Aspartate Residues (aspartate + residue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Molecular determinants of ligand specificity in family 11 carbohydrate binding modules , an NMR, X-ray crystallography and computational chemistry approach

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2008
Aldino Viegas
The direct conversion of plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugars is one of the most important reactions on earth, and is performed by certain microorganisms such as Clostridium thermocellum (Ct). These organisms produce extracellular multi-subunit complexes (i.e. cellulosomes) comprising a consortium of enzymes, which contain noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) that increase the activity of the catalytic module. In the present study, we describe a combined approach by X-ray crystallography, NMR and computational chemistry that aimed to gain further insight into the binding mode of different carbohydrates (cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellohexaose) to the binding pocket of the family 11 CBM. The crystal structure of C. thermocellum CBM11 has been resolved to 1.98 Å in the apo form. Since the structure with a bound substrate could not be obtained, computational studies with cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellohexaose were carried out to determine the molecular recognition of glucose polymers by CtCBM11. These studies revealed a specificity area at the CtCBM11 binding cleft, which is lined with several aspartate residues. In addition, a cluster of aromatic residues was found to be important for guiding and packing of the polysaccharide. The binding cleft of CtCBM11 interacts more strongly with the central glucose units of cellotetraose and cellohexaose, mainly through interactions with the sugar units at positions 2 and 6. This model of binding is supported by saturation transfer difference NMR experiments and linebroadening NMR studies. [source]

Characterization of a eukaryotic type serine/threonine protein kinase and protein phosphatase of Streptococcus pneumoniae and identification of kinase substrates

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
Linda Nováková
Searching the genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed the presence of a single Ser/Thr protein kinase gene stkP linked to protein phosphatase phpP. Biochemical studies performed with recombinant StkP suggest that this protein is a functional eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr protein kinase. In vitro kinase assays and Western blots of S. pneumoniae subcellular fractions revealed that StkP is a membrane protein. PhpP is a soluble protein with manganese-dependent phosphatase activity in vitro against a synthetic substrate RRA(pT)VA. Mutations in the invariant aspartate residues implicated in the metal binding completely abolished PhpP activity. Autophosphorylated form of StkP was shown to be a substrate for PhpP. These results suggest that StkP and PhpP could operate as a functional pair in vivo. Analysis of phosphoproteome maps of both wild-type and stkP null mutant strains labeled in vivo and subsequent phosphoprotein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting revealed two possible substrates for StkP. The evidence is presented that StkP can phosphorylate in vitro phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of UDP- N -acetylglucosamine, an essential common precursor to cell envelope components. [source]

Synthesis of heterotrimeric collagen peptides containing the ,1,1 integrin recognition site of collagen type IV

Barbara Saccá
Abstract Collagen type IV provides a biomechanically stable scaffold into which the other constituents of basement membranes are incorporated, but it also plays an important role in cell adhesion. This occurs with collagen type IV mainly via the ,1,1 integrin, and the proposed epitope involved in this type of collagen/integrin interaction corresponds to a non-sequential R/Xaa/D motif, where the arginine and aspartate residues are provided by the ,2 and ,1 chains of the collagen molecule, respectively. Since the stagger of the three , chains in native collagen type IV is still unknown and different alignments of the chains lead to different spatial epitopes, two heterotrimeric collagen peptides containing the natural 457,469 sequences of the cell adhesion site were synthesized in which the single chains were assembled via disulfide bonds into the two most plausible ,1,2,1, and ,2,1,1, registers. The differentiated triple-helical stabilities of the two heterotrimers suggest a significant structural role of the chain register in collagen, although the binding to ,1,1 integrin is apparently less affected as indicated by preliminary experiments. Copyright © 2002 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

FrzZ, a dual CheY-like response regulator, functions as an output for the Frz chemosensory pathway of Myxococcus xanthus

Yuki F. Inclán
Summary Myxococcus xanthus utilizes two distinct motility systems for movement (gliding) on solid surfaces: adventurous motility (A-motility) and social motility (S-motility). Both systems are regulated by the Frz signal transduction pathway, which controls cell reversals required for directed motility and fruiting body formation. The Frz chemosensory system, unlike the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system, contains proteins with multiple response regulator domains: FrzE, a CheA,CheY hybrid protein, and FrzZ, a CheY,CheY hybrid protein. Previously, the CheY domain of FrzE was hypothesized to act as the response regulator output of the Frz system. In this study, using a genetic suppressor screen, we identified FrzZ and showed FrzZ is epistatic to FrzE, demonstrating that FrzZ is the principal output component of the pathway. We constructed M. xanthus point mutations in the phosphoaccepting aspartate residues of FrzZ and demonstrated the respective roles of these residues in group and single cell motility. We also performed in vitro assays and showed rapid phosphotransfer between the CheA domain of FrzE and each of the CheY domains of FrzZ. These experiments showed that FrzZ plays a direct role as an output of the Frz chemosensory pathway and that both CheY domains of FrzZ are functional. [source]

Structure of the Fab fragment from F124, a monoclonal antibody specific for hepatitis B surface antigen

F. A. Saul
The crystal structure of the Fab fragment from the monoclonal anti-preS2 antibody F124 (IgG1,,) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 3.0,Å resolution. The Fab crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. F124 recognizes an epitope contained within the preS2 segment between residues 120 and 132 of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. The antibody shows a high affinity for the glycan N-linked to Asn123, but it also cross-reacts with the non-glycosylated peptide fragment 120,132. Although crystallization was performed in the presence of an eightfold excess of the cross-reactive peptide, no evidence for the ligand was found in the antigen-binding site, which is close to a neighbouring molecule in the crystal lattice. The antigen-binding site has a groove-like topology which is modulated with pocket-like cavities. It is characterized by a large number of tyrosine and aspartate residues. The importance of germ-line mutations at the binding site is discussed. [source]

Preliminary neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin cocrystallized with a gem -diol inhibitor

Han-Fang Tuan
Endothiapepsin has been cocrystallized with the gem -diol inhibitor PD-135,040 in a low solvent-content (39%) unit cell, which is unprecedented for this enzyme,inhibitor complex and enables ultrahigh-resolution (1.0,Å) X-ray diffraction data to be collected. This atomic resolution X-ray data set will be used to deduce the protonation states of the catalytic aspartate residues. A room-temperature neutron data set has also been collected for joint refinement with a room-temperature X-ray data set in order to locate the H/D atoms at the active site. [source]

Mutation of conserved aspartates affect maturation of presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 complexes

G. Yu
Presenilin (PS1 and PS2) holoproteins are transiently incorporated into low molecular weight (MW) complexes. During subsequent incorporation into a higher MW complex, they undergo endoproteolysis to generate stable N- and C-terminal fragments (NTF/CTF). Mutation of either of two conserved aspartate residues in transmembrane domains inhibits both presenilin-endoproteolysis and the proteolytic processing of APP and Notch. We show that aspartate-mutant holoprotein presenilins are not incorporated into the high molecular weight, NTF/CTF-containing complexes. Aspartate-mutant presenilin holoproteins also preclude entry of endogenous wild-type PS1/PS2 into the high molecular weight complexes, but do not affect the incorporation of wild-type holoproteins into lower molecular weight holoprotein complexes. These data suggest that the loss-of-function aspartate-mutants cause altered PS complex maturation, and argue that the functional presenilin moieties are contained in the high molecular weight presenilin NTF/CTF-containing complexes. [source]