Assault

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Assault

  • physical assault
  • sexual assault

  • Terms modified by Assault

  • assault history
  • assault nurse examiner
  • assault survivor
  • assault victim

  • Selected Abstracts


    POLICE INTERVENTION AND THE REPEAT OF DOMESTIC ASSAULT

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    RICHARD B. FELSON
    We use the National Crime Victimization Survey to examine whether domestic violence is less likely to be repeated if it is reported to the police and if the offender is arrested. Our longitudinal analyses suggest that reporting has a fairly strong deterrent effect, whereas the effect of arrest is small and statistically insignificant. We find no support for the hypothesis that offenders retaliate when victims (rather than third parties) call the police or when victims sign complaints. We also find no evidence that the effects of reporting or arrest depend on the seriousness of the offense, a history of violence by the offender or sociodemographic characteristics. Our results suggest that the best policies for deterrence will be those that encourage victims and third parties to report violence by intimate partners to the police. [source]


    DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSAULTS MOTIVATED BY BIAS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    STEVEN F. MESSNER
    This research examines the ways in which assaults motivated by bias are similar to and different from other types of assault. Analyses are based on data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), pooled across eleven states. We find evidence suggesting that offenders motivated by racial and ethnic bias are more likely to be versatile offenders than specialists: they are more (not less) likely to be using drugs and alcohol during the crime than conventional offenders. Bias offenders are also more likely to seriously injure the victim. Finally, we find that the risks of bias crime victimization (relative to the risk of assault victimization generally) are similar for blacks and other racial minorities. [source]


    Have the causes of maxillofacial fractures changed over the last 16 years in Finland?

    DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    An epidemiological study of 725 fractures
    Abstract,,, A retrospective study was undertaken to assess causes of maxillofacial fractures in Helsinki in 1981 and 1997. Hospital records of 725 patients were analyzed according to several factors including age, sex, cause of fracture and time of the injury. The time intervals between the accident and hospital examination were also evaluated. Number of maxillofacial fractures was 318 in 1981 and 407 in 1997 (27.9% increase) and most patients were men. The male to female ratio was 2.8:1 in 1981, 3:1 in 1997. In 1981, most affected patients were in the age group of 31,40 years (33.2% of men, 28.9% of women). Sixteen years later the most affected age group was 41,50 years (23.3% of men, 30.4% of women). Assault was the cause of the injury in 42% of patients followed by traffic accidents (26%) and fall (17%). During the study period violence had become more severe in nature. Kicking as the cause of maxillofacial fracture increased by 7.3% and use of a weapon by 5.7% between the years studied. Bicycle accidents increased by 19.3% but motor vehicle accidents decreased by 31.6% between the years. Falls, and bicycle and pedestrian accidents were the causes that accounted for most of the increase in maxillofacial fracture. In 1997, maxillofacial fractures were slightly more common from June to August and from Friday to Sunday than at other times (45.2 and 50%, respectively). [source]


    Adolescent Foley Catheter Technique for Visualizing Hymenal Injuries in Adolescent Sexual Assault

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2003
    Jeffrey S. Jones MD
    Abstract Objectives: To determine the usefulness of the Foley catheter balloon technique for visualizing injuries of the estrogenized hymen in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. Methods: A prospective clinical trial of 20 adolescent (age 13,16 years old) victims of sexual assault evaluated at a free-standing Nurse Examiner Clinic was conducted over a four-month study period. The clinic, affiliated with an emergency medicine residency program, is staffed by registered nurses who have been specially trained to perform medicolegal examinations using colposcopy with digital imaging. The Foley catheter technique uses an inflated balloon in the distal vaginal vault to expand the estrogenized hymen to its full capacity so that the edge may be readily visualized for signs of trauma. The Foley technique was compared with gross inspection, using supine labial traction, to photodocument hymenal abnormalities. Photographs of the hymen were obtained using the labial traction technique and then with the Foley technique. Three emergency physicians independently examined each pair of photographs with high interrater agreement for the presence of injury (,= 0.88). Results: Twenty adolescent sexual assault victims volunteered for the study; mean age was 14.8 years. Gross inspection of the hymen using supine labial traction identified hymenal injuries in three patients (15%). Use of the Foley catheter balloon technique allowed identification of hymenal abnormalities in nine additional cases (60%). The common injuries to the hymen included lacerations (30%), followed by ecchymosis and abrasions. One patient (5%) voiced discomfort (mild pressure sensation) during inflation of the balloon. Conclusions: The Foley catheter balloon technique is a simple method allowing improved photodocumentation of hymenal trauma in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. [source]


    Comparative Analysis of Adult versus Adolescent Sexual Assault: Epidemiology and Patterns of Anogenital Injury

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 8 2003
    Jeffrey S. Jones MD
    Abstract Objectives: To compare the characteristics of sexual assault in pubertal girls (<18 years old) and adults in a community-based population of women presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic. Methods: This case-series analysis evaluated consecutive female patients presenting to a sexual assault clinic during a three-year study period. The clinic is associated with a university-affiliated emergency medicine residency program and is staffed by forensic nurses trained to perform medicolegal examinations using colposcopy with nuclear staining. Patient demographics, assault characteristics, and injury patterns were recorded using a standardized classification system. Data from the two patient groups (adolescents vs. women ,18 years of age) were analyzed using chi-square test and t-test. Results: A total of 766 cases were identified: 43% of the victims were 13 to 17 years old (mean 15.0 years old), and 57% were older than 17 years old (mean 30.8 years old). Adolescents were more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance or relative (84% vs. 50%, p < 0.001) and to delay medical evaluation (17 hours vs. 12 hours, p < 0.001) than were older women. Adolescent sexual assault was less likely to involve weapons or physical coercion (29% versus 57%, p < 0.001) and was associated with fewer nongenital injuries (33% vs. 55%, p < 0.001). Adolescents had a greater frequency of anogenital injuries (83% vs. 64%, p < 0.001), however, compared with older women. Common sites of injury in adolescents were posterior, including the fossa navicularis, hymen, fourchette, and labia minora. The injuries showed consistent topologic features, varying with the site and nature of tissue. Adult victims of sexual assault had a less consistent pattern of anogenital injuries with fewer hymenal injuries, greater injury to the perianal area, and widespread erythema. Conclusions: Of women presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic, 43% were adolescents. The epidemiology of sexual trauma and the pattern of anogenital trauma in this age group are unique and may pose special challenges to emergency health care providers. [source]


    Sexual Assault and Defendant/Victim Intoxication: Jurors' Perceptions of Guilt,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    ANNE-MARIE WALL
    The present research investigates how defendant and claimant intoxication operates in sexual-assault trials. Participants (N= 323) were provided with a description of a sexualassault trial in which the intoxication level (sober, moderate, extreme) of both parties was systematically varied. While the introduction of alcohol altered participants' perceptions of the case and of the parties involved, a complex interplay between the defendant's and complainant's level of intoxication was apparent. When the complainant was sober, harsher judgments were rendered when the defendant was intoxicated, particularly at the extreme level. In contrast, when the complainant was moderately intoxicated, more guilty verdicts occurred when the defendant was similarly inebriated. Finally, when the complainant was extremely intoxicated, the defendant's beverage consumption did not exert any discemible impact. Evaluations of both parties' abilities to self-regulate their behavior and for the female target to become sexually disinhibited were also influenced by the intoxication manipulation. [source]


    Domestic Sexual Assault: A New Opportunity for Court Response

    JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
    JUDITH BERMAN
    ABSTRACT Based on research conducted for the State Justice Institute, this article examines the invisibility of domestic sexual assault,also known as intimate partner sexual assault or spousal, wife, or marital rape,from the perspective of community and court responses to domestic violence and sexual assault. The article identifies the consequences of invisibility of domestic sexual assault, including the potential for lethality, and offers suggestions to courts for improving outcomes for victims and perpetrators. Areas explored include data collection and analysis, judicial leadership, and specialization in victim response systems, law enforcement and prosecution, court management, and offender intervention. [source]


    Emergency Department Medical Evidence Collection Following Sexual Assault

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
    Diana Strasburger MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American Women

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2010
    Thema Bryant-Davis
    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. [source]


    Family Characteristics and Traumatic Consequences Associated with the Duration and Frequency of Sexual Assault

    ASIAN SOCIAL WORK AND POLICY REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Adi Fahrudin
    The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between family characteristics and the trauma associated with the duration and frequency of sexual assault on child survivors in the state of Sabah, Malaysia. Eighty children who reported sexual assault through a one stop crisis centre in an urban hospital were studied. The main research instrument used was adapted from the trauma symptoms checklist for children. The results of the study show that there are significant differences between the symptoms of trauma of victims according to the frequency of sexual assault, but not according to its duration. Social workers need both to understand and to take note of the relationship of the variables of family characteristics, frequency of sexual assault and trauma effects on the victims in their intervention work with child sexual assault survivors who report having been abused. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of providing crisis intervention by social workers in Malaysia for child victims of sexual assault. [source]


    Validation Set Correlates of Anogenital Injury after Sexual Assault

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    Peter Drocton MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Forensic investigators remain unsure exactly why some sexual assault victims display acute injury while others do not. This investigation explores potential reasons for these differential findings among female victims. Methods:, This cross-sectional analysis examined data from consecutive female sexual assault victims, at least 12 years old, who agreed to a forensic exam between November 1, 2002, and November 30, 2006. Exams utilized colposcopy, anoscopy, macrodigital imaging, and toluidine blue dye to delineate anogenital injury (AGI), which was defined as the presence of recorded anogenital abrasions, tears, or ecchymosis. Demographic variables of the victim, including sexual experience and reproductive parity, and assault characteristics were recorded in the database for bivariate and multivariate analysis with AGI. Results:, Forty-nine percent of the initial 3,356 patients displayed AGI. Of this total, 2,879 cases included complete data for all variables and were included in the multivariate logistic regression model. A statistically significant increased risk for AGI was noted with: educational status (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% CI = 1.25 to 1.87); vaginal or attempted penetration using penis (OR 2.29, 95% CI = 1.74 to 3.01), finger (OR 1.61, 95% CI = 1.88 to 1.94), or object (OR 3.19, 95% CI = 1.52 to 6.68); anal,penile penetration (OR 2.00, 95% CI = 1.57 to 2.54); alcohol involvement (OR 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50); and virgin status of victim (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.71). Victims were less likely to display AGI with a longer postcoital interval (OR 0.50, 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.65) and increased parity (OR 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions:, Approximately half the patients displayed AGI. This rate is higher than earlier studies, but consistent with current investigations utilizing similar injury detection methods. The correlates of injury found reinforce the findings of prior studies, while prompting questions for future study. [source]


    Child Sexual Assault: Feminist Perspectives

    CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 3 2001
    209 pp. 45.00., Basingstoke, Joy Trotter (eds) Palgrave Publishing, Pat Cox, Sheila Kershaw
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Epidemiology of open- and closed-globe trauma presenting to Cairns Base Hospital, Queensland

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Andrew RE Smith MBBS MSc
    Abstract Purpose:, To review the epidemiology of serious ocular trauma presenting to Cairns Base Hospital, from the far north Queensland health districts. Methods:, A retrospective study of cases from January 1995 to November 2002 inclusive. Cases were analysed with respect to demographics, cause and nature of injury, method of transport and time to and type of ophthalmic treatment, and visual outcomes. Results:, There were 226 cases identified, including 71 open-globe and 155 closed-globe injuries. The annual rate of injury was 3.7 per 100 000 for open-globe and 11.8 per 100 000 in total. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population from the far north Queensland districts showed a disproportionate incidence, with 38% of the total number of injuries, despite representing only 12.3% of the population. Assault in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population resulted in 69.6% of injuries in men and 75.8% of injuries in women. Of all assaults 76.2% were alcohol-related. The majority (71.5%) of injuries in the Caucasian population were due to accidental blunt and sharp trauma. In total, 77.4% of injuries occurred in men, with an average age of 31 years. Of all open and closed injuries in the study, a final visual acuity of 6/12 or better was achieved in 47.8% of eyes and a final visual acuity of 6/60 or less occurred in 17.7% of patients, 20.8% patients were lost to follow up. In total, 14.1% of open injuries required enucleation/evisceration. Conclusions:, The incidence of ocular trauma in far north Queensland is equal to other Australian populations. However, there is a disproportionately high incidence in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Alcohol-related assault is a significant cause of visual loss in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Closed-globe injuries are more common than open globe; however, the latter have poorer visual prognosis. Initial visual acuity of all injuries correlated with final visual acuity. [source]


    Psychic Assaults and Frightened Clinicians: Countertransference in Forensic Settings

    JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 7 2009
    RICHARD LAKEMAN dipnsg bn ba (hons) pg dip (psychotherapy)
    [source]


    Psychic Assaults and Frightened Clinicians: Countertransference in Forensic Settings , Edited by John Gordon and Gabriel Kirtchuk

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 2 2009
    Anne ZacharyArticle first published online: 1 APR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Part III: Health Effects of Interpersonal Violence Among Women

    PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHIATRIC CARE, Issue 3 2006
    K. M. Hegadoren RN
    TOPIC.,The aim of this three-part series is to examine the sufficiency of the posttraumatic stress (PTSD) diagnostic construct to capture the full spectrum of human responses to psychological trauma. Part I (Lasiuk & Hegadoren, 2006a) reviewed the conceptual history of PTSD from the nineteenth century to its inclusion in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), while Part II (Lasiuk & Hegadoren, 2006b) described subsequent refinements to the original PTSD diagnostic criteria and highlighted subsequent controversies. PURPOSE.,This paper focuses on interpersonal violence (sexual, physical, and emotional abuse/assault) and its sequelae in women. We argue in support of Judith Herman's (1992) conceptualization of the human trauma response as a spectrum, anchored at one end by an acute stress reaction that resolves on its own without treatment, and on the other by "complex" PTSD, with "classic" or "simple" PTSD somewhere between the two. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.,The existing theoretical, clinical and research literatures related to humans responses to trauma. CONCLUSION.,The paper concludes with a call for the need to increase a gendered perspective in all aspects of trauma research and clinical service delivery. [source]


    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Part II: Development of the Construct Within the North American Psychiatric Taxonomy

    PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHIATRIC CARE, Issue 2 2006
    CMHPN (C), G. C. Lasiuk RN
    TOPIC.,The impairment associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) carries with it staggering costs to the individual, to the family, and to society as a whole. Although there is strong evidence that gender plays a significant role in responses to stress and trauma, gender specificity is still not well incorporated into clinical or research work in the area of PTSD. PURPOSE.,This is the second of three articles examining the sufficiency of the current PTSD construct to articulate the full spectrum of human responses to trauma. This article chronicles ongoing refinements to the original PTSD criteria and the subsequent controversies. SOURCE OF INFORMATION.,Existing bodies of theoretical and research literature related to the effects of trauma. CONCLUSION.,In a third article we will review evidence supporting the existence of a more complex posttraumatic stress reaction associated with interpersonal trauma (physical/sexual abuse/assault). [source]


    Characteristics of spousal homicide perpetrators: a study of all cases of spousal homicide in Sweden 1990,1999

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2004
    Professor Henrik Belfrage PhD
    Background In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. Method All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. Results There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42df = 1 , p < 0.001). Consequently, suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. ,Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. Discussion The group of spouse killers studied here fits the dysphoric/borderline group of spouse assaulters. This is a group that may benefit from treatment. Perhaps police officers could help identify this kind of spouse assaulter before a fatality occurs. Copyright 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    The targets of violence committed by young offenders with alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: findings from a birth cohort

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2002
    Louise Arseneault
    Background: Estimates of who is most at risk from violence by people with mental illness rest mainly on identified patient samples. This study, without such selection bias, examined the targets of violence committed by young adults with as-yet untreated alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, to determine the extent to which their victims were co-residents or non-household members. Methods: In a total birth cohort of 21-year-olds (n = 956), past-year prevalence of alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed using standardized DSM-III-R interviews. None of the people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder has been hospitalized in the past year. Past-year violence and victim targets were measured using self-reports. Results: Compared with controls, cohort members with substance dependence or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders had higher prevalence and frequency rates of assault against co-residents, against non-household members, and also robbery and gang fights. Out of 39, five individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder committed violent street crimes. Persons with substance dependence had similar proportions of violence against co-resident and non-household members, but persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders tended to victimize co-residents more than others. Conclusions: At the age when they are most likely to contribute to the community's violence burden, young untreated offenders with alcohol or marijuana dependence or with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders assault not only co-residents, but others as well, and commit violent street crimes. Families, schoolteachers and primary care physicians have an important potentially preventive role in early identification and treatment of the disorders. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Homicide, psychopathology, prosecutorial and jury discretion and the death penalty

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2000
    Chief, Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Richard M. Yarvis MD MPH Professor of Clinical Psychiatry
    Introduction The American preoccupation with the death penalty persists and, in fact, shows no sign of abatement. This is demonstrated not only by attitudinal measures but also by the quickening pace of executions. In California, homicide convictions can result in either 25-year-to-life, life-with-no-possibility-of-parole, or death sentences. The ultimate outcome in any given case is determined by a complex interaction of prosecutorial and jury decisions. Three vignettes illustrate how heinous crimes have been handled quite variably. Method A data set comprising 115 homicide cases was examined. To determine how murderers who qualify for the death penalty differed, if at all, from those who did not so qualify, 52 defendants who met the criteria for a death sentence were compared with 63 who did not. Criteria utilized and ignored by prosecutors in seeking the death penalty were analysed by comparing 39 cases in which death sentences could have been and were sought with 13 cases in which prosecutors chose to seek a lesser penalty instead. Finally, criteria utilized and ignored by juries to reach sentencing decisions were analysed by comparing 25 cases in which juries chose not to hand down death sentences with 14 cases in which they did render death verdicts. Results Special circumstance murderers did not differ significantly on personal variables from ordinary murderers. (1) Special circumstances were invariably charged when more than one criterion for this was present. Robbery and sexual assault usually provoked a special circumstances charge. Mitigating factors did not deter prosecutors from charging a special circumstance. (2) There was no excess of aggravating factors in individuals sentenced to death by juries, indeed there was a trend for the opposite to be the case, but there was a trend for mitigating factors to be commoner in those excused the death penalty. Conclusion It is not clear that the death penalty process in California carries out the legislature's intent but the US Supreme Court's 1976 mandate that mitigating and aggravating factors should provide discretion may be having a modest impact. Copyright 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSAULTS MOTIVATED BY BIAS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    STEVEN F. MESSNER
    This research examines the ways in which assaults motivated by bias are similar to and different from other types of assault. Analyses are based on data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), pooled across eleven states. We find evidence suggesting that offenders motivated by racial and ethnic bias are more likely to be versatile offenders than specialists: they are more (not less) likely to be using drugs and alcohol during the crime than conventional offenders. Bias offenders are also more likely to seriously injure the victim. Finally, we find that the risks of bias crime victimization (relative to the risk of assault victimization generally) are similar for blacks and other racial minorities. [source]


    WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR CRIME CONTROL PROGRAMS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    MARK A. COHEN
    This paper reports on a new methodology to estimate the "cost of crime." It is adapted from the contingent valuation method used in the environmental economics literature and is itself used to estimate the public's willingness to pay for crime control programs. In a nationally representative sample of 1,300 U.S. residents, we found that the typical household would be willing to pay between $100 and $150 per year for programs that reduced specific crimes by 10 percent in their communities. This willingness amounts, collectively, to approximately $25,000 per burglary, $70,000 per serious assault, $232,000 per armed [source]


    GENDER, STRUCTURAL DISADVANTAGE, AND URBAN CRIME: DO MACROSOCIAL VARIABLES ALSO EXPLAIN FEMALE OFFENDING RATES?,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    DARRELL STEFFENSMEIER
    Building on prior macrosocial-crime research that sought to explain either total crime rates or male rates, this study links female offending rates to structural characteristics of U.S. cities. Specifically, we go beyond previous research by: (1) gender disaggregating the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) index-crime rates (homicide, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft) across U.S. cities; (2) focusing explicitly on the effects of structural disadvantage variables on the index-offending rates of females; and (3) comparing the effects of the structural variables on female rates with those for male rates. Alternative measures of structural disadvantage are used to provide more theoretically appropriate indicators, such as gender-specific poverty and joblessness, and controls are included for age structure and structural variables related to offending. The main finding is consistent and powerful: The structural sources of high levels of female offending resemble closely those influencing male offending, but the effects tend to be stronger on male offending rates. [source]


    Risk factors and outcome in ambulatory assault victims presenting to the acute emergency department setting: Implications for secondary prevention studies in PTSD

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2004
    Peter P. Roy-Byrne M.D.
    Abstract Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma victims is an important public health goal. Planning for the studies required to validate prevention strategies requires identification of subjects at high risk and recruitment of unbiased samples that represent the larger high-risk population (difficult because of the avoidance of many trauma victims). This study recruited high-risk victims of interpersonal violence (sexual or physical assault) presenting to an urban emergency department for prospective 1- and 3-month follow-up. Of 546 victims who were approached about participating, only 56 agreed to be contacted and only 46 participated in either the 1- or 3-month interviews. Of the 46, 43 had been previously victimized with a mean of over six traumas in the group; 21% had prior PTSD, 85% had prior psychiatric illness, and 37% had prior substance abuse. Sixty-seven percent had positive urine for alcohol or drugs on presentation. Fifty-six percent developed PTSD at 1 or 3 months with the rate declining between 1 and 3 months. There was high use of medical and psychiatric services. These findings document both the difficulty of recruiting large samples of high-risk assault victims to participate in research, and the high rate of prior traumatization, PTSD, substance use, and psychiatric morbidity in these subjects which, if still active at the time of victimization, may complicate efforts to document preventive treatment effects. Depression and Anxiety 19:77,84, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The Impact of AIDS on Rural Households in Africa: A Shock Like Any Other?

    DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 4 2002
    Carolyn Baylies
    In areas where HIV prevalence is high, household production can be significantly affected and the integrity of households compromised. Yet policy responses to the impact of HIV/AIDS have been muted in comparison to outcomes of other shocks, such as drought or complex political emergencies. This article looks at the reasons for the apparent under,reaction to AIDS, using data from Zambia, and examines recent calls to mitigate the effects of AIDS at household level. Critical consideration is directed at proposals relating to community safety nets, micro,finance and the mainstreaming of AIDS within larger poverty alleviation programmes. It is argued that effective initiatives must attend to the specific features of AIDS, incorporating both an assault on those inequalities which drive the epidemic and sensitivity to the staging of AIDS both across and within households. A multi,pronged approach is advocated which is addressed not just at mitigation or prevention, but also at emergency relief, rehabilitation and development. [source]


    Conservation Biogeography: assessment and prospect

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 1 2005
    Robert J. Whittaker
    ABSTRACT There is general agreement among scientists that biodiversity is under assault on a global basis and that species are being lost at a greatly enhanced rate. This article examines the role played by biogeographical science in the emergence of conservation guidance and makes the case for the recognition of Conservation Biogeography as a key subfield of conservation biology delimited as: the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses, being those concerned with the distributional dynamics of taxa individually and collectively, to problems concerning the conservation of biodiversity. Conservation biogeography thus encompasses both a substantial body of theory and analysis, and some of the most prominent planning frameworks used in conservation. Considerable advances in conservation guidelines have been made over the last few decades by applying biogeographical methods and principles. Herein we provide a critical review focussed on the sensitivity to assumptions inherent in the applications we examine. In particular, we focus on four inter-related factors: (i) scale dependency (both spatial and temporal); (ii) inadequacies in taxonomic and distributional data (the so-called Linnean and Wallacean shortfalls); (iii) effects of model structure and parameterisation; and (iv) inadequacies of theory. These generic problems are illustrated by reference to studies ranging from the application of historical biogeography, through island biogeography, and complementarity analyses to bioclimatic envelope modelling. There is a great deal of uncertainty inherent in predictive analyses in conservation biogeography and this area in particular presents considerable challenges. Protected area planning frameworks and their resulting map outputs are amongst the most powerful and influential applications within conservation biogeography, and at the global scale are characterised by the production, by a small number of prominent NGOs, of bespoke schemes, which serve both to mobilise funds and channel efforts in a highly targeted fashion. We provide a simple typology of protected area planning frameworks, with particular reference to the global scale, and provide a brief critique of some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we discuss the importance, especially at regional scales, of developing more responsive analyses and models that integrate pattern (the compositionalist approach) and processes (the functionalist approach) such as range collapse and climate change, again noting the sensitivity of outcomes to starting assumptions. We make the case for the greater engagement of the biogeographical community in a programme of evaluation and refinement of all such schemes to test their robustness and their sensitivity to alternative conservation priorities and goals. [source]


    Assessing human germ-cell mutagenesis in the Postgenome Era: A celebration of the legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell,

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 2 2007
    Andrew J. Wyrobek
    Abstract Birth defects, de novo genetic diseases, and chromosomal abnormality syndromes occur in ,5% of all live births, and affected children suffer from a broad range of lifelong health consequences. Despite the social and medical impact of these defects, and the 8 decades of research in animal systems that have identified numerous germ-cell mutagens, no human germ-cell mutagen has been confirmed to date. There is now a growing consensus that the inability to detect human germ-cell mutagens is due to technological limitations in the detection of random mutations rather than biological differences between animal and human susceptibility. A multidisciplinary workshop responding to this challenge convened at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the applicability of an emerging repertoire of genomic technologies to studies of human germ-cell mutagenesis. Workshop participants recommended large-scale human germ-cell mutation studies be conducted using samples from donors with high-dose exposures, such as cancer survivors. Within this high-risk cohort, parents and children could be evaluated for heritable changes in (a) DNA sequence and chromosomal structure, (b) repeat sequences and minisatellites, and (c) global gene expression profiles and pathways. Participants also advocated the establishment of a bio-bank of human tissue samples from donors with well-characterized exposure, including medical and reproductive histories. This mutational resource could support large-scale, multiple-endpoint studies. Additional studies could involve the examination of transgenerational effects associated with changes in imprinting and methylation patterns, nucleotide repeats, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. The further development of animal models and the integration of these with human studies are necessary to provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of germ-cell mutations and to identify prevention strategies. Furthermore, scientific specialty groups should be convened to review and prioritize the evidence for germ-cell mutagenicity from common environmental, occupational, medical, and lifestyle exposures. Workshop attendees agreed on the need for a full-scale assault to address key fundamental questions in human germ-cell environmental mutagenesis. These include, but are not limited to, the following: Do human germ-cell mutagens exist? What are the risks to future generations? Are some parents at higher risk than others for acquiring and transmitting germ-cell mutations? Obtaining answers to these, and other critical questions, will require strong support from relevant funding agencies, in addition to the engagement of scientists outside the fields of genomics and germ-cell mutagenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Adolescent Foley Catheter Technique for Visualizing Hymenal Injuries in Adolescent Sexual Assault

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2003
    Jeffrey S. Jones MD
    Abstract Objectives: To determine the usefulness of the Foley catheter balloon technique for visualizing injuries of the estrogenized hymen in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. Methods: A prospective clinical trial of 20 adolescent (age 13,16 years old) victims of sexual assault evaluated at a free-standing Nurse Examiner Clinic was conducted over a four-month study period. The clinic, affiliated with an emergency medicine residency program, is staffed by registered nurses who have been specially trained to perform medicolegal examinations using colposcopy with digital imaging. The Foley catheter technique uses an inflated balloon in the distal vaginal vault to expand the estrogenized hymen to its full capacity so that the edge may be readily visualized for signs of trauma. The Foley technique was compared with gross inspection, using supine labial traction, to photodocument hymenal abnormalities. Photographs of the hymen were obtained using the labial traction technique and then with the Foley technique. Three emergency physicians independently examined each pair of photographs with high interrater agreement for the presence of injury (,= 0.88). Results: Twenty adolescent sexual assault victims volunteered for the study; mean age was 14.8 years. Gross inspection of the hymen using supine labial traction identified hymenal injuries in three patients (15%). Use of the Foley catheter balloon technique allowed identification of hymenal abnormalities in nine additional cases (60%). The common injuries to the hymen included lacerations (30%), followed by ecchymosis and abrasions. One patient (5%) voiced discomfort (mild pressure sensation) during inflation of the balloon. Conclusions: The Foley catheter balloon technique is a simple method allowing improved photodocumentation of hymenal trauma in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. [source]


    Comparative Analysis of Adult versus Adolescent Sexual Assault: Epidemiology and Patterns of Anogenital Injury

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 8 2003
    Jeffrey S. Jones MD
    Abstract Objectives: To compare the characteristics of sexual assault in pubertal girls (<18 years old) and adults in a community-based population of women presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic. Methods: This case-series analysis evaluated consecutive female patients presenting to a sexual assault clinic during a three-year study period. The clinic is associated with a university-affiliated emergency medicine residency program and is staffed by forensic nurses trained to perform medicolegal examinations using colposcopy with nuclear staining. Patient demographics, assault characteristics, and injury patterns were recorded using a standardized classification system. Data from the two patient groups (adolescents vs. women ,18 years of age) were analyzed using chi-square test and t-test. Results: A total of 766 cases were identified: 43% of the victims were 13 to 17 years old (mean 15.0 years old), and 57% were older than 17 years old (mean 30.8 years old). Adolescents were more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance or relative (84% vs. 50%, p < 0.001) and to delay medical evaluation (17 hours vs. 12 hours, p < 0.001) than were older women. Adolescent sexual assault was less likely to involve weapons or physical coercion (29% versus 57%, p < 0.001) and was associated with fewer nongenital injuries (33% vs. 55%, p < 0.001). Adolescents had a greater frequency of anogenital injuries (83% vs. 64%, p < 0.001), however, compared with older women. Common sites of injury in adolescents were posterior, including the fossa navicularis, hymen, fourchette, and labia minora. The injuries showed consistent topologic features, varying with the site and nature of tissue. Adult victims of sexual assault had a less consistent pattern of anogenital injuries with fewer hymenal injuries, greater injury to the perianal area, and widespread erythema. Conclusions: Of women presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic, 43% were adolescents. The epidemiology of sexual trauma and the pattern of anogenital trauma in this age group are unique and may pose special challenges to emergency health care providers. [source]


    Strategies for optimizing targeting and delivery of mucosal HIV vaccines

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    Jeffrey D. Ahlers
    Abstract Effective frontline defenses against HIV-1 will require targeting vaccines to mucosal tissue in order to induce ,, CD8+ lymphocytes in mucosal effector sites (lamina propria and intraepithelial compartment) as well as antibody secreting plasma cells that can neutralize and limit free virus. A concerted second wave of assault against the virus will require the activation and recruitment of antigen specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and distal secondary lymphoid organs. New delivery strategies targeting the "right" DC subsets in combination with delivery of mucosal adjuvants and innate signals for activating DC will be essential for mucosal vaccines in order to circumvent the naturally tolerogenic environment and the induction of Tregs. Mucosal delivery of antigen in combination with inflammatory signals has been shown to empower systemic immunization by directing responses to mucosal sites for imprinting optimum mucosal memory. Here, we discuss novel vaccine strategies and adjuvants for optimizing mucosal delivery of HIV vaccines. [source]