect, safety, and tolerability of oral extended-release oxybutynin in cognitively impaired older nursing home residents with urge urinary incontinence. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Twelve skilled nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty women aged 65 and older with urge incontinence and cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION: Four-week treatment with once-daily oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Withdrawal rates and delirium or change in cognition from baseline at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after starting treatment using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Severe Impairment Battery (SIB). The Brief Agitation Rating Scale, adverse events, falls incidence, and serum anticholinergic activity change with treatment were also assessed. RESULTS: Participants' mean age ±standard deviation was 88.6±6.2, and MMSE baseline score was 14.5±4.3. Ninety-six percent of subjects receiving oxybutynin (n=26) and 92% receiving placebo (n=24) completed treatment (P=.50). The differences in mean change in CAM score from baseline to all time points were equivalent between the oxybutynin and placebo groups. Delirium did not occur in either group. One participant receiving oxybutynin was withdrawn because of urinary retention, which resolved without treatment. Mild adverse events occurred in 38.5% of participants receiving oxybutynin and 37.5% receiving placebo (P=.94). CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment using oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg once daily was safe and well tolerated, with no delirium, in older female nursing home participants with mild to severe dementia. Future research should investigate different dosages and long-term treatment. [source]

The Role of Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Insomnia

Meta-Analysis of Benzodiazepine Use in the Treatment of Insomnia
PURPOSE: To obtain a precise estimate of the efficacy and common adverse effects of benzodiazepines for the treatment of insomnia compared with those of placebo and other treatments. BACKGROUND: Insomnia, also referred to as disorder of initiating or maintaining sleep, is a common problem and its prevalence among older people is estimated to be 23% to 34%.1 The total direct cost in the United States for insomnia in 1995 was estimated to be $13.9 billion.2 The complaint of insomnia in older people is associated with chronic medical conditions; psychiatric problems, mainly depression, chronic pain, and poor perceived general condition;1,3,4 and use of sleep medications.5 Thus in most cases, insomnia is due to some other underlying problem and is not just a consequence of aging.6 Accordingly, the management of insomnia should focus on addressing the primary problem and not just short-term treatment of the insomnia. Benzodiazepines belong to the drug class of choice for the symptomatic treatment of primary insomnia.7 This abstract will appraise a meta-analysis that compared the effect of benzodiazepines for short-term treatment of primary insomnia with placebo or other treatment. DATA SOURCES: Data sources included articles listed in Medline from 1966 to December 1998 and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry. The medical subject heading (MeSH) search terms used were "benzodiazepine" (exploded) or "benzodiazepine tranquillizers" (exploded) or "clonazepam,""drug therapy,""randomized controlled trial" or "random allocation" or "all random,""human," and "English language." In addition, bibliographies of retrieved articles were scanned for additional articles and manufacturers of brand-name benzodiazepines were asked for reports of early trials not published in the literature. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: Reports of randomized controlled trials of benzodiazepine therapy for primary insomnia were considered for the meta-analysis if they compared a benzodiazepine with a placebo or an alternative active drug. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted from 45 randomized controlled trials representing 2,672 patients, 47% of whom were women. Fifteen studies included patients age 65 and older and four studies involved exclusively older patients. Twenty-five studies were based in the community and nine involved inpatients. The duration of the studies ranged from 1 day to 6 weeks, with a mean of 12.2 days and median of 7.5 days. The primary outcome measures analyzed were sleep latency and total sleep duration after a sleep study, subjects' estimates of sleep latency and sleep duration, and subjects' report of adverse effects. Interrater reliability was checked through duplicate, independent abstraction of the first 21 articles. Overall agreement was between 95% and 98% (kappa value of 0.90 and 0.95 accordingly) for classification of the studies and validity of therapy, and 76% (kappa value of 0.51) for study of harmful effects. A scale of 0 to 5 was used to rate the individual reports, taking into account the quality of randomization, blinding, follow-up, and control for baseline differences between groups. Tests for homogeneity were applied across the individual studies and, when studies were found to be heterogeneous, subgroup analysis according to a predefined group was performed. MAIN RESULTS: The drugs used in the meta-analysis included triazolam in 16 studies; flurazepam in 14 studies; temazepam in 13 studies; midazolam in five studies; nitrazepam in four studies; and estazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in two studies each. Alternative drug therapies included zopiclone in 13 studies and diphenhydramine, glutethimide, and promethazine in one study each. Only one article reported on a nonpharmacological treatment (behavioral therapy). The mean age of patients was reported in 33 of the 45 studies and ranged between 29 and 82. SLEEP LATENCY: In four studies involving 159 subjects, there was sleep-record latency (time to fall asleep) data for analysis. The pooled difference indicated that the latency to sleep for patients receiving a benzodiazepine was 4.2 minutes (95% CI = (,0.7) (,9.2)) shorter than for those receiving placebo. Patient's estimates of sleep latency examined in eight studies showed a difference of 14.3 minutes (95% CI = 10.6,18.0) in favor of benzodiazepines over placebo. TOTAL SLEEP DURATION: Analysis of two studies involving 35 patients in which total sleep duration using sleep-record results was compared indicated that patients in the benzodiazepine groups slept for an average of 61.8 minutes (95% CI = 37.4,86.2) longer than those in the placebo groups. Patient's estimates of sleep duration from eight studies (566 points) showed total sleep duration to be 48.4 minutes (95% CI = 39.6,57.1) longer for patients taking benzodiazepines than for those on placebo. ADVERSE EFFECTS: Analysis of eight studies (889 subjects) showed that those in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely than those in the placebo groups to complain of daytime drowsiness (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8,3.4). Analysis of four studies (326 subjects) also showed that subjects in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely to complain of dizziness or lightheadedness than the placebo groups. (OR 2.6, 95% CI = 0.7,10.3). Despite the increased reported side effects in the benzodiazepine groups, drop-out rates were similar in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups. For patient reported outcome, there was no strong correlation found for sleep latency data, (r = 0.4, 95% CI = (,0.3) (,0.9)) or for sleep duration (r = 0.2, 95% CI = ,0.8,0.4) between benzodiazepine dose and outcome. COMPARISON WITH OTHER DRUGS AND TREATMENTS: In three trials with 96 subjects, meta-analysis of the results comparing benzodiazepines with zopiclone, did not show significant difference in sleep latency in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups, but the benzodiazepine groups had increased total sleep duration (23.1 min. 95% CI = 5.6,40.6). In four trials with 252 subjects, the side effect profile did not show a statistically significant difference (OR 1.5, CI 0.8,2.9). There was only one study comparing the effect of behavioral therapy with triazolam. The result showed that triazolam was more effective than behavioral therapy in decreasing sleep latency, but its efficacy declined by the second week of treatment. Behavioral therapy remained effective throughout the 9-week follow-up period. There were four small trials that involved older patients exclusively, with three of the studies having less than 2 weeks of follow-up. The results were mixed regarding benefits and adverse effects were poorly reported. CONCLUSION: The result of the meta-analysis shows that the use of benzodiazepines results in a decrease in sleep latency and a significant increase in total sleep time as compared with placebo. There was also a report of significantly increased side effects, but this did not result in increased discontinuation rate. There was no dose-response relationship for beneficial effect seen with the use of benzodiazepines, although the data are scant. Zopiclone was the only alternative pharmacological therapy that could be studied with any precision. There was no significant difference in the outcome when benzodiazepines were compared with zopiclone. There was only one study that compared the effect of benzodiazepines with nonpharmacological therapy; thus available data are insufficient to comment. [source]

Original Paper: Telmisartan Effects on Insulin Resistance in Obese or Overweight Adults Without Diabetes or Hypertension

Willa Hsueh MD
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010;12:746,752. ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive agents associated with reduced risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. The ARB telmisartan is a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator,activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-,). This study evaluated the effect of telmisartan on insulin resistance, a known target of PPAR-, agonism. Overweight/obese persons with body mass index ,28 kg/m2, waist circumference ,35 inches, and components of the metabolic syndrome without hypertension or diabetes who were not preselected for insulin resistance were enrolled. Patients were randomized to telmisartan or matching placebo for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was changed from baseline in the insulin sensitivity index (SI), calculated from oral glucose tolerance testing. SI was also evaluated in a subset of patients using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Secondary end points included measures of insulin sensitivity and glucose and lipid metabolism. A total of 138 patients were randomized and received ,1 dose of study medication; 128 completed the study. At end point, no significant difference was found between telmisartan and placebo groups regarding change from baseline in SI or in glucose area under the curve. No significant between-group differences were found regarding glucose metabolism or lipoprotein levels. In the population with abdominal obesity and components of the metabolic syndrome, telmisartan did not increase insulin sensitivity. [source]

Adjunctive benefits of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole in non-surgical treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

Adrian Guerrero
Abstract Background: The objective of this study was to assess the adjunctive clinical effect of the administration of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole in the non-surgical treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP). Methods: Forty-one systemically healthy subjects with GAP were included in this 6-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients received a course of full-mouth non-surgical periodontal treatment delivered over a 24 h period using machine-driven and hand instruments. Test subjects received an adjunctive course of systemic antibiotic consisting of 500 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times a day for 7 days. Clinical parameters were collected at baseline, and at 2 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: In both the test and the placebo groups, all clinical parameters improved at 2 and 6 months. In deep pockets (7 mm), the test treatment resulted in an additional 1.4 mm (95% confidence interval 0.8, 2.0 mm) in full-mouth probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and 1 mm (0.7, 1.3 mm) of life cumulative attachment loss (LCAL) gain at 6 months. In moderate pockets (4,6 mm), the adjunctive benefit was smaller in magnitude: PPD reduction was 0.4 mm (0.1, 0.7 mm) and LCAL gain was 0.5 mm (0.2, 0.8 mm). In addition, the 6-month data showed LCAL gains 2 mm at 25% of sites in test patients compared with 16% in placebo (p=0.028). Similarly, PPD reductions of 2 mm or more were observed in 30% of sites in test and 21% of sites in placebo patients. Seventy-four percent of pockets with PPD 5 mm at baseline were 4 mm or shallower at 6 months in the test group. This compared with 54% in the placebo group (p=0.008). Disease progression at 6 months was observed at 1.5% of test and 3.3% of sites in test and placebo, respectively (p=0.072). Conclusions: These data indicate that a 7-day adjunctive course of systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin significantly improved the short-term clinical outcomes of full-mouth non-surgical periodontal debridement in subjects with GAP. [source]

Characterization of viral kinetics in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B

I-Chin Wu
Abstract A study was conducted during a 1 year follow-up to characterize the viral kinetics in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B and to develop a model of predicting the probability of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Fifty-seven patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B were enrolled with monthly follow-ups from three Phase III clinical trial placebo groups. According to serial viral loads, 30 patients (52.6%) with the stationary pattern maintained stable HBV DNA levels with fluctuations of less than 1.5 log copies/ml. Twenty patients (35.1%) with the declining pattern exhibited a spontaneous decline of more than 1.5 log copies/ml without a following rebound of at least 1.5 log copies/ml. The remaining seven patients (12.3%) had the wavering pattern. Both declining and wavering patterns, when compared with the stationary pattern, had significantly higher hepatic necroinflammation in terms of ALT and Knodell scores at the baseline and peak ALT levels during the follow-up period. The declining pattern had a significantly better clinical outcome in terms of the lowest final HBV DNA and a reduction in the necroinflammatory score after 1 year. Furthermore, the declining pattern had a favorable HBeAg seroconversion rate (40%) compared with the wavering (14.3%) and stationary patterns (0%). A regression equation, incorporating simultaneous serum bilirubin, ALT, and HBV DNA levels, predicted the probability of HBeAg seroconversion with a sensitivity of 76.8% and a specificity of 74.7%. In conclusion, different viral kinetic patterns in patients with chronic hepatitis B implicate distinct clinical significance and immunologic perspective. J. Med. Virol. 79: 663,669, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ultrastructural findings after intraarticular application of hyaluronan in a canine model of arthropathy

W. Wenz
We investigated the effect of intraarticularly applied hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) on the cartilaginous structure of experimentally induced chondromalacia patellae in dogs. For the induction of chondromalacia, we used the Pond-Nuki technique, which involved severance and resection of the anterior cruciate ligament, as a canine model of arthropathy in 27 foxhounds (three groups of nine animals each). In a pilot study, we evaluated the effect of resection of the anterior cruciate ligament with no therapy. Patellar specimens were retrieved at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Subsequently, we compared a treatment group that received intraarticular injections of hyaluronan with a placebo group that received saline solution. The groups were compared at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Three animals from the treatment and placebo groups received five injections of hyaluronan during one of the 4-week intervals (weeks 3,6, 6,9, or 12,15). Specimens were retrieved 5 weeks after the last injection. In both groups, the uninvolved contralateral knee served as a control. The specimens were taken from the medial and lateral patellar poles. Histological analysis included light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The structural and ultrastructural changes were assessed qualitatively and were quantified with use of a modified Mankin score. Our results indicate that chondromalacia patellae may be induced with the Pond-Nuki technique. We found a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of cartilaginous lesions in the hyaluronan group compared with the placebo group. Our results suggest that intraarticularly applied hyaluronan is effective in delaying the degenerative process of cartilage degradation. Therefore, we conclude that the use of hyaluronan may be indicated during the early stages of chondromalacia. [source]

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study With Quetiapine as Adjunct Therapy With Lithium or Divalproex in Bipolar I Patients With Coexisting Alcohol Dependence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
Mary Stedman
Background:, This study evaluated the efficacy of quetiapine versus placebo as an adjunct to lithium or divalproex in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with bipolar I disorder and coexisting alcohol dependence. Methods:, Male and female outpatients (21 to 60 years) with a history of bipolar I disorder and alcohol dependence were included in this 12-week, placebo-controlled study. Patients treated with lithium or divalproex (ongoing or assigned at screening) were randomized to receive quetiapine (dosed up to 400 mg/d over 7 days, followed by 300 to 800 mg/d flexible dosing until study end) or placebo. The primary outcome measure was the change in the proportion of heavy drinking days from baseline to Week 12 (as derived from the Timeline Followback method). Secondary outcome measures included time to the first consecutive 2 weeks of abstinence, changes from baseline to Week 12 in the proportion of nondrinking days, mean number of standardized drinks per day, and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness score. Results:, Of 362 enrolled patients (mean 38.6 years), 176 were randomized to receive quetiapine and 186 to placebo. The mean proportion of heavy drinking days at baseline was 0.66 in the quetiapine group and 0.67 in the placebo group. At Week 12, the mean change in the proportion of heavy drinking days was ,0.36 with quetiapine and ,0.36 with placebo (p = 0.93). No statistically significant differences in any of the secondary outcome measures were noted between the quetiapine and placebo groups. The incidence of adverse events was consistent with the previously known tolerability profile of quetiapine. Conclusions:, The efficacy of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder is already well established. In this study, however, quetiapine added to lithium or divalproex did not result in significantly greater improvement compared with placebo in measures of alcohol use and dependence in patients with bipolar I disorder and alcohol dependence. [source]

Effects of postoperative ketamine infusion on pain control and feeding behaviour in bitches undergoing mastectomy

S. Sarrau
Objectives: To determine if ketamine administered to bitches at the end of a mastectomy, followed by a six-hour constant rate infusion (CRI), improved postoperative opioid analgesia and feeding behaviour. Methods: The bitches were randomised into three groups: the placebo group received 0·09 ml/kg isotonic saline intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 0·5 ml/kg/hour, the low-dose ketamine received 150 ,g/kg ketamine intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 2 ,g/kg/minute and the high-dose ketamine group received 700 ,g/kg ketamine intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 10 ,g/kg/minute. Any additional opioids given were recorded at the time of extubation and at intervals after extubation. Food intake was evaluated eight (T8) and 20 (T20) hours after extubation by measuring the per cent coverage of basal energy requirements (BER). Results: No significant difference was observed for opioid requirements between the three groups. The mean percentages of BER coverage did not differ significantly at T8 but the difference between the high-dose and low-dose ketamine groups (P=0·014), and the high-dose ketamine and placebo groups (P=0·038) was significant at T20. Clinical Significance: This study demonstrated that 700 ,g/kg ketamine given intravenously postoperatively followed by a six-hour ketamine CRI of 10 ,g/kg/minute improved patient feeding behaviour. [source]

Clinical trial: interferential electric stimulation in functional dyspepsia patients , a prospective randomized study

Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 961,968 Summary Background, There are several studies reporting the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with gastroparesis and chronic constipation. Aim, To analyse whether transcutaneous electrical stimulation is an effective procedure in functional dyspepsia patients. Methods, Functional dyspepsia patients were randomly placed in vacuum interferential current (IFC) and placebo groups. Both treatments consisted of 12 sessions administered over 4 weeks. Upper gastrointestinal system symptoms were documented at the beginning, during and after the treatment sessions. Results, Patients in therapy (23 cases) and placebo (21 cases) groups were homogeneous with respect to demographic data and upper gastrointestinal system symptoms. In the therapy group, all symptoms other than early satiation improved significantly during and after the treatment sessions, whereas in the placebo group, symptoms including heartburn and vomiting did not change significantly. IFC therapy was superior to placebo with respect to epigastric discomfort, pyrosis, bloating, early satiation and postprandial fullness during the treatment sessions. One month after the treatment sessions, vacuum IFC proved to be superior to placebo with regard to early satiation and heartburn. Conclusions, Vacuum IFC is a non-invasive and effective therapy for functional dyspepsia. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may represent a new treatment modality for drug-refractory functional dyspepsia patients. [source]

Clinical trial: renzapride treatment of women with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation , a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, study

Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 979,990 Summary Background, Renzapride, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has been proposed as a new treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Aim, To assess the efficacy and safety of renzapride in women with IBS-C. Methods, Women with IBS-C were randomized to renzapride 4 mg daily, 2 mg b.d. or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was global relief of IBS symptoms. A subset of patients were enrolled in a 12-month, open-label study of renzapride 4 mg daily. Results, A total of 1798 patients were included in the efficacy analysis and 971 patients entered the long-term study. The mean (S.E.M.) number of months with relief of overall IBS symptoms was 0.55 (0.04), 0.60 (0.04) and 0.44 (0.04) in the renzapride 4 mg daily, 2 mg b.d. and placebo groups (P = 0.027 and P = 0.004 respectively). Small yet statistically significant differences in favour of renzapride were observed on stool consistency and frequency, and bloating/abdominal distension scores. Renzapride was generally well tolerated; however, three episodes of ischaemic colitis were reported in the long-term study. Conclusion, Given the limited increase in efficacy over placebo and the incidence of ischaemic colitis observed, our data suggest that the benefit/risk ratio of renzapride is not sufficient to warrant further study in IBS-C. [source]

Recombinant activated factor VII efficacy and safety in a model of bleeding and thrombosis in hypothermic rabbits: a blind study

Summary.,Background:,Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is increasingly used to secure hemostasis in hemorrhagic situations in trauma and surgical patients. Hypothermia is often observed in these clinical settings. Objective:,To study the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in hypothermia in a rabbit model of bleeding and thrombosis. Methods:,Sixty-nine rabbits were anesthetized, ventilated and monitored for blood pressure, temperature and carotid flow. The Folts model was used: a stenosis (75%) and an injury were carried out on the carotid artery, inducing thrombosis. Blood flow decreased as thrombus size increased until the pressure gradient was such that the thrombus was released and local arterial blood flow was suddenly restored. This is known as a cyclic flow reduction (CFR). After counting baseline CFRs during a 20-min period (P1), rabbits were randomized blindly to one of four groups: normothermic (NT) placebo or rFVIIa (150 ,g kg,1), hypothermic (HT) (34 °C) placebo or rFVIIa. Then CFRs were recorded over a second period (P2). At the end of the experiment, a hepato-splenic section was performed and the amount of blood loss was recorded. After each period, the following were measured: ear immersion bleeding time (BT), hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Results:,Hypothermia increased BT and blood loss. These effects were reversed by rFVIIa. In NT rabbits, rFVIIa shortened BT but did not reduce blood loss. rFVIIa-treated rabbits bled similarly regardless of temperature. The incidence of CFRs was higher in treated than placebo animals regardless of temperature. rFVIIa decreased PT and aPTT without modifying platelet count or fibrinogen level. Conclusion:,Hemostatic efficacy of rFVIIa was maintained in hypothermia. However, the number of CFRs was higher in the rFVIIa-treated group than in the placebo groups, whether for NT or HT rabbits. [source]

Oral budesonide for maintenance of remission of Crohn's disease: a pooled safety analysis

Summary Background, Budesonide exhibits similar efficacy to systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) in Crohn's disease (CD), but with fewer adverse events (AEs). Aim, To evaluate budesonide's safety profile in CD patients, in particular, incidences of clinically important AEs known to be associated with systemic GCSs. Methods, Five 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating budesonide for mild-to-moderate CD were pooled for analysis. Results, The highest incidence rates of AEs were gastrointestinal- and endocrine systems-related in both groups (budesonide 6 mg/day, n = 208; placebo, n = 209). Incidence rates were similar, except for higher incidence of endocrine disorders in budesonide versus placebo patients (P = 0.0042) caused by a higher overall occurrence of cutaneous GCS symptoms (P = 0.0036) in the budesonide group; differences in individual symptoms were nonsignificant. Percentage of patients with normal adrenal function was significantly lower at 13 weeks (three of five studies), but not at 52 weeks (two studies) in the budesonide versus placebo groups. Occurrence of clinically important or serious AEs associated with systemic GCSs, including sepsis, cataracts, adrenal insufficiency was rare and similar between groups. Conclusions, Budesonide treatment for up to 1 year is well-tolerated in CD patients, with an AE profile similar to placebo and only rare occurrences of clinically important AEs associated with systemic GCSs. [source]

Efficacy of Enalapril for Prevention of Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs with Myxomatous Valve Disease and Asymptomatic Mitral Regurgitation

Clarence Kvart
We evaluated the long-term effect of early angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (enalapril maleate) as monotherapy to postpone or prevent congestive heart failure (CHF) in asymptomatic dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) attributable to myxomatous valvular disease (MVD) in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial involving 14 centers in Scandinavia. Two hundred twenty-nine Cavalier King Charles (CKC) Spaniels with MR attributable to MVD but no signs of CHF were randomly allocated to treatment with enalapril 0.25,0.5 mg daily (n = 116) or to placebo groups (n = 113). Each dog was evaluated by physical examination, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography at entry and every 12 months (±30 days). The number of dogs developing heart failure was similar in the treatment and placebo groups (n = 50 [43%] and n = 48 [42%], respectively; P= .99). The estimated means, adjusted for censored observations, for the period from initiation of therapy to heart failure were 1,150 ± 50 days for dogs in the treatment group and 1,130 ± 50 days for dogs in the placebo group (P= .85). When absence or presence of cardiomegaly at the entrance of the trial was considered, there were still no differences between the treatment and placebo groups (P= .98 and .51, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that enalapril had no significant effect on the time from initiation of therapy to heart failure (P= .86). Long-term treatment with enalapril in asymptomatic dogs with MVD and MR did not delay the onset of heart failure regardless of whether or not cardiomegaly was present at initiation of the study. [source]

Antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for non-malignant conditions: a double-blind prospective randomized controlled trial

Summary Background :,The use of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion has been encouraged following development of guidelines by a number of professional societies within the past few years. However, not all evidence supports routine prophylaxis, particularly in patients with ,benign' disease indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Aim :,To identify whether prophylactic antibiotic usage is beneficial in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion without malignant disease. Methods :,Adult patients without malignant disease who were referred for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion at our unit were assessed for participation in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or 2.2 g co-amoxiclav (or 2 g cefotaxime if penicillin-allergic) at time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Clinical endpoints studies were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site or systemic infection and death within 7 days of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Results :,Ninety-nine patients completed the study (51 antibiotics, 48 placebo). Outcomes in the antibiotic and placebo groups respectively were: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site infection, 11% vs. 47% (P < 0.01); systemic infection, 16% vs. 38% (P < 0.05); and death, 8% vs. 15% (P = 0.5). Conclusions :,Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion reduces both percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site and systemic infections in patients without malignant disease. [source]

Osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease: effect of calcium and vitamin D with or without fluoride

V. Abitbol
Background: Previous data have indicated low bone formation as a mechanism of osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Fluoride can stimulate bone formation. Aim: To assess the effect of fluoride supplementation on lumbar spine bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated in parallel with calcium and vitamin D. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study, 94 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (lumbar spine T score below , 2 standard deviations, normal serum 25OH vitamin D), with a median age of 35 years, were included. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were randomized to receive daily either sodium monofluorophosphate (150 mg, n=45) or placebo (n=49) for 1 year, and all received calcium (1 g) and vitamin D (800 IU). The relative change in bone mineral density from 0 to 12 months was tested in each group (fluoride or placebo) and compared between the groups. Results: Lumbar spine bone mineral density increased significantly in both groups after 1 year: 4.8 ± 5.6% (n=29) and 3.2 ± 3.8% (n=31) in the calcium,vitamin D,fluoride and calcium,vitamin D,placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001 for each group). There was no difference between the groups (P=0.403). Similar results were observed according to corticosteroid intake or disease activity. Conclusions: Calcium and vitamin D seem to increase lumbar spine density in osteoporotic patients with inflammatory bowel disease; fluoride does not provide further benefit. [source]

Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection does not improve symptoms in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients,a double-blind placebo-controlled study

Background: It remains controversial whether the cure of H. pylori infection improves NUD symptoms. Aim: To conduct a double-blind placebo-controlled single centre study with concealed allocation to investigate this question. Patients and methods: Ninety NUD patients with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (50 patients) or placebo group (40 patients). The treatment group received omeprazole, amoxycillin, clarithromycin and the placebo group received omeprazole and placebos for 7 days. Symptoms were assessed every week for up to 12 weeks after completion of medication by a symptom questionnaire. Alteration of histological parameters for gastritis was also evaluated. Results: The infection was cured in 41 out of 48 patients in the treatment group and none in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the mean symptom scores at any assessment point up to 12 weeks between the treatment and placebo groups. Regarding histological parameters, activity and inflammation, not atrophy or intestinal metaplasia, were significantly improved in the treatment group. Conclusion: Although histological parameters were significantly improved in the treatment group, there was no significant improvement in symptoms of NUD in the treatment group compared to placebo. [source]

The analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine and lidocaine on pain after spinal cord injury

A. Kvarnström
Background:, Pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a therapeutic challenge. Only a few treatments have been assessed in randomized, controlled trials. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the analgesic effect of ketamine and lidocaine in a group of patients with neuropathic pain below the level of spinal cord injury. We also wanted to assess sensory abnormalities to see if this could help us to identify responders and if treatments resulted in changes of sensibility. Methods:, Ten patients with spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain below the level of injury were included. The analgesic effect of ketamine 0.4 mg kg,1 and lidocaine 2.5 mg kg,1 was investigated. Saline was used as placebo. The drugs were infused over 40 min. A randomized, double-blind, three-period, three-treatment, cross-over design was used. Systemic plasma concentrations of ketamine and lidocaine were assessed. Pain rating was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory function was assessed with a combination of traditional sensory tests and quantitative measurement of temperature thresholds. Results:, Response to treatment, defined as 50% reduction in VAS-score during infusion, was recorded in 5/10 in the ketamine, 1/10 in the lidocaine and 0/10 in the placebo groups. Neither ketamine nor lidocaine changed temperature thresholds or assessments of mechanical; dynamic and static sensibility. Nor could these sensory assessments predict response to treatment in this setting. Lidocaine and particularly ketamine were associated with frequent side-effects. Conclusion:, Ketamine but not lidocaine showed a significant analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. The pain relief was not associated with altered temperature thresholds or other changes of sensory function. [source]