Ascites Formation (ascites + formation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Biscoclaurine alkaloid cepharanthine inhibits the growth of primary effusion lymphoma in vitro and in vivo and induces apoptosis via suppression of the NF-,B pathway

Naoko Takahashi-Makise
Abstract Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique and recently identified non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that was originally identified in patients with AIDS. PEL is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) and shows a peculiar presentation involving liquid growth in the serous body cavity and a poor prognosis. As the nuclear factor (NF)- ,B pathway is activated in PEL and plays a central role in oncogenesis, we examined the effect of a biscoclaurine alkaloid, cepharanthine (CEP) on PEL derived cell lines (BCBL-1, TY-1 and RM-P1), in vitro and in vivo. An methylthiotetrazole assay revealed that the cell proliferation of PEL cell lines was significantly suppressed by the addition of CEP (1,10 ,g/ml). CEP also inhibited NF- ,B activation and induced apoptotic cell death in PEL cell lines. We established a PEL animal model by intraperitoneal injection of BCBL-1, which led to the development of ascites and diffuse infiltration of organs, without obvious solid lymphoma formation, which resembles the diffuse nature of human PEL. Intraperitoneal administration of CEP inhibited ascites formation and diffuse infiltration of BCBL-1 without significant systemic toxicity in this model. These results indicate that NF- ,B could be an ideal molecular target for treating PEL and that CEP is quite useful as a unique therapeutic agent for PEL. 2009 UICC [source]

Management of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome

Anuchit Chutaputti
Abstract, Refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) are the late complications of the terminal stages of cirrhosis. The definitions of refractory ascites and HRS proposed by the International Ascites Club in 1996 are now widely accepted, and are useful in diagnosis, treatment and research in this field. In both conditions, the only treatment of proven value for improved survival is liver transplantation. However, because of better understanding about the pathophysiology of HRS, including the roles of portal hypertension, ascites formation and hemodynamic derangements, treatments such as transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and new pharmacological agents may be considered to alleviate the problem prior to transplantation. Symptomatic treatment of refractory ascites includes TIPS and repeated large volume paracentesis. Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt can improve survival while waiting for liver transplantation. Practical management guidelines for TIPS and large volume paracentesis, including the prevention and management of further complications, are considered in this review. 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

Flow in Lymphatic Networks: Interaction between Hepatic and Intestinal Lymph Vessels

ABSTRACT Objective: Lymph from both the liver and intestine flows into the cisterna chyli. We hypothesized that increasing liver lymph flow would increase cisterna chyli pressure and, thereby, decrease intestinal lymph flow, potentiating intestinal edema formation. Methods: Anesthetized dogs were instrumented to measure and manipulate portal vein pressure and cisterna chyli pressure. The effects of directly increasing portal pressure with and without directly increasing cisterna chyli pressure on intestinal wet-to-dry ratio and intestinal ascites formation rate were determined. Target values for portal and cisterna chyli pressures were determined following elevation of inferior vena caval pressure to levels seen in patients with obstructive caval disease. Results: Direct elevation of portal pressure (Pport) alone to 17.5 mm Hg caused a significant increase in intestinal wet-to-dry ratio (3.98 0.24 vs. 3.40 0.43) and the rate of ascites formation (0.36 0.12 vs. 0.05 0.03 mL/g dry wt/h). Simultaneous direct elevation of cisterna chyli pressure to 6.0 mm Hg and Pport to 17.5 mm Hg caused further increases in intestinal wet-to-dry ratio (5.52 1.20) and ascites formation (0.57 0.11 mL/g dry wt./h). Conclusions: Inferior vena caval hypertension increases liver lymph flow that elevates cisterna chyli pressure, which inhibits intestinal lymph flow and augments intestinal edema formation. [source]

Manipulation of the small intestine as a cause of the increased inflammatory response after open compared with laparoscopic surgery,,

N. Hiki
Background: Laparoscopic surgery of the gastrointestinal tract involves a reduced immune response compared with open surgery. The aim of this study was to assess manual handling of the gut in open procedures as the principal cause of the enhanced immune response. Methods: Eighteen Landrace pigs underwent gastrectomy by three different methods: conventional open wound with bowel manipulation, laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy, and gastrectomy without manipulation using a combination of open wound and laparoscopic surgical devices. Local inflammatory changes were assessed by ascites formation, intestinal adhesion development and intestinal inflammatory gene expression. Associated systemic inflammatory changes were determined by measuring portal and systemic plasma endotoxin levels, plasma inflammatory cytokine levels, liver inflammatory gene expression and transaminase levels. Results: Significantly more postoperative intra-abdominal fluid and adhesions were seen in the open group. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly greater in the intestine and liver in the open group. Portal and systemic levels of endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines and transaminases were also higher. Conclusion: Manual handling of organs during gastrectomy is an important contributor to the molecular and humoral inflammatory response to surgery, supporting the use of minimally invasive techniques in gastrointestinal surgery. Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]