Ash Layers (ash + layer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Australasian microtektites and associated impact ejecta in the South China Sea and the Middle Pleistocene supereruption of Toba

Billy P. Glass
Unmelted ejecta were found associated with the microtektites at this site and with Australasian microtektites in Core SO95,17957,2 and ODP Hole 1144A from the central and northern part of the South China Sea, respectively. A few opaque, irregular, rounded, partly melted particles containing highly fractured mineral inclusions (generally quartz and some K feldspar) and some partially melted mineral grains, in a glassy matrix were also found in the microtektite layer. The unmelted ejecta at all three sites include abundant white, opaque grains consisting of mixtures of quartz, coesite, and stishovite, and abundant rock fragments which also contain coesite and, rarely, stishovite. This is the first time that shock-metamorphosed rock fragments have been found in the Australasian microtektite layer. The rock fragments have major and trace element contents similar to the Australasian microtektites and tektites, except for higher volatile element contents. Assuming that the Australasian tektites and microtektites were formed from the same target material as the rock fragments, the parent material for the Australasian tektites and microtektites appears to have been a fine-grained sedimentary deposit. Hole 1144A has the highest abundance of microtektites (number/cm2) of any known Australasian microtektite-bearing site and may be closer to the source crater than any previously identified Australasian microtektite-bearing site. A source crater in the vicinity of 22° N and 104° E seems to explain geographic variations in abundance of both the microtektites and the unmelted ejecta the best; however, a region extending NW into southern China and SE into the Gulf of Tonkin explains the geographic variation in abundance of microtektites and unmelted ejecta almost as well. The size of the source crater is estimated to be 43 ± 9 km based on estimated thickness of the ejecta layer at each site and distance from the proposed source. A volcanic ash layer occurs just above the Australasian microtektite layer, which some authors suggest is from a supereruption of the Toba caldera complex. We estimate that deposition of the ash occurred ,800 ka ago and that it is spread over an area of at least 3.7 times 107 km2. [source]

Tyatya Volcano, southwestern Kuril arc: Recent eruptive activity inferred from widespread tephra

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2002
Abstract Tyatya Volcano, situated in Kunashir Island at the southwestern end of Kuril Islands, is a large composite stratovolcano and one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril arc. The volcanic edifice can be divided into the old and the young ones, which are composed of rocks of distinct magma types, low- and medium-K series, respectively. The young volcano has a summit caldera with a central cone. Recent eruptions have occurred at the central cone and at the flank vents of the young volcano. We found several distal ash layers at the volcano and identified their ages and sources, that is, tephras of ad 1856, ad 1739, ad 1694 and ca 1 Ka derived from three volcanoes of Hokkaido, Japan, and caad 969 from Baitoushan Volcano of China/North Korea. These could provide good time markers to reveal the eruptive history of the central cone, which had continued intermittently with Strombolian eruptions and lava flow effusions since before 1 Ka. Relatively explosive eruptions have occurred three times at the cone during the past 1000 years. We revealed that, topographically, the youngest lava flows from the cone are covered not by the tephra of ad 1739 but by that of ad 1856. This evidence, together with a report of dense smoke rising from the summit in ad 1812, suggests that the latest major eruption with lava effusion from the central cone occurred in this year. In 1973, after a long period of dormancy, short-lived phreatomagmatic eruptions began to occur from fissure vents at the northern flank of the young volcano. This was followed by large eruptions of Strombolian to sub-Plinian types occurring from several craters at the southern flank. The 1973 activity is evaluated as Volcanic Explosivity Index = 4 (approximately 0.2 km3), the largest eruption during the 20th century in the southwestern Kuril arc. The rocks of the central cone are strongly porphyritic basalt and basaltic andesite, whereas the 1973 scoria is aphyric basalt, suggesting that magma feeding systems are definitely different between the summit and flank eruptions. [source]

Volcanic ash layers from the Last Glacial Termination in the NGRIP ice core,

Anette K. Mortensen
Abstract The tephrochronological record of the 1400,1640,m depth (,10,000,16,000 calendar ice core years before present) of the NGRIP ice core has been established by particle screening of selected samples. Ash was identified in 20 samples. Correlation with ice, marine and terrestrial records from volcanic source regions in the northern hemisphere positively identifies the Saksunarvatn Ash and the Vedde Ash (Ash Zone 1). Major element chemistry of the remaining identified ash layers mainly points towards an Icelandic origin. This tephrochronological record provides new important marker horizons for correlating the timing of the climatic changes associated with the Last Glacial Termination within the North Atlantic region, as well as outlining more details concerning the frequency and composition of volcanic eruptions occurring at this deglaciation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Linking the North Atlantic to central Europe: a high-resolution Holocene tephrochronological record from northern Germany

Christel van den Bogaard
Abstract A high-resolution Holocene tephrochronology for northern Germany has been established based on systematic tephrostratigraphical analysis of three peat bogs. Microscopic volcanic ash layers have been traced and characterised petrographically and by the chemical composition of the glass shards. At least 37 ash horizons representing 16 different explosive volcanic eruptions have been identified and many can be correlated between the three sites, up to 100 km apart. The tephra layers can be related to Icelandic volcanic sources and some correlated to the eruptions of Askja 1875, Hekla 3, Hekla Selsund, Hekla 4 and Hekla 5, as well as to unspecified eruptions of Icelandic volcanic systems, e.g. Torfajökull. The source volcanoes for some tephra layers remain unidentified. Some tephra layers were known previously from the North Atlantic region (e.g. Sluggan, Glen Garry), others have not been recorded previously in the literature (e.g. microlite tephra). This study provides the first comprehensive Holocene tephrostratigraphical record for northern Germany, complementing the North Atlantic tephrostratigraphical dating framework, effectively extending it into central Europe. The study shows that Icelandic ash layers are even more widespread than hitherto thought. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Integrated Telychian (Silurian) K-bentonite chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy in Estonia and Latvia

LETHAIA, Issue 1 2010
Kiipli, T., Kallaste, T., Nestor, V. & Loydell, D.K. 2010: Integrated Telychian (Silurian) K-bentonite chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy in Estonia and Latvia. Lethaia, Vol. 43, pp. 32,44. The distribution of altered volcanic ash layers (K-bentonites) and Telychian chitinozoans in four East Baltic drill core sections are compared. This information is integrated with graptolite and conodont biozonations to give a precise correlation chart using four different stratigraphical tools: K-bentonite-based chemostratigraphy; chitinozoan biostratigraphy; graptolite biostratigraphy; and, conodont biostratigraphy. Thickness variations in the K-bentonites suggest that the source of the volcanic ash was to the west and north-west. [source]