Assessment Tool (assessment + tool)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Assessment Tool

  • fall risk assessment tool
  • risk assessment tool
  • water assessment tool

  • Terms modified by Assessment Tool

  • assessment tool used

  • Selected Abstracts

    Emergency preparation and green engineering: Augmenting the environmental knowledge and assessment tool

    Clinton E. Whiteley
    Abstract As our society continues to better prepare itself to address biological, radiological, chemical, and environmental emergencies, there is a need for better and more readily available emergency planning information for program managers and military or business personnel. Incorporating an online hazardous materials (HAZMATs) and emergency planning tool into the Environmental Knowledge and Assessment Tool (EKAT: would adequately fill that need. Although not yet fully functional, the project report that this manuscript is based on is available for viewing on the EKAT web site. The proposed online emergency preparation and green engineering (EPGE) tool would provide the user with information regarding links to local emergency response teams and resources, guides for developing emergency plans and reports, HAZMATs training information, case studies to illustrate HAZMAT situations, and the ability to judge the environmental greenness of chemicals. In this way, it will serve as a means of facilitating and educating individuals for best responses in an organized fashion. To address their environmental responsibilities, public and private organizations are adopting environmental management systems (EMS). The EPGE tool is used in conjunction with EMS to address sustainability. Currently, the creation of a comprehensive tool that identifies environmental, health, and safety concerns along with supplying relevant emergency data is applicable to any business or organization. It is designed to be used as a guide to characterize and solve the environmental issues that could affect any business. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source]

    Measuring disability in older adults: The International Classification System of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework

    W Jack Rejeski
    Background: Despite the importance of disability to geriatric medicine, no large scale study has validated the activity and participation domains of the International Classification System of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) in older adults. The current project was designed to conduct such as analysis, and then to examine the psychometric properties of a measure that is based on this conceptual structure. Methods: This was an archival analysis of older adults (n = 1388) who had participated in studies within our Claude D Pepper Older Americans Independence Center. Assessments included demographics and chronic disease status, a 23-item Pepper Assessment Tool for Disability (PAT-D) and 6-min walk performance. Results: Analysis of the PAT-D produced a three-factor structure that was consistent across several datasets: activities of daily living disability, mobility disability and instrumental activities of daily living disability. The first two factors are activities in the ICF framework, whereas the final factor falls into the participation domain. All factors had acceptable internal consistency reliability (>0.70) and test,retest (>0.70) reliability coefficients. Fast walkers self-reported better function on the PAT-D scales than slow walkers: effect sizes ranged from moderate to large (0.41,0.95); individuals with cardiovascular disease had poorer scores on all scales than those free of cardiovascular disease. In an 18-month randomized clinical trial, individuals who received a lifestyle intervention for weight loss had greater improvements in their mobility disability scores than those in a control condition. Conclusion: The ICF is a useful model for conceptualizing disability in aging research, and the PAT-D has acceptable psychometric properties as a measure for use in clinical research. [source]

    Development of a SWAT extension module to simulate riparian wetland hydrologic processes at a watershed scale

    Yongbo Liu
    Abstract Using a mass balance algorithm, this study develops an extension module that can be embedded in the commonly used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This module makes it possible to assess effects of riparian wetlands on runoff and sediment yields at a watershed scale, which is very important for aquatic ecosystem management but rarely documented in the literature. In addition to delineating boundaries of a watershed and its subwatersheds, the module groups riparian wetlands within a subwatershed into an equivalent wetland for modelling purposes. Further, the module has functions to compute upland drainage area and other parameters (e.g. maximum volume) for the equivalent wetland based on digital elevation model, stream network, land use, soil and wetland distribution GIS datasets. SWAT is used to estimate and route runoff and sediment generated from upland drainage area. The lateral exchange processes between riparian wetlands and their hydraulically connected streams are simulated by the extension module. The developed module is empirically applied to the 53 km2 Upper Canagagigue Creek watershed located in Southern Ontario of Canada. The simulation results indicate that the module can make SWAT more reasonably predict flow and sediment loads at the outlet of the watershed and better represent the hydrologic processes within it. The simulation is sensitive to errors of wetland parameters and channel geometry. The approach of embedding the module into SWAT enables simulation of hydrologic processes in riparian wetlands, evaluation of wetland effects on regulating stream flow and sediment loading and assessment of various wetland restoration scenarios. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrologic comparison between a forested and a wetland/lake dominated watershed using SWAT

    Kangsheng Wu
    Abstract The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a physically-based hydrologic model developed for agricultural watersheds, which has been infrequently validated for forested watersheds, particularly those with deep overwinter snow accumulation and abundant lakes and wetlands. The goal of this study was to determine the applicability of SWAT for modelling streamflow in two watersheds of the Ontonagon River basin of northern Michigan which differ in proportion of wetland and lake area. The forest-dominated East Branch watershed contains 17% wetland and lake area, whereas the wetland/lake-dominated Middle Branch watershed contains 26% wetland and lake area. The specific objectives were to: (1) calibrate and validate SWAT models for the East Branch and Middle Branch watersheds to simulate monthly stream flow, and (2) compare the effects of wetland and lake abundance on the magnitude and timing of streamflow. Model calibration and validation was satisfactory, as determined by deviation of discharge D and Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient values E that compared simulated monthly mean discharge versus measured monthly mean discharge. Streamflow simulation discrepancies occurred during summer and fall months and dry years. Several snow melting parameters were found to be critical for the SWAT simulation: TIMP (snow temperature lag factor) and SMFMX and SMFMN (melting factors). Snow melting parameters were not transferable between adjacent watersheds. Differences in seasonal pattern of long-term monthly streamflow were found, with the forest-dominated watershed having a higher peak flow during April but a lower flow during the remainder of the year in comparison to the wetland and lake-dominated watershed. The results suggested that a greater proportion of wetland and lake area increases the capacity of a watershed to impound surface runoff and to delay storm and snow melting events. Representation of wetlands and lakes in a watershed model is required to simulate monthly stream flow in a wetland/lake-dominated watershed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Impact of time-scale of the calibration objective function on the performance of watershed models

    K. P. Sudheer
    Abstract Many of the continuous watershed models perform all their computations on a daily time step, yet they are often calibrated at an annual or monthly time-scale that may not guarantee good simulation performance on a daily time step. The major objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the calibration time-scale on model predictive ability. This study considered the Soil and Water Assessment Tool for the analyses, and it has been calibrated at two time-scales, viz. monthly and daily for the War Eagle Creek watershed in the USA. The results demonstrate that the model's performance at the smaller time-scale (such as daily) cannot be ensured by calibrating them at a larger time-scale (such as monthly). It is observed that, even though the calibrated model possesses satisfactory ,goodness of fit' statistics, the simulation residuals failed to confirm the assumption of their homoscedasticity and independence. The results imply that evaluation of models should be conducted considering their behavior in various aspects of simulation, such as predictive uncertainty, hydrograph characteristics, ability to preserve statistical properties of the historic flow series, etc. The study enlightens the scope for improving/developing effective autocalibration procedures at the daily time step for watershed models. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Parameter estimation in semi-distributed hydrological catchment modelling using a multi-criteria objective function

    Hamed Rouhani
    Abstract Output generated by hydrologic simulation models is traditionally calibrated and validated using split-samples of observed time series of total water flow, measured at the drainage outlet of the river basin. Although this approach might yield an optimal set of model parameters, capable of reproducing the total flow, it has been observed that the flow components making up the total flow are often poorly reproduced. Previous research suggests that notwithstanding the underlying physical processes are often poorly mimicked through calibration of a set of parameters hydrologic models most of the time acceptably estimates the total flow. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate a computer-based hydrologic model with respect to the total and slow flow. The quick flow component used in this study was taken as the difference between the total and slow flow. Model calibrations were pursued on the basis of comparing the simulated output with the observed total and slow flow using qualitative (graphical) assessments and quantitative (statistical) indicators. The study was conducted using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and a 10-year historical record (1986,1995) of the daily flow components of the Grote Nete River basin (Belgium). The data of the period 1986,1989 were used for model calibration and data of the period 1990,1995 for model validation. The predicted daily average total flow matched the observed values with a Nash,Sutcliff coefficient of 0·67 during calibration and 0·66 during validation. The Nash,Sutcliff coefficient for slow flow was 0·72 during calibration and 0·61 during validation. Analysis of high and low flows indicated that the model is unbiased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that for the modelling of the daily total flow, accurate estimation of all 10 calibration parameters in the SWAT model is justified, while for the slow flow processes only 4 out of the set of 10 parameters were identified as most sensitive. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Multi-variable and multi-site calibration and validation of SWAT in a large mountainous catchment with high spatial variability

    Wenzhi Cao
    Abstract Many methods developed for calibration and validation of physically based distributed hydrological models are time consuming and computationally intensive. Only a small set of input parameters can be optimized, and the optimization often results in unrealistic values. In this study we adopted a multi-variable and multi-site approach to calibration and validation of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the Motueka catchment, making use of extensive field measurements. Not only were a number of hydrological processes (model components) in a catchment evaluated, but also a number of subcatchments were used in the calibration. The internal variables used were PET, annual water yield, daily streamflow, baseflow, and soil moisture. The study was conducted using an 11-year historical flow record (1990,2000); 1990,94 was used for calibration and 1995,2000 for validation. SWAT generally predicted well the PET, water yield and daily streamflow. The predicted daily streamflow matched the observed values, with a Nash,Sutcliffe coefficient of 0·78 during calibration and 0·72 during validation. However, values for subcatchments ranged from 0·31 to 0·67 during calibration, and 0·36 to 0·52 during validation. The predicted soil moisture remained wet compared with the measurement. About 50% of the extra soil water storage predicted by the model can be ascribed to overprediction of precipitation; the remaining 50% discrepancy was likely to be a result of poor representation of soil properties. Hydrological compensations in the modelling results are derived from water balances in the various pathways and storage (evaporation, streamflow, surface runoff, soil moisture and groundwater) and the contributions to streamflow from different geographic areas (hill slopes, variable source areas, sub-basins, and subcatchments). The use of an integrated multi-variable and multi-site method improved the model calibration and validation and highlighted the areas and hydrological processes requiring greater calibration effort. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    SWAT2000: current capabilities and research opportunities in applied watershed modelling

    J. G. Arnold
    Abstract SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) is a conceptual, continuous time model that was developed in the early 1990s to assist water resource managers in assessing the impact of management and climate on water supplies and non-point source pollution in watersheds and large river basins. SWAT is the continuation of over 30 years of model development within the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and was developed to ,scale up' past field-scale models to large river basins. Model components include weather, hydrology, erosion/sedimentation, plant growth, nutrients, pesticides, agricultural management, stream routing and pond/reservoir routing. The latest version, SWAT2000, has several significant enhancements that include: bacteria transport routines; urban routines; Green and Ampt infiltration equation; improved weather generator; ability to read in daily solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and potential ET; Muskingum channel routing; and modified dormancy calculations for tropical areas. A complete set of model documentation for equations and algorithms, a user manual describing model inputs and outputs, and an ArcView interface manual are now complete for SWAT2000. The model has been recoded into Fortran 90 with a complete data dictionary, dynamic allocation of arrays and modular subroutines. Current research is focusing on bacteria, riparian zones, pothole topography, forest growth, channel downcutting and widening, and input uncertainty analysis. The model SWAT is meanwhile used in many countries all over the world. Recent developments in European Environmental Policy, such as the adoption of the European Water Framework directive in December 2000, demand tools for integrative river basin management. The model SWAT is applicable for this purpose. It is a flexible model that can be used under a wide range of different environmental conditions, as this special issue will show. The papers compiled here are the result of the first International SWAT Conference held in August 2001 in Rauischholzhausen, Germany. More than 50 participants from 14 countries discussed their modelling experiences with the model development team from the USA. Nineteen selected papers with issues reaching from the newest developments, the evaluation of river basin management, interdisciplinary approaches for river basin management, the impact of land use change, methodical aspects and models derived from SWAT are published in this special issue. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Advances in the application of the SWAT model for water resources management

    R. Jayakrishnan
    Abstract Developments in computer technology have revolutionized the study of hydrologic systems and water resources management. Several computer-based hydrologic/water quality models have been developed for applications in hydrologic modelling and water resources studies. Distributed parameter models, necessary for basin-scale studies, have large input data requirements. Geographic information systems (GIS) and model,GIS interfaces aid the efficient creation of input data files required by such models. One such model available for the water resources professional is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed parameter model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. This paper describes some recent advances made in the application of SWAT and the SWAT,GIS interface for water resources management. Four case studies are presented. The Hydrologic Unit Model for the United States (HUMUS) project used SWAT to conduct a national-scale analysis of the effect of management scenarios on water quantity and quality. Integration of the SWAT model with rainfall data available from the WSR-88D radar network helps us to incorporate the spatial variability of rainfall into the modelling process. This study demonstrates the usefulness of radar rainfall data in distributed hydrologic studies and the potential of SWAT for application in flood analysis and prediction. A hydrologic modelling study of the Sondu river basin in Kenya using SWAT indicates the potential for application of the model in African watersheds and points to the need for development of better model input data sets in Africa, which are critical for detailed water resources studies. The application of SWAT for water quality analysis in the Bosque river basin, Texas demonstrates the strength of the model for analysing different management scenarios to minimize point and non-point pollution, and its potential for application in total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Considering spatial distribution and deposition of sediment in lumped and semi-distributed models

    Thomas Lenhart
    Abstract The goal of this paper is to test a new semi-lumped sediment delivery concept to consider deposition. With this method, the distance between sediment source and river channel is taken into account. It is based on the assumption that sediment delivery rates (SDR-values) are related to the length of the flow path of the sediment from source area to channel. For each subwatershed an average weighted distance to the river channel can be calculated whereby cells with little or no soil erosion have a high weight. The procedure was implemented in SWAT-G (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and calibrated and validated for two watersheds in Belgium and Germany. The results point out that the proposed method is a significant improvement of the sediment routine compared to existing lumped equations such as the MUSLE. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Family Needs Assessment in Cerebral Palsy Clinic

    Constance F. Buran
    PURPOSE. The dual purpose of this study was to identify areas of need as perceived by parents of children with cerebral palsy in three domains and to evaluate internal reliability of the Family Needs Assessment Tool (FNAT). DESIGN AND METHODS. The FNAT was distributed to parents and includes a demographic survey and three subscales: service, information, and obstacles to care. RESULTS. Parents identified services as their greatest need, followed by information and then obstacles to care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The FNAT may be utilized to evaluate parental perceptions of needs, and provide clinicians with information for program planning and assessing needs central to providing quality care. [source]

    Effective assessment of use of sitters by nurses in inpatient care settings

    Huey-Ming Tzeng
    Abstract Title.,Effective assessment of use of sitters by nurses in inpatient care settings Aim., This paper is a report of the evaluation of the impact of adopting the Patient Attendant Assessment Tool (PAAT) on nurses' requests for sitters, use of restraints, and falls and fall injury rates. Background., Staffing should be the primary issue in eliminating risks of patient falls during hospital stays. Method., Data were collected in two acute adult medical units of a Michigan hospital from August 2005 to February 2007. Data from three sources were merged for analyses: (1) study units' monthly reports; (2) quarterly reports of the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators and (3) PAAT reports collected from October 2006 to February 2007. The primary outcome variables were the use of sitters, number of restraints ordered and fall and fall injury rates. Independent t -tests and correlation analyses were used for data analyses. The data before and after adopting this tool were compared using independent t -tests. Findings., The PAAT helped improve the fill/request rates for sitters. The use of soft limb holders decreased after adoption of this tool. The results also showed that if the number of sitter requests was higher, the total number of restraints would be lower but the total fall rate would be higher. Conclusion., Hospitals should include a tool similar to the PAAT in guidelines related to provision of constant observation or use of sitters. Further investigations of the optimum combination of staffing patterns and infrastructure are needed to promote safer hospital stays. [source]

    Fall Prediction in Inpatients by Bedside Nurses Using the St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients (STRATIFY) Instrument: A Multicenter Study

    Koen Milisen RN
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of the St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients (STRATIFY) instrument, a simple fall-risk assessment tool, when administered at a patient's hospital bedside by nurses. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter study. SETTING: Six Belgian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2,568 patients (mean age±standard deviation 67.2±18.4; 55.3% female) on four surgical (n=875, 34.1%), eight geriatric (n=687, 26.8%), and four general medical wards (n=1,006, 39.2%) were included in this study upon hospital admission. All patients were hospitalized for at least 48 hours. MEASUREMENTS: Nurses completed the STRATIFY within 24 hours after admission of the patient. Falls were documented on a standardized incident report form. RESULTS: The number of fallers was 136 (5.3%), accounting for 190 falls and an overall rate of 7.3 falls per 1,000 patient days for all hospitals. The STRATIFY showed good sensitivity (,84%) and high negative predictive value (,99%) for the total sample, for patients admitted to general medical and surgical wards, and for patients younger than 75, although it showed moderate (69%) to low (52%) sensitivity and high false-negative rates (31,48%) for patients admitted to geriatric wards and for patients aged 75 and older. CONCLUSION: Although the STRATIFY satisfactorily predicted the fall risk of patients admitted to general medical and surgical wards and patients younger than 75, it failed to predict the fall risk of patients admitted to geriatric wards and patients aged 75 and older (particularly those aged 75,84). [source]

    Multi-item outcome measures for lateral ligament injury of the ankle: a structured review

    K.L. Haywood BSc(Hons) DPhil MCSP
    Abstract Objective, To identify and review evidence relating to the measurement properties of published multi-item outcome measures for the conservative management of lateral ligament injuries of the ankle. Methods, Systematic literature searches were used to identify measures, which were then assessed against pre-defined criteria relating to development, item content, reliability, validity and responsiveness. Results, Seven disease-specific measures of ankle status [Ankle Joint Functional Assessment Tool, Clinical Trauma Severity Score, Composite Inversion Injury Scale, Kaikkonen Functional Scale (KFS), Karlsson Ankle Function Score (KAFS), Olerud and Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), and the Point System] and two generic measures of health (McGill Pain Questionnaire, Sickness Impact Profile) met the review inclusion criteria. While all measures had been used in acute injuries, only two had also been applied during later stages of recovery (>6 months). The studies covered a comprehensive range of graded ligament injuries. Expert opinion dominated item generation for all measures. All measures lack evidence of test-retest or internal consistency reliability in patients with ankle sprain. Several measures were assessed for validity through comparison with other measures, but there was limited evidence of construct validity and no formal assessment of responsiveness for any measure. Conclusion, The disappointing lack of evidence for measurement properties suggests that any measure should be used with caution until appropriate evidence is provided. On the basis of limited evidence, the KFS offers the most promising approach to a combined clinician- and patient-assessment of ankle function, and the KAFS or OMAS if a patient-assessed evaluation of function is required. [source]

    Emerging concepts in cardiovascular disease risk assessment: Where do women fit in?

    Adjunct Instructor, CRNP Cardiovascular Nurse Practitioner, Deborah Gleeson MSN
    Abstract Purpose: To highlight the current limitations in the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk for women. This article will offer the reader information on the current process for assessing CVD risk in women, the pitfalls associated with this current strategy, and the role of novel risk factors. Data sources: Extensive review of the medical literature in the area of women's cardiovascular health. Conclusions: The assessment of CVD risk for women is currently an evolving science. Limitations in the ability of the Framingham score to accurately estimate risk in women from diverse populations are increasingly recognized. Vastly different treatment goals between the genders for similar levels of risk factors have led to a re-evaluation of this strategy in women. While the Framingham score is still useful for guiding cholesterol treatment goals, the current preventive guidelines for women emphasize assessing a woman's risk throughout her lifetime. The future development of tools for improved risk stratification that incorporate novel risk factors may in fact improve our ability to appropriately risk stratify women to evidence-based therapies. Implications for practice: Utilizing the Framingham Risk Assessment Tool and further CVD risk stratification using novel markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein, family history, and functional capacity may identify unique subsets of women at higher risk for CVD. Nurse practitioners can be instrumental in this assessment, education, and treatment of women at risk for CVD. [source]

    Using SWAT to Model Streamflow in Two River Basins With Ground and Satellite Precipitation Data,

    Kenneth J. Tobin
    Abstract:, Both ground rain gauge and remotely sensed precipitation (Next Generation Weather Radar , NEXRAD Stage III) data have been used to support spatially distributed hydrological modeling. This study is unique in that it utilizes and compares the performance of National Weather Service (NWS) rain gauge, NEXRAD Stage III, and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 (Version 6) data for the hydrological modeling of the Middle Nueces River Watershed in South Texas and Middle Rio Grande Watershed in South Texas and northern Mexico. The hydrologic model chosen for this study is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a comprehensive, physical-based tool that models watershed hydrology and water quality within stream reaches. Minor adjustments to selected model parameters were applied to make parameter values more realistic based on results from previous studies. In both watersheds, NEXRAD Stage III data yields results with low mass balance error between simulated and actual streamflow (±13%) and high monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients (NS > 0.60) for both calibration (July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2006) and validation (2007) periods. In the Middle Rio Grande Watershed NEXRAD Stage III data also yield robust daily results (time averaged over a three-day period) with NS values of (0.60-0.88). TRMM 3B42 data generate simulations for the Middle Rio Grande Watershed of variable qualtiy (MBE = +13 to ,16%; NS = 0.38-0.94; RMSE = 0.07-0.65), but greatly overestimates streamflow during the calibration period in the Middle Nueces Watershed. During the calibration period use of NWS rain gauge data does not generate acceptable simulations in both watersheds. Significantly, our study is the first to successfully demonstrate the utility of satellite-estimated precipitation (TRMM 3B42) in supporting hydrologic modeling with SWAT; thereby, potentially extending the realm (between 50°N and 50°S) where remotely sensed precipitation data can support hydrologic modeling outside of regions that have modern, ground-based radar networks (i.e., much of the third world). [source]

    Spatial Calibration and Temporal Validation of Flow for Regional Scale Hydrologic Modeling,

    C. Santhi
    Abstract:, Physically based regional scale hydrologic modeling is gaining importance for planning and management of water resources. Calibration and validation of such regional scale model is necessary before applying it for scenario assessment. However, in most regional scale hydrologic modeling, flow validation is performed at the river basin outlet without accounting for spatial variations in hydrological parameters within the subunits. In this study, we calibrated the model to capture the spatial variations in runoff at subwatershed level to assure local water balance, and validated the streamflow at key gaging stations along the river to assure temporal variability. Ohio and Arkansas-White-Red River Basins of the United States were modeled using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the period from 1961 to 1990. R2 values of average annual runoff at subwatersheds were 0.78 and 0.99 for the Ohio and Arkansas Basins. Observed and simulated annual and monthly streamflow from 1961 to 1990 is used for temporal validation at the gages. R2 values estimated were greater than 0.6. In summary, spatially distributed calibration at subwatersheds and temporal validation at the stream gages accounted for the spatial and temporal hydrological patterns reasonably well in the two river basins. This study highlights the importance of spatially distributed calibration and validation in large river basins. [source]


    Manoj Jha
    ABSTRACT: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the effects of potential future climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Calibration and validation of SWAT were performed using monthly stream flows for 1968,1987 and 1988,1997, respectively. The R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation efficiency values computed for the monthly comparisons were 0.74 and 0.69 for the calibration period and 0.82 and 0.81 for the validation period. The effects of nine 30-year (1968 to 1997) sensitivity runs and six climate change scenarios were then analyzed, relative to a scenario baseline. A doubling of atmospheric CO2 to 660 ppmv (while holding other climate variables constant) resulted in a 36 percent increase in average annual streamflow while average annual flow changes of ,49, ,26, 28, and 58 percent were predicted for precipitation change scenarios of ,20, ,10, 10, and 20 percent, respectively. Mean annual streamflow changes of 51,10, 2, ,6, 38, and 27 percent were predicted by SWAT in response to climate change projections generated from the CISRO-RegCM2, CCC, CCSR, CISRO-Mk2, GFDL, and HadCMS general circulation model scenarios. High seasonal variability was also predicted within individual climate change scenarios and large variability was indicated between scenarios within specific months. Overall, the climate change scenarios reveal a large degree of uncertainty in current climate change forecasts for the region. The results also indicate that the simulated UMRB hydrology is very sensitive to current forecasted future climate changes. [source]


    Puneet Srivastava
    ABSTRACT: The performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in simulating hydrologic response was assessed in an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. All of the performance evaluation measures including Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E) and coefficient of determination (R2) suggest that the ANN monthly predictions were closer to the observed flows than the monthly predictions from the SWAT model. More specifically, monthly streamflow E and R2 were 0.54 and 0.57, respectively, for the SWAT model calibration period, and 0.71 and 0.75, respectively, for the ANN model training period. For the validation period, these values were ,0.17 and 0.34 for the SWAT and 0.43 and 0.45 for the ANN model. SWAT model performance was affected by snowmelt events during winter months and by the model's inability to adequately simulate base flows. Even though this and other studies using ANN models suggest that these models provide a viable alternative approach for hydrologic and water quality modeling, ANN models in their current form are not spatially distributed watershed modeling systems. However, considering the promising performance of the simple ANN model, this study suggests that the ANN approach warrants further development to explicitly address the spatial distribution of hydrologic/water quality processes within watersheds. [source]


    Francisco Olivera
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents ArcGIS-SWAT, a geodata model and geographic information system (GIS) interface for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The ArcGIS-SWAT data model is a system of geodatabases that store SWAT geographic, numeric, and text input data and results in an organized fashion. Thus, it is proposed that a single and comprehensive geodatabase be used as the repository of a SWAT simulation. The ArcGIS-SWAT interface uses programming objects that conform to the Component Object Model (COM) design standard, which facilitate the use of functionality of other Windows-based applications within ArcGIS-SWAT. In particular, the use of MS Excel and MATLAB functionality for data analysis and visualization of results is demonstrated. Likewise, it is proposed to conduct hydrologic model integration through the sharing of information with a not-model-specific hub data model where information common to different models can be stored and from which it can be retrieved. As an example, it is demonstrated how the Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) - a computer application for flood analysis - can use information originally developed by ArcGIS-SWAT for SWAT. The application of ArcGIS-SWAT to the Seco Creek watershed in Texas is presented. [source]


    Michael W. Van Liew
    ABSTRACT: Precipitation and streamflow data from three nested subwatersheds within the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate the capabilities of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict streamflow under varying climatic conditions. Eight years of precipitation and streamflow data were used to calibrate parameters in the model, and 15 years of data were used for model validation. SWAT was calibrated on the smallest and largest sub-watersheds for a wetter than average period of record. The model was then validated on a third subwatershed for a range in climatic conditions that included dry, average, and wet periods. Calibration of the model involved a multistep approach. A preliminary calibration was conducted to estimate model parameters so that measured versus simulated yearly and monthly runoff were in agreement for the respective calibration periods. Model parameters were then fine tuned based on a visual inspection of daily hydrographs and flow frequency curves. Calibration on a daily basis resulted in higher baseflows and lower peak runoff rates than were obtained in the preliminary calibration. Test results show that once the model was calibrated for wet climatic conditions, it did a good job in predicting streamflow responses over wet, average, and dry climatic conditions selected for model validation. Monthly coefficients of efficiencies were 0.65, 0.86, and 0.45 for the dry, average, and wet validation periods, respectively. Results of this investigation indicate that once calibrated, SWAT is capable of providing adequate simulations for hydrologic investigations related to the impact of climate variations on water resources of the LWREW. [source]


    Scott N. Miller
    ABSTRACT: Significant land cover changes have occurred in the watersheds that contribute runoff to the upper San Pedro River in Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. These changes, observed using a series of remotely sensed images taken in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, have been implicated in the alteration of the basin hydrologic response. The Cannonsville subwatershed, located in the Catskill/Delaware watershed complex that delivers water to New York City, provides a contrast in land cover change. In this region, the Cannonsville watershed condition has improved over a comparable time period. A landscape assessment tool using a geographic information system (GIS) has been developed that automates the parameterization of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS) hydrologic models. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool was used to prepare parameter input files for the Upper San Pedro Basin, a subwatershed within the San Pedro undergoing significant changes, and the Cannonsville watershed using historical land cover data. Runoff and sediment yield were simulated using these models. In the Cannonsville watershed, land cover change had a beneficial impact on modeled watershed response due to the transition from agriculture to forest land cover. Simulation results for the San Pedro indicate that increasing urban and agricultural areas and the simultaneous invasion of woody plants and decline of grasslands resulted in increased annual and event runoff volumes, flashier flood response, and decreased water quality due to sediment loading. These results demonstrate the usefulness of integrating remote sensing and distributed hydrologic models through the use of GIS for assessing watershed condition and the relative impacts of land cover transitions on hydrologic response. [source]


    Mark C. Stone
    ABSTRACT: Water from the Missouri River Basin is used for multiple purposes. The climatic change of doubling the atmospheric carbon dioxide may produce dramatic water yield changes across the basin. Estimated changes in basin water yield from doubled CO2 climate were simulated using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM) and a physically based rainfall-runoff model. RegCM output from a five-year, equilibrium climate simulation at twice present CO2 levels was compared to a similar present-day climate run to extract monthly changes in meteorologic variables needed by the hydrologic model. These changes, simulated on a 50-km grid, were matched at a commensurate scale to the 310 subbasin in the rainfall-runoff model climate change impact analysis. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) rainfall-runoff model was used in this study. The climate changes were applied to the 1965 to 1989 historic period. Overall water yield at the mouth of the Basin decreased by 10 to 20 percent during spring and summer months, but increased during fall and winter. Yields generally decreased in the southern portions of the basin but increased in the northern reaches. Northern subbasin yields increased up to 80 percent: equivalent to 1.3 cm of runoff on an annual basis. [source]

    Risk factors for early lactation problems among Peruvian primiparous mothers

    Susana L. Matias
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for early lactation problems [suboptimal infant breastfeeding behaviour (SIBB), delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) and excessive neonatal weight loss] among mother,infant pairs in Lima, Peru. All primiparous mothers who gave birth to a healthy, single, term infant at a government hospital in a peri-urban area of Lima during the 8-month recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected at the hospital (day 0) and during a home visit (day 3). Infant breastfeeding behaviour was evaluated using the Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool; SIBB was defined as ,10 score. OL was determined by maternal report of breast fullness changes; delayed OL was defined as perceived after 72 h. Excessive neonatal weight loss was defined as ,10% of birthweight by day 3. One hundred seventy-one mother,infant pairs participated in the study. SIBB prevalence was 52% on day 0 and 21% on day 3; it was associated with male infant gender (day 0), <8 breastfeeds during the first 24 h (days 0 and 3), and gestational age <39 weeks (day 3). Delayed OL incidence was 17% and was associated with infant Apgar score <8. Excessive neonatal weight loss occurred in 10% of neonates and was associated with maternal overweight and Caesarean-section delivery. Early lactation problems may be influenced by modifiable factors such as delivery mode and breastfeeding frequency. Infant status at birth and maternal characteristics could indicate when breastfeeding dyads need extra support. [source]

    Real-Time Inter-Rater Reliability of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Standardized Direct Observation Assessment Tool

    Joseph LaMantia MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Developed by the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD), the standardized direct observation assessment tool (SDOT) is an evaluation instrument used to assess residents' clinical skills in the emergency department (ED). In a previous study examining the inter-rater agreement of the tool, faculty scored simulated resident,patient encounters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement of the SDOT in real-time evaluations of residents in the ED. Methods:, This was a multi-center, prospective, observational study in which faculty raters were paired to simultaneously observe and independently evaluate a resident's clinical performance using the SDOT. Data collected from eight emergency medicine (EM) residency programs produced 99 unique resident,patient encounters and reported on 26 individual behaviors related to specific core competencies, global evaluation scores for each core competency, and an overall clinical competency score. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using percentage agreement analyses with three constructs: exact agreement, liberal agreement, and binary (pass/fail) agreement. Results:, Inter-rater agreement between faculty raters varied according to category of measure used. Exact agreement ranged from poor to good, depending on the measure: the overall competency score (good), the competency score for each of the six core competencies (poor to good), and the individual item scores (fair to very good). Liberal agreement and binary agreement were excellent for the overall competency score and the competency score for each of the six core competencies and very good to excellent for the individual item scores. Conclusions:, The SDOT demonstrated excellent inter-rater agreement when analyzed with liberal agreement and when dichotomized as a pass/fail measure and fair to good agreement for most measures with exact agreement. The SDOT can be useful and reliable when evaluating residents' clinical skills in the ED, particularly as it relates to marginal performance. [source]

    Temporal Bone Simulator as a Training and Assessment Tool for Temporal Bone Dissection

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue S3 2010
    Wes A. Allison MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Development of a Japanese Version of the Care Planning Assessment Tool

    Sumiko Kanegae
    Aim:, To develop a Japanese version of the Care Planning Assessment Tool (J-CPAT), originally developed in Australia as a comprehensive assessment of people with dementia. Methods:, The process of adapting the CPAT into Japanese included translation into Japanese, assessment of item comprehension, and a validity and reliability study. The J-CPAT is composed of eight domains: Communication, physical problems, self-help skills, confusion, behaviour, social interaction, psychiatric observations and carer dependency. The participants were 199 aged care clients. Measures were the J-CPAT, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Care Levels used in the Long-term Care Insurance scheme. Results:, Cronbach's alpha values in each J-CPAT domain were 0.74,0.95. The correlation coefficient between the score of Confusion and MMSE was ,0.90, and those between physical problems, self-help skills, carer dependency in the J-CPAT, and care level were 0.70, 0.75 and 0.67. Conclusions:, The J-CPAT appears to be a reliable and valid tool for care planning in Japan. [source]

    Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence as a Child Does Not Increase the Likelihood of Becoming an Adult Intimate Partner Violence Victim

    Amy A. Ernst MD
    ObjectivesTo determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. MethodsThis was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. ResultsA total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than 20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12.5), and abuse as a child (OR, 9.1; 95% CI = 4.2 to 19.6). Other demographics were not significantly correlated with having witnessed IPV as a child. ConclusionsAdults who witnessed IPV as children were more likely to have a lower income, be younger, and have been abused as a child, but not more likely to be positive for ongoing IPV, when compared with patients who had not witnessed IPV. [source]

    Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT): A Severity Index for Pediatric Emergency Care

    MSCE, Marc H. Gorelick MD
    Abstract Objectives: To develop and validate a multivariable model, using information available at the time of patient triage, to predict the level of care provided to pediatric emergency patients for use as a severity of illness measure. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 5,521 children 18 years of age or younger treated at four emergency departments (EDs) over a 12-month period. Data were obtained from abstraction of patient records. Logistic regression was used to develop (75% of sample) and validate (25% of sample) models to predict any nonroutine diagnostic or therapeutic intervention in the ED and admission to the hospital. Data on ED length of stay and hospital costs were also obtained. Results: Eight predictor variables were included in the final models: presenting complaint, age, triage acuity category, arrival by emergency medical services, current use of prescription medications, and three triage vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature). The resulting models had adequate goodness of fit in both derivation and validation samples. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 for the ED intervention model and 0.85 for the admission model. The Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT) score was then calculated as the sum of the predicted probability of receiving intervention and twice the predicted probability of admission. The RePEAT score had a significant univariate association with ED costs (r= 0.44) and with ED length of stay (r= 0.27) and contributed significantly to the fit of multivariable models comparing these outcomes across sites. Conclusions: The RePEAT score accurately predicts level of care provided for pediatric emergency patients and may provide a useful means of risk adjustment when benchmarking outcomes. [source]

    A Comparative Study of the Use of Four Fall Risk Assessment Tools on Acute Medical Wards

    Michael Vassallo FRCP
    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of four falls risk assessment tools (STRATIFY, Downton, Tullamore, and Tinetti) by using them simultaneously in the same environment. Design: Prospective, open, observational study. Setting: Two acute medical wards admitting predominantly older patients. Participants: One hundred thirty-five patients, 86 female, mean age±standard deviation 83.8±8.01 (range 56,100). Measurements: A single clinician prospectively completed the four falls risk assessment tools. The extent of completion and time to complete each tool was recorded. Patients were followed until discharge, noting the occurrence of falls. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive accuracy, positive predictive accuracy, and total predictive accuracy were calculated. Results: The number of patients that the STRATIFY correctly identified (n=90) was significantly higher than the Downton (n=46; P<.001), Tullamore (n=66; P=.005), or Tinetti (n=52; P<.001) tools, but the STRATIFY had the poorest sensitivity (68.2%). The STRATIFY was also the only tool that could be fully completed in all patients (n=135), compared with the Downton (n=130; P=.06), Tullamore (n=130; P=.06), and Tinetti (n=17; P<.001). The time required to complete the STRATIFY tool (average 3.85 minutes) was significantly less than for the Downton (6.34 minutes; P<.001), Tinetti (7.4 minutes; P<.001), and Tullamore (6.25 minutes; P<.001). The Kaplan-Meier test showed that the STRATIFY (log rank P=.001) and Tullamore tools (log rank P<.001) were effective at predicting falls over the first week of admission. The Downton (log rank P=.46) and Tinetti tools (log rank P=.41) did not demonstrate this characteristic. Conclusion: Significant differences were identified in the performance and complexity between the four risk assessment tools studied. The STRATIFY tool was the shortest and easiest to complete and had the highest predictive value but the lowest sensitivity. [source]