Ascending Phase (ascending + phase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of transient muscle contractions and stretching on the tendon structures in vivo

ABSTRACT This study compared the effects of static stretching (ST) and repeated muscle contractions (CON) on the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in vivo. Eight male subjects performed ST (passively flexed to 35 of dorsiflexion) for 5 min and 50 repetitions of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 3 s each with 3 s relaxation. Before and after each task, the elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to MVC, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between the estimated muscle force (Fm) and tendon elongation (L) during the ascending phase was applied to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. The percentage of the area within the Fm,L loop to the area beneath the curve during the ascending phase was calculated as an index representing hysteresis. The ST protocol significantly decreased the stiffness (,8%) and hysteresis (29%)., respectively. In contrast, the CON protocol significantly decreased the stiffness, but not the hysteresis. These results suggested that the stretching and repeated contractions would make the tendon structures more complaint, and further decreased the hysteresis of the tendon structures. [source]

Central GABAA but not GABAB Receptors Mediate Suppressive Effects of Caudal Hindbrain Glucoprivation on the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Steroid-Primed, Ovariectomized Female Rats

S. R. Singh
Abstract The neurochemical mechanisms that link caudal hindbrain glucoprivic-,sensitive' neurones with the forebrain gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) axis remain unclear. Available studies indicate that the amino acid neurotransmitter, ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine function, and that caudal fourth ventricular administration of the glucose antimetabolite, 5-thioglucose (5TG), enhances GABA turnover within discrete septopreoptic structures that regulate LH secretion. The current experiments utilized the selective GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists, bicuculline and phaclofen, as pharmacological tools to investigate whether one or both receptor subtypes function within neural pathways that suppress GnRH neuronal transcriptional activation and LH release during central glucose deficiency. During the ascending phase of the afternoon LH surge, groups of steroid-primed, ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by lateral ventricular administration of bicuculline, phaclofen, or vehicle only, before fourth ventricular injection of 5TG or vehicle. The data indicate that, 2 h after 5TG treatment, Fos immunoexpression by rostral preoptic GnRH neurones and plasma LH levels were diminished relative to the vehicle-treated controls, and that inhibitory effects of 5TG on these parameters were attenuated by pretreatment with bicuculline, but not phaclofen. These results demonstrate that central GABAA, but not GABAB receptor stimulation during hindbrain glucoprivation, is required for maximal inhibition of reproductive neuroendocrine function by this metabolic challenge. The current studies thus reinforce the view that central GABAergic neurotransmission mediates regulatory effects of central glucoprivic signalling on the GnRH-pituitary LH axis. [source]

Fast, but Error-Prone, Responses During Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Effects of Stimulus-Response Mapping Complexity

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2004
Tom A. Schweizer
Abstract: Background: Although moderate doses of alcohol can impair performance on tasks that require information processing, little is known about the locus of the alcohol effects within the processing stream. This study used a psychological refractory period paradigm to investigate the effect of alcohol on the central, cognitive stage of information processing when task complexity is manipulated by altering stimulus-response compatibility. Methods: Thirty-four healthy male social drinkers were assigned to one of two groups (n= 17) that performed two tasks. Each trial consisted of a task 1 stimulus (tone) followed by a task 2 stimulus (letter) that was presented after one of four stimulus onset asynchronies (50, 200, 500, or 1100 msec). A baseline test of performance was obtained before the groups received a beverage containing either 0.0 g/kg (placebo) or 0.65 g/kg alcohol. Both groups were retested when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was increasing and was decreasing. Results: The alcohol group made significantly more errors in task 1 compared with their drug-free baseline measure during the ascending phase of the BAC curve, and error rates increased to a greater extent for the more complex arbitrary stimulus-response mapping condition. Moreover, this increase in errors continued unabated during the descending phase of the BAC curve. Increasing BACs also slowed performance (longer reaction time), but unlike errors, reaction time returned to drug-free baseline levels when BAC was decreasing. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that an acute dose of alcohol can impair one aspect of the central, cognitive stages of information processing. The possibility that errors in information processing remain during decreasing BACs even after processing speed has returned to drug-free levels has important practical implications relating to the detrimental consequences of acute alcohol intoxication. [source]

Augmentation of the ascending component of the peristaltic reflex and substance P release by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

J. R. Grider
Abstract Background, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is present in adult gut although its role in the mature enteric nervous system is not well defined. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of GDNF as neuromodulator of the ascending phase of the peristaltic reflex. Methods, Colonic segments were prepared as flat sheets and placed in compartmented chambers so as to separate the sensory and motor limbs of the reflex. Ascending contraction was measured in the orad compartment and mucosal stroking stimuli (two to eight strokes) were applied in the caudad compartment. GDNF and substance P (SP) release were measured and the effects of GDNF and GDNF antibody on contraction and release were determined. Mice with reduced levels of GDNF (Gdnf+/,) and wild type littermates were also examined. Key Results, GDNF was released in a stimulus-dependent manner into the orad motor but not caudad sensory compartment. Addition of GDNF to the orad motor but not caudad sensory compartment augmented ascending contraction and SP release. Conversely, addition of GDNF antibody to the orad motor but not caudad sensory compartment reduced ascending contraction and SP release. Similarly, the ascending contraction and SP release into the orad motor compartment was reduced in Gdnf+/, mice as compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions & Inferences, The results suggest that endogenous GDNF is released during the ascending contraction component of the peristaltic reflex where it acts as a neuromodulator to augment SP release from motor neurons thereby augmenting contraction of circular muscle orad to the site of stimulation. [source]