Ascomycetous Fungi (ascomycetous + fungus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Towards Higher Laccase Activities Produced by Aquatic Ascomycetous Fungi Through Combination of Elicitors and an Alternative Substrate

C. Junghanns
Abstract Laccases are versatile biocatalysts with various potential biotechnological applications, e.g. the treatment of industrial waste waters, the detoxification of environmental pollutants, or the functionalization of renewable polymeric materials. Central composition experimental design and response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of laccase by the aquatic ascomycetous fungi, Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and Coniothyrium sp.,Kl-S5, in shake flasks. A complex plant-based medium (tomato juice) and two elicitors (Remazol Brilliant Blue R [RBBR] and CuSO4) were tested in combination at three concentrations. The highest laccase activity of 6322,±,403,U/L was achieved on day,9 for Phoma sp. Coniothyrium sp. exerted a maximum laccase activity of 3035,±,111 U/L on day,4. Optimal conditions were 30,% tomato juice and 450,mg/L RBBR for both strains. A concentration of 250,,M CuSO4 led to highest laccase activities in cultures of Coniothyrium sp., and 50,,M CuSO4 was most effective for Phoma sp. A remarkable synergistic effect of tomato juice and RBBR on laccase production was observed for both strains. The upscaling potential of the optimal induction conditions was demonstrated in a lab-scale fermenter which resulted in maximum activities of 11030,±,177,U/L on day,6 for Phoma sp. and 11530,±,161,U/L on day,9 for Coniothyrium sp. This study therefore presents a promising alternative for laccase production in ascomycetes based on a cheap complex substrate in combination with two elicitors. [source]

Purification and cDNA cloning of nitric oxide reductase cytochrome P450nor (CYP55A4) from Trichosporon cutaneum

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2001
Li Zhang
Cytochrome P450nor is involved in fungal denitrification as nitric oxide (NO) reductase. Although the heme protein has been known to occur in restricted species of fungi that belong to ascomycotina, we have previously suggested that it would also occur in the yeast Trichosporon cutaneum, which is phylogenetically far from those P450nor-producing ascomycetous fungi. Here we isolated and characterized the heme protein from the basidiomycetous yeast T. cutaneum. P450nor of the yeast (TcP450nor) exhibited properties in terms of catalysis, absorption spectrum and molecular mass that are almost identical to those of its counterparts in ascomycetous fungi. We also isolated and sequenced its cDNA. The predicted primary structure of TcP450nor showed high sequence identities (around 65%) to those of other P450nors, indicating that they belong to the same family. TcP450nor protein cofractionated with cytochrome c oxidase by subcellular fractionation and its predicted primary structure contained an extension on its amino terminus that is characteristic of a mitochondrial-targeting signal, indicating that it is a mitochondrial protein like some of the isoforms of other fungi. On the other hand, TcP450nor was unique in that inducers such as nitrate, nitrite, or NO were not required for its production in the cells. The occurrence of P450nor across the subdivisions of eumycota suggests that P450nor and denitrification are distributed more universally among fungi than was previously thought. [source]

Growth kinetics of microorganisms isolated from Alaskan soil and permafrost in solid media frozen down to ,35°C

Nicolai S. Panikov
Abstract We developed a procedure to culture microorganisms below freezing point on solid media (cellulose powder or plastic film) with ethanol as the sole carbon source without using artificial antifreezes. Enrichment from soil and permafrost obtained on such frozen solid media contained mainly fungi, and further purification resulted in isolation of basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Mrakia and Leucosporidium as well as ascomycetous fungi of the genus Geomyces. Contrary to solid frozen media, the enrichment of liquid nutrient solutions at 0°C or supercooled solutions stabilized by glycerol at ,1 to ,5°C led to the isolation of bacteria representing the genera Polaromonas, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. The growth of fungi on ethanol,microcrystalline cellulose media at ,8°C was exponential with generation times of 4.6,34 days, while bacteria displayed a linear or progressively declining curvilinear dynamic. At ,17 to ,0°C the growth of isolates and entire soil community on 14C-ethanol was continuous and characterized by yields of 0.27,0.52 g cell C (g of C-substrate),1, similar to growth above the freezing point. The ,state of maintenance,' implying measurable catabolic activity of non-growing cells, was not confirmed. Below ,18 to ,35°C, the isolated organisms were able to grow only transiently for 3 weeks after cooling with measurable respiratory and biosynthetic (14CO2 uptake) activity. Then metabolic activity declined to zero, and microorganisms entered a state of reversible dormancy. [source]

Hyperparasitic Stagonospora sp. on Botryosphaeria stevensii

L. Vajna
Summary An unknown fungus, Stagonospora sp., has been found on and in stromata of Botryosphaeria stevensii Shoemaker anamorph (Diplodia mutila Fr. & Mont.) and Diatrypella quercina (Persoon) Nitschke. Microscopic investigations indicated that the fungus might be a hyperparasite of some ascomycetous fungi, necrotrophs or weak parasites on sessile oak [Quercus petraea] and turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Dual culture studies carried out with monoconidial isolates of Stagonospora sp. and B. stevensii have demonstrated that Stagonospora sp. is a necrotrophic mycoparasite which might suppress, to some extent, the natural population of B. stevensii. Botryosphaeria stevensii is one of the biotic factors causing oak decline. Morphology of the fungus and symptoms of mycoparasitic interaction are described. Stagonospora sp. found in Hungary is assumed to be identical with hyperparasitic Stagonospora sp. reported from Germany and Austria as parasite of Ascodichaena rugosa and Ascodichaena mexicana in Mexico. This is the first record of hyperparasitic Stagonospora sp. of B. stevensii and D. quercina. Résumé Un champignon inconnu, Stagonospora sp, a été trouvé sur et dans les stromas de Botryosphaeria stevensii Shoemaker (anamorphe Diplodia mutila Fr. & Mont.) et Diatrypella quercina (Persoon) Nitschke. D'après les études microscopiques, le champignon pourrait être un hyperparasite de champignons ascomycètes, nécrotrophes ou parasites de faiblesse du chêne sessile [Q. petraea] et du chêne chevelu (Quercus cerris L.). Des confrontations en culture d'isolats monoconidiens de Stagonospora sp. et Botryosphaeria stevensii montrent que Stagonospora sp. est un mycoparasite nécrotrophe qui pourrait limiter dans une certaine mesure les populations naturelles de Botryosphaeria stevensii. Botryosphaeria stevensii est un des facteurs biotiques associés au dépérissement des chênes. La morphologie du champignon et les symptômes de l'interaction mycoparasitaire sont décrits. L'espèce de Stagonospora trouvée en Hongrie est supposée identique au Stagonospora décrit en Allemagne et Autriche comme parasite de Ascodichaena rugosa et au Mexique sur Ascodichaena mexicana. Cette étude constitue la première mention de Stagonospora sp. hyperparasite de B. stevensii et D. quercina. Zusammenfassung Eine bisher unbekannte Art von Stagonospora wurde in und auf Stromata von Diatrypella quercina (Persoon) Nitschke sowie der Anamorphe (Diplodia mutila Fr. & Mont.) von Botryosphaeria stevensii Shoemaker nachgewiesen. Mikroskopische Beobachtungen legen eine hyperparasitische Lebensweise auf zu den Ascomyceten gehörenden, nekrotrophen Parasiten und Schwächeparasiten von Trauben- (Q. petraea) und Zerreiche (Quercus cerris) nahe. Dualkulturen von Monokonidien-Isolaten von Stagonospora sp. und B. stevensii zeigten, dass es sich bei der Stagonospora -Art um einen nekrotrophen Mycoparasiten handelt, der möglicherweise unter gewissen Umständen die Entwicklung natürlicher Populationen von B. stevensii zu hemmen vermag. B. stevensii ist einer der biotischen Faktoren des ,,Eichensterbens". Die in Ungarn nachgewiesene Art dürfte mit derjenigen Stagonospora -Art identisch sein, welche Ascodichaena rugosa in Deutschland und Österreich sowie Ascodichaena mexicana in Mexico parasitiert. Bei der vorliegenden Arbeit handelt es sich um den ersten Nachweis einer hyperparasitischen Stagonospora -Art auf B. stevensii und D. quercina. [source]

Below-ground ectomycorrhizal community structure in a recently burned bishop pine forest

P. Grogan
Summary 1,The effects of wildfire ash on ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations were investigated by sampling bishop pine (Pinus muricata, D. Don) seedlings from control and ash-removed plots 1.5 years after a severe fire in a northern Californian P. muricata forest. The below-ground community composition of EM at the site was characterized using molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequencing). 2,A total of 30 fungal taxa were observed, many of which differed in their distribution between treatment and control seedlings. However, most of the taxa that were distinctive to either treatment or control seedlings occurred only once across the site, precluding statistical detection of potential ash effects on EM community composition. There were no significant effects of ash removal on plot-level mycorrhizal community richness or diversity, and there were no distinct treatment-related clusters in a principal components analysis. 3,Analysis of the combined data indicated that numbers of fungal taxa per seedling, numbers of successive root depth increments colonized by the same taxon, and distances to neighbouring seedlings colonized by the same taxon, were randomly distributed across the site for the majority of mycorrhizal fungi. These distributional patterns suggest that the post-fire mycorrhizal community structure on P. muricata arose primarily from successful colonization by randomly distributed point-source fungal inocula within the upper mineral soil layer of the forest floor. 4,By comparison with pre-fire studies from similar P. muricata sites nearby, our data indicate that severe wildfire disturbance resulted in marked changes in mycorrhizal community composition, and a sharp increase in the relative biomass of ascomycetous fungi. [source]

Recent Advances and Future Prospects in Peptaibiotics, Hydrophobin, and Mycotoxin Research, and Their Importance for Chemotaxonomy of Trichoderma and Hypocrea

Thomas Degenkolb
Abstract Fungi of the genus Trichoderma with teleomorphs in Hypocrea are abundant producers of a group of amphiphilic, non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics, which are rich in the non-proteinogenic amino acid Aib (, -aminoisobutyric acid). They are referred to as peptaibiotics, or peptaibols, if a 1,2-amino alcohol is present at the C-terminus. Trichoderma/Hypocrea, like other ascomycetous fungi, also produce hydrophobins, a class of small, cysteine-rich proteins. Advanced soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques such as LC-CID-MS, LC-ESI-MSn, and IC-MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the high-throughput analysis, simultaneous detection and sequence determination of peptaibiotics and hydrophobins from minute quantities of fungal materials. Some Trichoderma species have been recognized to produce peptaibiotics as well as simple mycotoxins of the trichothecene group. The combination of sequence data of both groups of peptides with the pattern of low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, including trichothecene-type mycotoxins, independently confirmed the results of morphological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses. This approach established a new lineage in Trichoderma/Hypocrea, the Brevicompactum clade, comprising four new and one redescribed species. Notably, commercial preparations of single or mixed cultures of Trichoderma species, in particular T. harzianum, and T. koningii, are registered as biocontrol agents for soil and plant pathogens. In this context, it is emphasized that the four mycotoxin-producing species of the recently established Brevicompactum clade (T. brevicompactum, T. arundinaceum, T. turrialbense, and T. protrudens) are not closely related to any of the Trichoderma species currently used as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, possible health concerns about release of peptaibiotics in the biosphere are discussed with respect to their bioactivities and their use as drugs in human and veterinary medicine. Finally, future prospects regarding novel bioactivities and further research needs, including interdisciplinary taxonomic approaches, are outlined. [source]

Efficacy of triazoles and strobilurins in controlling black spot disease of roses caused by Diplocarpon rosae

E.W. Gachomo
Abstract Black spot disease is an important disease of roses with worldwide occurrence. It is caused by Diplocarpon rosae, an ascomycetous fungus and its control relies on fungicides. The effects of strobilurins and triazoles on D. rosae development within the host and on disease symptoms have not been well studied. Strobilurins completely inhibited germination of conidia when applied protectively 1 week before inoculation or on the same day with the inoculum. They were, however, not effective in eradicating the disease when applied after the fungus was established in the host. Triazoles reduced the germination rate of the conidia when applied protectively and they inhibited disease symptom development when applied after the fungus was established in the host but before symptom expression. Application of triazoles after symptom development suppressed further development of the disease, but in the case of treatment with myclobutanil yellowing and defoliation still occurred. Post-infection application of triazoles led to the apparent breakdown of subcuticular mycelia, intercellular mycelia, and hyphae in the epidermal cells, while the effects of strobilurins were limited to the subcuticular mycelia. Triazoles were more effective than strobilurins because they are more systemic. [source]