Assessment Practices (assessment + practice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Systemic Approach to Culturally Responsive Assessment Practices and Evaluation

June Slee
In an earlier paper, Slee and Keenan demonstrated that it was possible for tertiary education institutions to design culturally responsive assessment procedures that complied with standardised assessment policy. The authors' paper described Growing Our Own, an initiative between Charles Darwin University and Northern Territory Catholic Education, which in 2009 began preparing in situ Indigenous teacher assistants for teacher qualification in very remote schools in the Northern Territory, Australia. The paper demonstrated that the university assessment policy accommodated Indigenous learning, reflecting students' culture, remote learning context, world experience, primary language, family and community values and entry-level competencies. This article is a systemic response to recommendations arising from a recent external evaluation of Growing Our Own and seeks to demonstrate how the project's approaches meet university assessment rules yet fit within a culturally valid framework. [source]

Reconceptualizing Validity for Classroom Assessment

Pamela A. Moss
This article explores the shortcomings of conventional validity theory for guiding classroom assessment practice and suggests additional theoretical resources from sociocultural theory and hermeneutics to complement and challenge conventional theory. To illuminate these concerns and possibilities in a concrete context, the author uses her own classroom experience in teaching a qualitative research methods course. The importance of examining cases of assessment practice in context for developing, teaching, and evaluating validity theory is discussed. [source]

Teaching for the Test: Validity, Fairness, and Moral Action

Linda Crocker
In response to heightened levels of assessment activity at the K-12 level to meet requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, measurement professionals are called to focus greater attention on four fundamental areas of measurement research and practice: (a) improving the research infrastructure for validation methods involving judgments of test content; (b) expanding the psychometric definition of fairness in achievement testing; (c) developing guidelines for validation studies of test use consequences; and (d) preparing teachers for new roles in instruction and assessment practice. Illustrative strategies for accomplishing these goals are outlined. [source]

The Pearls and Perils of Identifying Potential

Organizations today are increasingly focused on talent as a strategic asset and a competitive advantage for achieving business success. As a result, most major organizations have recognized the need for and outlined a formal process to identify and assess high-potential talent. There is, however, little agreement within or between organizations on the definition and components of the concept of potential. The existing definitions and models of potential are often narrowly focused on only a few select factors and give little attention to the broad spectrum of potential talent in an organization. This article introduces a new integrated model of potential that incorporates previous literature and current assessment practice regarding high potentials, provides a coherent structure of potential, and is reflective of a variety of different talent pools. The model provides a useful method for answering the key question,Potential for what? Three key components of potential are described by the model: (a) foundational dimensions, (b) growth dimensions, and (c) career dimensions. Implications for assisting organizations in more effectively managing their high potential talent for strategic business objectives are discussed. [source]

The use of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice

Alison Bryans PhD MSc BA DipHV RGN RNT
The use of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice This paper describes the development of an innovative research approach which used the complementary methods of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge-base involved in community nursing assessment practice in the United Kingdom. The study commenced in 1994 and the main phase of data-gathering took place over a 3-week period in 1995. Having outlined the study's aim, context and theoretical background, this paper focuses on the two main methods of data-gathering used. Detailed description of the simulation method and the post-simulation interview and the rationales for their use are followed by critical discussion which identifies their particular strengths and weaknesses. Threats to validity are also considered. It is argued that the combined use of a simulated assessment and a post-simulation structured interview has great potential as a means of exploring the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice. [source]

Toward dynamic assessment of reading: applying metacognitive awareness guidance to reading assessment tasks

Eva Guterman
This paper focuses on research that aimed to provide a theoretical,practical framework to link literacy assessment practice with learning theory. An experimental study was designed with reference to three theoretical axes: ,metacognitive awareness' theory, ,schema' theory and the Vygotskian ,zone of proximal fevelopment'. The study tested the effect of using written metacognitive awareness guidance (MCAG) as a tool for activating and engaging learners'Habits of Mind while processing authentic reading assessment tasks taken from Israeli kits of assessment tasks (Guterman, 2000). The study on 300 Grade,4 pupils used three modalities: a control group, which received no treatment; a placebo group, which received content instructions (CI); and a treatment group, which was given written MCAG. The findings confirmed that applying metacognitive awareness guidance to reading assessment tasks makes a difference in the learners' level of performance and achievement on those tasks, and also increases learners' chances of internalising the guidance components. [source]


SCOTT HIGHHOUSEArticle first published online: 7 DEC 200
Although individual assessment is a thriving area of professional practice in industry, it receives little, if any, attention from textbooks on industrial psychology or personnel management. This article is an attempt to establish individual assessment's place in the history of personnel selection, and to examine why the practice has survived despite receiving little attention in research and graduate training. It is argued that the clinical, holistic approach that has characterized individual-assessment practice has survived primarily because the "elementalistic" testing approach, focusing on traits and abilities, has often been dismissed as inadequate for addressing the complexities of the executive profile. Moreover, public displeasure with standard paper-and-pencil testing in the 1960s and 1970s made the holistic approach to assessment an attractive, alternative. The article contrasts individual assessment practice with the current state of knowledge on psychological assessment and personnel decision making. Like psychotherapy in the 1950s, individual psychological assessment appears to have achieved the status of functional autonomy within psychology. [source]

School neuropsychology consultation in neurodevelopmental disorders,

Scott L. Decker
The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in federal legislation to allow more flexible approaches toward assessment are viewed as a catalyst toward the integration of neuropsychological practice in school-based practice. As a set of priorities, recommendations are made for reforming assessment practice in schools, linking neuropsychological test results to academic treatment outcomes, and developing consultation practice with parents and teachers for early identification purposes and to integrate school-based services with community mental health services. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Promoting ethical reflection in the teaching of business ethics

Howard Harris
A case study provides the basis for consideration of the purpose of business ethics teaching, the importance of reflection and the evaluation of ethics teaching. The way in which personal reflection and an increased capacity for ethical action can be encouraged and openly identified as aims of the course is discussed. The paper considers changes in the design and delivery of the international management ethics and values course taught at the University of South Australia as part of the undergraduate management degree in Australia, Singapore and Hong Kong. As a result of student and teaching staff responses, and course evaluations, the course design, teaching and assessment has moved steadily toward an aim which explicitly refers to behaviour, without losing the significant conceptual base. Ways in which opportunities can be provided to enhance the development of a reflective capability are considered, including narrative, role models, ethical reflection, journal-keeping and practice. The changes required a change in assessment practice. The difficulties of assessing intention and commitment to ethical action, whether in an individual course or across the curriculum, are discussed. [source]

Maintaining a focus on the child?

First impressions of the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need, their Families in cases of child neglect
Abstract The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families is guidance introduced by the Department of Health in England to improve assessment practice and promote better outcomes for children and their families. This paper considers ways in which the Assessment Framework can improve assessment practice in cases of child neglect. However, as with any national guidance, its effectiveness is dependent on local approaches to implementation. The author has undertaken practice development work around implementation with senior managers and frontline staff in area child protection committees (ACPCs) and social services departments. These experiences are used to explore the local issues and tensions encountered by both practitioners and managers responsible for implementing the Assessment Framework. An argument is made that these issues and tensions if not addressed can result in distorted assessments that lose the focus on the child. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

What do we know in English: facts and fiction in an arts based English curriculum

Bethan Marshall
Abstract This article explores the nature of knowledge in English. Using assessment practices as one way of understanding what constitutes knowledge in English, this article asks whether the subject is being subtly changed and whether it is changing in a direction that is profitable. Drawing on the work of Dewey and Eisner, it seeks to understand English as an arts subject and define what it means to know in English seen through this frame. [source]

Hormesis: Why it is important to toxicology and toxicologists,

Edward J. Calabrese
Abstract This article provides a comprehensive review of hormesis, a dose-response concept that is characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. The article traces the historical foundations of hormesis, its quantitative features and mechanistic foundations, and its risk assessment implications. The article indicates that the hormetic dose response is the most fundamental dose response, significantly outcompeting other leading dose-response models in large-scale, head-to-head evaluations. The hormetic dose response is highly generalizable, being independent of biological model, endpoint measured, chemical class, and interindividual variability. Hormesis also provides a framework for the study and assessment of chemical mixtures, incorporating the concept of additivity and synergism. Because the hormetic biphasic dose response represents a general pattern of biological responsiveness, it is expected that it will become progressively more significant within toxicological evaluation and risk assessment practices as well as have numerous biomedical applications. [source]

Towards Culturally Appropriate Assessment?

A Contribution to the Debates
Culturally appropriate assessment in higher educational is premised on factors that do not benefit minority groups, because they have no control over the processes governing such factors. Significantly, practices to account for students from different ethnic/minority/indigenous backgrounds are the inclusion of elements like their language, knowledge and culture into the curriculum. However, assessment procedures are often seen to be ,a-cultural', but are political activities that benefit the interests of some groups over others, as ,a-cultural' approaches tend to be bound within the cultural capital of the dominant group. This article examines the international discussions relating to culturally appropriate assessment through generic themes, assessment practices, cultural inclusions and cultural appropriateness. It argues that there are two distinct approaches to addressing inclusion: ,centric' and ,friendly', respectively, that result in different priorities and outcomes. Assessment however, is a political struggle between dominant and minority interests, which this article also recognises and explores. [source]

Internal Auditing and Risk Assessment in Large Italian Companies: an Empirical Survey

Marco Allegrini
This paper aims at achieving an overall view regarding the state of the art of internal auditing in large Italian companies. Mainly, it is focused on risk assessment practices and on the execution of a risk-based approach in the audit process. The research is based on a survey carried out on the ,Top100' companies listed at the Italian Stock Exchange. Survey results reveal that practices vary significantly among three different models: 1A few companies (25%) carry out mainly traditional compliance activities and they generally follow an audit-cycle approach for the annual audit planning; 2In most companies (67%), internal auditors adopt the COSO model and perform mainly operational auditing. Risk-based approach is applied predominantly at macro level. 3Finally, it is possible to identify a very few large companies (8%), in which auditors are applying a risk-based approach both at macro and micro level. [source]

Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo
This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles,the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach [source]

Community family medicine teachers' perceptions of their teaching role

Karen V Mann
Objectives Our study explored community preceptors' perceptions of their teaching role, to better understand effective ambulatory and community-based teaching. Methods Bandura's social cognitive theory and Schön's notion of reflective practice guided conceptual development of an interview exploring preceptors' views of their role, teaching goals, teaching techniques, student assessment practices, factors affecting teaching and learning, and balance of patient and student needs. Preceptors reflected also on a significant personal teaching experience. A total of 17 highly student-rated preceptors participated. A trained interviewer conducted each interview; all were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Results Preceptors (male, 14; female, 3) described learner-centred approaches, setting goals jointly with the student. Demonstration, guided practice, observation and feedback were integral to the experience. Preceptors saw student comfort in the environment as key to effective learning; they attempted to maximize students' learning and breadth of experience. They wanted students to understand content, ,know-how' and ,being a family physician'. Patients remained the primary responsibility, but learners' needs were viewed as compatible with that responsibility. Many preceptors perceived a professional responsibility as ,role models'. Conclusions Preceptors recognized the dynamic environment in which they taught students, and they described strategies which demonstrated how they adapted their teaching to meet the needs of the learner in that environment. These teachers combined learner-centred approaches with sound educational practices, broad learning experiences, attention to student learning and concern for development of professional expertise and judgement. These findings may assist faculty development in family medicine, and other disciplines, in providing effective ambulatory care teaching. [source]

Assessment of children with intellectual giftedness and reading disabilities

Martin A. Volker
This article discusses the current issues involved in the evaluation of children who have both intellectual gifts and a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. Given recent changes in federal special education law (i.e., the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004), the use of a unified assessment model that integrates responsiveness to intervention techniques with state-of-the-art psychometric tools is most appropriate for this population. Use of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (K.S. McGrew, 2005) and the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (J.A. Naglieri & J.P. Das, 1997b) cognitive assessment theories are highlighted due to their clear relevance to the assessment of both intellectual strengths for gifted children and psychological processing weaknesses for children with SLDs. Recommendations for assessment practices and areas in need of further research are explicitly stated. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 855,869, 2006. [source]

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A national survey of training and current assessment practices in the schools

Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray
The primary purpose of this research was to survey school psychologists to investigate their training and current assessment practices for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the schools. The survey consisted of 38 questions regarding participant characteristics and three main areas relevant to ADHD: (a) training, (b) caseloads/referral patterns, and (c) assessment. The respondents reported receiving adequate training in the assessment of ADHD, with doctorate-level psychologists self-reporting being better trained than nondoctorate psychologists. Results confirmed a substantial caseload of ADHD referrals. In the assessment of ADHD, the results indicated school psychologists are using multiple informants, methods, and settings for the assessment of ADHD with rating scales, observations, and interviews the most common methods identified. Limitations of current practices will be discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 40: 583,597, 2003. [source]

Evaluation of a training to improve management of pediatric overweight

Josephine Hinchman MPH Research Associate
Abstract Introduction: Despite widespread concern about pediatric obesity, health care professionals report low proficiency for identifying and treating this condition. This paper reports on the evaluation of pediatric overweight assessment and management training for clinicians and staff in a managed care system. The training was evaluated for its impact on assessment practices and utilization of management tools. Methods: A delayed-control design was utilized to measure the effects of two 60-minute interactive Continuing Medical education (CME) trainings for the pediatric health care teams. Chart abstraction was conducted at 0-, 3- and 6-months after training, recording the proportion of charts containing the recommended assessment methods and management tools. Results: The training was associated with a significant increase in the utilization of some tools and practices, including charting BMI-for-age percentile (p<0.001) and using a nutrition and activity self-history form (p<0.001). Overall, from baseline to 3-months post training, charting BMI-for-age percentiles increased from zero to 25.2% and utilization of the self-history form increased from zero to 35.3%. These increases were sustained at 6-months post training. Other tools guiding clinician counseling were less widely utilized, although a behavioral prescription pad was used with 20% of overweight patients. Discussion: A modest investment in clinician and staff training designed to be feasible in a clinical setting was associated with substantial increases in the use of appropriate tools and practices for the assessment and management of pediatric overweight. Such training may help to augment and improve the processes of pediatric health care delivery for addressing overweight. The training provides a viable model for future CME efforts in other health care settings. [source]