Aspartate Transferase (aspartate + transferase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fulminant liver failure from acute autochthonous hepatitis E in France: description of seven patients with acute hepatitis E and encephalopathy

J. M. Péron
Summary., Fulminant hepatitis E has not been well characterized in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to prospectively describe patients with acute hepatitis E presenting as fulminant hepatic failure, i.e. with encephalopathy and prothrombin index <50%. Between February 1997 and April 2005, seven patients with encephalopathy were diagnosed with acute hepatitis E using viral RNA detection. These patients were compared with 33 patients diagnosed with a mild form (absence of encephalopathy) of acute hepatitis E during the same time period. Patients were 65 ± 11 years old. Five were active drinkers and six had chronic liver disease. All hepatitis E virus sequences evaluated (5/7) were of genotype 3. All patients but two died (71%). Four patients had no travel history. When compared with patients with a mild form of acute hepatitis E, active alcohol abuse and chronic liver disease were more frequent in patients with the severe form. Duration of hospitalization was longer. Aspartate transferase and bilirubin levels were significantly higher. Prothrombin index and accelerin levels were lower and death was more frequent. Acute nontravel-associated hepatitis E can appear as fulminant hepatitis with encephalopathy and coagulation disorders. Prognosis is severe and this may be due to the age at which it occurs and frequent underlying chronic liver disease. [source]

Single dose intravenous thioacetamide administration as a model of acute liver damage in rats

Tse-Min Chen
Summary Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used extensively in the development of animal models of acute liver injury. Frequently, TAA is administered intraperitoneally to induce liver damage under anaesthesia. However, it is rarely administered by intravenous injection in conscious rats. The experiments in this study were designed to induce acute liver damage by single intravenous injection of TAA (0, 70 and 280 mg/kg) in unrestrained rats. Biochemical parameters and cytokines measured during the 60-h period following TAA administration, included white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobulin (Hb), platelet, aspartate transferase (GOT), alanine transferase (GPT), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBI), albumin, ammonia (NH3), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (r-GT), tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 60 h after TAA administration and livers were removed immediately for pathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Another group of rats were sacrificed by decapitation 1, 6 and 24 h after TAA administration and livers were removed immediately for time course change of pathology and IHC examination. TAA significantly increased blood WBC, GOT, GPT, TBIL, DBIL, NH3, r-GT, TNF-, and IL-6 levels but decreased the blood Hb, platelet and albumin level. The levels of histopathological damage in the liver after intravenous TAA administration were also increased with a dose-dependent trend and more increased at 60 h after TAA administration. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) detected by IHC in the liver after intravenous TAA administration were also increased with a dose-dependent trend and more increased at 1 h after TAA administration. Single intravenous TAA administration without anaesthesia is a restorable animal model which may be used to investigate acute liver damage. [source]

Retrospective Study: Surgical intervention in the management of severe acute pancreatitis in cats: 8 cases (2003,2007)

Tolina T. Son DVM
Abstract Objective , To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cats undergoing surgical intervention in the course of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis. Design , Retrospective observational study from 2003 to 2007 with a median follow-up period of 2.2 years (range 11 d,5.4 y) postoperatively. Setting , Private referral veterinary center. Animals , Eight cats. Interventions , None. Measurements and Main Results , Quantitative data included preoperative physical and clinicopathologic values. Qualitative parameters included preoperative ultrasonographic interpretation, perioperative and intraoperative feeding tube placement, presence of free abdominal fluid, intraoperative closed suction abdominal drain placement, postoperative complications, microbiological culture, and histopathology. Common presenting clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Leukocytosis and hyponatremia were present in 5 of 8 cats. Hypokalemia, increased total bilirubin, and hyperglycemia were present in 6 of 8 cats. Elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transferase were present in all cats. Surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction was performed in 6 cats, pancreatic abscess in 3 cats, and pancreatic necrosis in 1 cat. Six of the 8 cats survived. Five of the 6 cats that underwent surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction and 1 cat that underwent pancreatic necrosectomy survived. All 5 of the cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis survived. The 2 nonsurvivors included a cat with a pancreatic abscess and a cat with severe pancreatitis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to a mass at the gastroduodenal junction. Postoperative complications included progression of diabetes mellitus, septic peritonitis, local gastrostomy tube stoma inflammation, local gastrostomy tube stoma infection, and mild dermal suture reaction. Conclusion , Cats with severe acute pancreatitis and concomitant extrahepatic biliary obstruction, pancreatic necrosis, or pancreatic abscesses may benefit from surgical intervention. Cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to severe acute pancreatitis may have a good prognosis. [source]

Analysis of risk-factors among patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection: severity criteria revisited

O. Ergonul
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of mortality among patients infected with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Among patients with acute febrile syndrome, characterised by malaise, bleeding, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, who were admitted to hospital during the spring and summer of 2002,2004, 54 had positive IgM and/or PCR results for CCHF virus in blood or tissue. The overall case fatality rate was 7.4%. Among the fatalities, haematemesis (p 0.009), melaena (p 0.001) and somnolence (p 0.022) were more common, the median platelet count was significantly lower (10 600/mL vs. 20 000/mL; p 0.038), the mean prothrombin time (27 s vs. 16 s; p 0.002) and mean activated partial thromboplastin time (73 s vs. 44 s; p < 0.001) were longer, and the mean alanine transferase (ALT) level (1125 vs. 331; p < 0.001), the mean aspartate transferase (AST) level (3118 vs. 913; p 0.004) and the mean fibrinogen level (119 vs. 340; p 0.012) were higher. Serum IgM and IgG against CCHF virus was detected in 25% and 0%, respectively, of fatal cases, compared with 94% and 62%, respectively, of cases with favourable outcomes. Oral ribavirin was prescribed to 22 (41%) patients. Of the four fatal cases, it was the intention to prescribe ribavirin to three patients, but this was not possible because of haematemesis and melaena. Higher levels of AST (, 700 U/L) and ALT (, 900 U/L) are suggested for use as severity criteria. Oral ribavirin was not effective for patients with haematemesis, and intravenous ribavirin is necessary for treatment of CCHF. [source]