Aseptic Technique (aseptic + technique)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Central venous access devices for paediatric patients with haemophilia: a single-institution experience

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2009
Summary., Use of a central venous access device (CVAD) can facilitate early introduction of home-based infusion of factor concentrate for long-term prophylaxis or immune tolerance therapy in children with bleeding disorders. The aim was to review outcomes associated with use of CVAD. Retrospective review of paediatric patients with bleeding disorders was observed at the Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Hemophilia Center. Thirty-seven CVAD were placed in 18 patients (haemophilia A [n = 15], type 3 von Willebrand disease [n = 2] and haemophilia B [n = 1]). Follow-up was for 45 952 CVAD days, and median time that CVAD remained in place was 1361 days per device. Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors were present in 4 of the 15 patients. Ten CVAD-related infections occurred (median, 672 days; range, 72,1941 days), of which six were in one patient with FVIII inhibitors. Overall infection rate was 0.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10,0.40) per 1000 CVAD days, with 0.11 infections in patients without FVIII inhibitors compared with a pooled incidence of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.44,0.97) reported in the literature. Indications for removal of 27 CVAD were blockage, change to peripheral venous access, catheter displacement, infection, leak in the port septum, short catheter and skin erosion. No clinically apparent thrombosis or sequelae of thrombosis were observed. Infection is the most common complication associated with CVAD use and is increased in patients who have inhibitors. The low rate of clinically apparent thrombosis reflects our practice of not screening for thrombosis. The low infection rate reflects our practice of using and reinforcing the aseptic technique. [source]

New approaches to parenteral nutrition in infants and children

RG Heine
Abstract: Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become a mainstay in the treatment of children with intestinal failure or conditions that preclude enteral feeding. Estimated energy and protein requirements can usually be met, unless the patient is fluid volume restricted or glucose intolerant. Although PN is generally well tolerated, in some patients it is still associated with a significant morbidity. Complications include metabolic disturbances, venous access device infection or dysfunction, venous thrombosis and cholestatic liver disease. Patients need to be carefully monitored for evidence of micronutrient deficiencies or excesses. There is a close relationship between line sepsis and thrombosis. Strict aseptic technique is the key to preventing line infections. Recurrent sepsis and thrombosis may eventually lead to loss of venous access and may jeopardize the long-term delivery of PN. Chronic cholestatic liver disease is common in premature infants with gastrointestinal problems, recurrent sepsis and lack of enteral feeding. The aetiology is multifactorial. Early enteral feeding is the most effective strategy in preventing PN-associated liver disease. New specialized nutrient solutions and lipid emulsions promise improved clinical outcomes. However, long-term clinical data are not yet available in children. In recent years, nutrition support teams have improved clinical and economic outcomes by encouraging the appropriate use and monitoring of PN therapy. In patients with intestinal failure, parent-administered home PN has become an alternative to long-term hospitalization. Apart from a positive effect on the quality of life of patient and family, home PN is cost-effective and reduces the risk of nosocomial infections and catheter-related complications. [source]

Case Report: Fatal Apophysomyces elegans Infection Transmitted by Deceased Donor Renal Allografts

B. D. Alexander
Two patients developed renal mucormycosis following transplantation of kidneys from the same donor, a near-drowning victim in a motor vehicle crash. Genotypically, indistinguishable strains of Apophysomyces elegans were recovered from both recipients. We investigated the source of the infection including review of medical records, environmental sampling at possible locations of contamination and query for additional cases at other centers. Histopathology of the explanted kidneys revealed extensive vascular invasion by aseptate, fungal hyphae with relative sparing of the renal capsules suggesting a vascular route of contamination. Disseminated infection in the donor could not be definitively established. A. elegans was not recovered from the same lots of reagents used for organ recovery or environmental samples and no other organ transplant-related cases were identified. This investigation suggests either isolated contamination of the organs during recovery or undiagnosed disseminated donor infection following a near-drowning event. Although no changes to current organ recovery or transplant procedures are recommended, public health officials and transplant physicians should consider the possibility of mucormycosis transmitted via organs in the future, particularly for near-drowning events. Attention to aseptic technique during organ recovery and processing is re-emphasized. [source]

Tissue reaction of the rabbit urinary bladder to tension-free vaginal tape and porcine small intestinal submucosa

D.M. Rabah
Objectives ,To compare the histological tissue reactions of urinary bladder in close contact with polypropylene mesh tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) or porcine small intestinal submucosal (SIS) grafts, as the commercial availability of various materials has considerably simplified sling procedures for treating urinary incontinence, but erosion and infection after using artificial sling materials remain an important concern. Materials and methods ,Thirty female New Zealand rabbits were randomized to three groups, i.e. group A (TVT, 12 animals), group B (SIS, 12) and group C (surgical control, six). Through a laparotomy under anaesthesia and an aseptic technique, the bladder was approached at its dome, where a 0.5 1 cm piece of TVT or SIS was fixed in direct contact with the bladder wall. The control group underwent only bladder manipulation with no material applied. Half the animals in each group were killed after 6 weeks and the other half after 12 weeks. The urinary bladder was harvested and examined histologically. Results ,The grafts in both groups were characterized by dense foreign-body type reactions and were mostly attached loosely to the bladder wall by a thin layer of fibrovascular tissue. More importantly, the bladder wall reactions showed no inflammation in all 12 animals in group A (TVT) but three of them had various grades of fibrosis. There was severe transmural inflammation in one animal in group B (SIS); one rabbit had grade I and two had grade II fibrosis. The controls, as expected, showed no bladder wall reactions. Conclusion ,In this descriptive analysis of reaction types elicited on the urinary bladder by these grafts, both materials appeared to be safe. Although TVT elicited fewer and less severe adverse reactions, no statistical conclusions can be drawn. The clinical significance of these findings should emerge from long-term clinical data when they become available. [source]

Bacterial colonization of stimulation electrode wires in patients undergoing temporary sacral nerve stimulation

T. Dudding
Abstract Objective, In patients undergoing sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), a temporary percutaneous stimulation wire is often used to assess the clinical response to therapy prior to chronic stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of screening wires and risk of clinical infection in patients undergoing prolonged temporary SNS screening. Method, Data were collected prospectively on a consecutive series of patients undergoing temporary SNS for bowel dysfunction. Procedures were performed using a standardized percutaneous technique with a single shot of either co-amoxyclav 1.2 g or cefuroxime 1.5 g given intravenously on induction. Adherent polyurethane dressings were applied to secure the wire. At the end of the screening period the wire and dressings were removed, the skin entry site was cleaned using an alcohol wipe and the wire removed via an aseptic technique. The distal tip of the wire was then cut and sent for culture. Results, Thirteen wires were removed at a median of 21 (range 16,29) days following insertion. There were no signs of local or systemic infection. Seven of the thirteen wires (54%) were found to have deep bacterial colonization. The commonest organisms isolated were staphylococcus species. There was no correlation between the length of time the lead had been implanted and the incidence of bacterial colonization. Conclusion, Bacterial colonization of the temporary stimulation wire is common but appears to be associated with a low risk of clinical infection. A single peri-operative dose of antibiotics does not appear to prevent colonization. [source]

Infection control in wound care: a study of fatalism in community nursing

BNurs, Christine E. Hallett PhD, DNCert, HVCert
,,As part of a study of community nurses' perceptions of quality in nursing care, the author conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with seven community-based nurses. ,,As part of the study, nurses were asked to describe episodes of wound care and to discuss the factors which could affect the quality of such care. ,,One of the most interesting themes to emerge from the data was the apparent ambivalence of the nurses' attitudes towards infection control in wound care. ,,Nurses discussed the concept of ,aseptic technique' in fatalistic terms and seemed uncertain about what could be achieved in terms of infection control. ,,Although their policy guidelines referred to ,aseptic technique', their educational experience appeared to have made them feel uncertain about the implementation of the measures involved. ,,With the proviso that this was a small scale qualitative study, the author concludes by suggesting that there is a need for greater clarity, both in what is taught and in what is included in practice policy with regard to infection control in wound care. [source]