Aspartate Aminotransferase Levels (aspartate + aminotransferase_level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Spontaneous tumour rupture and prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

C.-N. Yeh
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disease in Taiwan. Ruptured HCC is an uncommon and potentially fatal complication of the condition. Information on the impact of ruptured HCC on hepatic resection is, however, limited. Methods: The clinical features of 60 patients with ruptured HCC who underwent hepatic resection from 1986 to 1998 were reviewed. Clinical features and factors influencing the outcome of 475 patients with non-ruptured HCC were used for comparison. Results: Of 535 surgically resected HCCs, 60 (11·2 per cent) were ruptured. Univariate analysis showed that sudden onset of abdominal pain, physical signs of haemodynamic unstability, reduced haemoglobin level and a raised aspartate aminotransferase level were more frequently found in patients with ruptured HCC than in those with non-ruptured tumours. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed sudden-onset abdominal pain to be the only independently significant factor in patients in the ruptured HCC group. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients with non-ruptured HCC were 72·1, 47·3 and 33·9 per cent, and those of patients with ruptured HCC were 54·2, 35·0 and 21·2 per cent respectively. Similar overall survival rates were found in patients with ruptured and non-ruptured HCC, although patients in the non-ruptured HCC group had a significantly better disease-free survival rate (P = 0·023). Conclusion: The presence of sudden-onset abdominal pain is the only independent indicator of ruptured HCC. Hepatic resection, when feasible, is the treatment of choice and can result in an overall survival rate comparable to that of patients with non-ruptured HCC. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

Assessing the antifungal activity and toxicity profile of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC; Abelcet®) in combination with caspofungin in experimental systemic aspergillosis

Olena Sivak
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity and renal and hepatic toxicity of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC; Abelcet®) following co-administration of Caspofungin to rats infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. Aspergillus fumigatus inoculum (1.3,2.3,×,107 colony forming units [CFU]) was injected via the jugular vein; 48 h later male albino Sprague,Dawley rats (350,400 g) were administered either a single intravenous (IV) dose of Fungizone® (1 mg AmpB/kg), ABLC (1 or 5 mg AmpB/kg), or an equivalent volume of normal saline (NS) (vehicle control) once daily for 4 days. Rats were further randomized into groups to receive 3 mg/kg Caspofungin or physiologic saline IV once daily for 4 days. To assess antifungal activity, brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney sections were homogenized with NS (2 mL; 1 g of each tissue/mL) and a 0.1-mL aliquot was spread plated onto a Sabouraud dextrose agar plate. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C, at which time the numbers of CFU were determined and corrected for tissue weight. To assess renal and hepatic toxicity, serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase levels were determined. Fungizone and ABLC at a dosing regimen of 1 mg/kg i.v. once daily for four consecutive days and Caspofungin at a dosing regimen of 3 mg/kg i.v. once daily for four consecutive days had similar effectiveness in decreasing the total number of Aspergillus fumigatus CFUs found in all organs analyzed compared to non-treated controls. A combination of ABLC (1 mg/kg i.v.,×,4 days) and Caspofungin (3 mg/kg i.v.,×,4 days) significantly decreased the total number of Aspergillus fumigatus CFUs found in all organs analyzed compared to Caspofungin alone and non-treated controls. ABLC at a dosing regiment of 5 mg/kg i.v. once daily for four consecutive days was more effective in decreasing the total number of Aspergillus fumigatus CFUs found in all organs analyzed compared to Fungizone or ABLC alone at 1 mg/kg and Caspofungin alone at 3 mg/kg. However, a combination of ABLC (5 mg/kg i.v.,×,4 days) and Caspofungin (3 mg/kg i.v.,×,4 days) was not more effective than ABLC at 5 mg/kg or the combination of ABLC at 1 mg/kg and Caspofungin 3 mg/kg in reducing the total number of Aspergillus fumigatus CFUs compared to controls. Except for non-treated infected control rats, none of the treatment groups tested displayed a greater than 50% increase in serum creatinine concentrations from baseline. In addition, only ABLC at a dosing regimen of 1 mg/kg i.v. once daily for four consecutive days displayed a greater than 50% increase in AST concentration from baseline. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABLC at 5 mg/kg once daily,×,4 days appears to be the best therapeutic choice in this animal model. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1382,1389, 2004 [source]

Effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on oxidative stress in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Saburo Yoshioka
Abstract Objectives Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with the deposition of lipid droplets in the liver, and is characterised histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocellular degeneration and liver fibrosis. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the onset and deterioration of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We previously reported that an Eriobotrya japonica seed extract, extracted in 70% ethanol, exhibited antioxidant actions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of this extract in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods The seed extract was given in the drinking water to fats being fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Key findings Increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly inhibited in rats fed the seed extract compared with the group on the diet alone. Formation of fatty droplets in the liver was also inhibited. Antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue was higher than in the diet-only group and lipid peroxidation was reduced compared with rats that also received the extract. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2,-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was lower in the rats given the seed extract than in the diet-only group. In the former, liver tissue levels of transforming growth factor-, and collagen were also decreased. Conclusions Thus, the E. japonica seed extract inhibited fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. [source]

Synergistic association between alcohol intake and body mass index with serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study

Summary Background The association between body-mass-index (BMI), alcohol consumption and their joint effect in increasing the risk of elevated serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) is unclear in older community-dwelling adults. Aim To determine the association between alcohol, BMI, and their combined effect with serum ALT and AST in older community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study in participants (n = 2364) from the Rancho Bernardo Study (54% women; mean age: 70 years, BMI: 25 kg/m2, alcohol users: 63%) who attended a research visit in 1984,87. BMI was recorded by a trained nurse and alcohol use ascertained by a validated questionnaire. Odds-ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of elevated serum ALT and AST (defined as ,30 U/L in men and ,19 U/L in women) were calculated for alcohol and BMI separately and their joint exposure using logistic regression models. Results In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, alcohol use, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus, obesity independently increased the odds of elevated ALT in this cohort of older men and women by 3.0 (95% CI, 1.7,5.3) and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1,2.7) respectively. Joint effects of consuming >3 alcoholic drinks/day and obesity raised the odds of elevated ALT by 8.9 (95% CI, 2.4,33.1) and AST by 21-fold (95% CI, 2.6,170.1), demonstrating synergism. Obese participants had higher odds of elevated ALT even at 0 , 1 drink/day. Conclusions In older men and women, the combination of obesity with alcohol is synergistic in increasing the risk of liver injury. [source]

Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in viral hepatitis

N. Aslan
Summary., CD4+ T cells are thought to contribute to antiviral immune responses by secretion of cytokines thereby providing help to CD8+ T and B cells. However, perforin-positive cytotoxic CD4+ T cells have been described in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients suggesting a role not only of CD8+ but also of CD4+ T cells for killing virus-infected cells. We investigated 76 patients with viral hepatitis [15 hepatitis B virus (HBV), 22 HBV/hepatitis D virus and 17 hepatitis C virus (HCV)] for cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. The frequency of perforin-positive CD4+ T cells in viral hepatitis was highly variable ranging from <1% to more than 25%. Perforin-positive CD4+ T cells displayed the phenotype of terminally differentiated effector cells (CD28,, CD27,). The highest frequencies of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were found in patients with delta hepatitis (P = 0.04 vs HBV and HCV patients), and the presence of CD4+ CTLs was associated with elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.01) and decreased platelet counts (P = 0.03). Perforin-positive CD4+ T cells decreased in two individuals during spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C. Significant associations were found between the frequency of perforin-expressing CD4+ cells and age (P = 0.04), perforin-positive CD8+ cells (P < 0.001) and perforin-positive CD4,/CD8, lymphoid cells (P = 0.002). Differentiated CD27, effector CD4+ CTLs can be detected in patients with viral hepatitis. In particular in patients with more advanced liver disease, the accumulation of perforin-positive T cells with age could be one correlate for the more severe course of viral hepatitis in elderly individuals. [source]