Physical Assault (physical + assault)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Risk factors and outcome in ambulatory assault victims presenting to the acute emergency department setting: Implications for secondary prevention studies in PTSD

Peter P. Roy-Byrne M.D.
Abstract Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma victims is an important public health goal. Planning for the studies required to validate prevention strategies requires identification of subjects at high risk and recruitment of unbiased samples that represent the larger high-risk population (difficult because of the avoidance of many trauma victims). This study recruited high-risk victims of interpersonal violence (sexual or physical assault) presenting to an urban emergency department for prospective 1- and 3-month follow-up. Of 546 victims who were approached about participating, only 56 agreed to be contacted and only 46 participated in either the 1- or 3-month interviews. Of the 46, 43 had been previously victimized with a mean of over six traumas in the group; 21% had prior PTSD, 85% had prior psychiatric illness, and 37% had prior substance abuse. Sixty-seven percent had positive urine for alcohol or drugs on presentation. Fifty-six percent developed PTSD at 1 or 3 months with the rate declining between 1 and 3 months. There was high use of medical and psychiatric services. These findings document both the difficulty of recruiting large samples of high-risk assault victims to participate in research, and the high rate of prior traumatization, PTSD, substance use, and psychiatric morbidity in these subjects which, if still active at the time of victimization, may complicate efforts to document preventive treatment effects. Depression and Anxiety 19:77,84, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The magistrate, the community and the maintenance of an orderly society in eighteenth-century England

Gwenda Morgan
The lone magistrate was the central figure of early modern English law enforcement, yet few records of his activities survive. This study of one of the rare notebooks kept by a local J.P. in north-east England in the eighteenth century suggests that his primary purpose was to negotiate peace between disputants rather than to secure prosecution and conviction of those accused of crimes. Prosecutions in court were few. Reconciliation was mixed with enforcement in areas such as employment relations, poor relief and the maintenance of illegitimate children, but here, as in the many cases of physical assault, outcomes were frequently ,agreed'. [source]

Screening for Abuse and Neglect of People with Dementia

Aileen Wiglesworth PhD
OBJECTIVE: To investigate characteristics of people with dementia and their caregivers (CGs) that are associated with mistreatment in order to inform clinicians about screening for mistreatment. DESIGN: A convenience sample of CG,care recipient (CR) dyads were assessed for literature-supported factors associated with mistreatment, and evidence of mistreatment for the prior year was collected. An expert panel considered the evidence and decided on occurrences of psychological abuse, physical abuse, and neglect based on criteria adopted before data collection. SETTING: Participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-nine persons with dementia and their CGs. MEASUREMENTS: CG and CR characteristics (demographic, health, and psychosocial variables), relationship characteristics, and three elder abuse and neglect detection instruments. RESULTS: Mistreatment was detected in 47.3%. Variables associated with different kinds and combinations of mistreatment types included the CG's anxiety, depressive symptoms, social contacts, perceived burden, emotional status, and role limitations due to emotional problems and the CR's psychological aggression and physical assault behaviors. The combination of CR's physical assault and psychological aggression provided the best sensitivity (75.4%) and specificity (70.6%) for elder mistreatment as defined by the expert panel. This finding has potential to be useful as a clinical screen for detecting mistreatment. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest important characteristics of older adults with dementia and their CGs that have potential for use in a clinical screening tool for elder mistreatment. Potential screening questions to be asked of CGs of people with dementia are suggested. [source]

Aggression towards health care staff in a UK general hospital: variation among professions and departments

Sue Winstanley BSc
Background., Aggression towards health care staff is an increasing problem and although many studies have examined psychiatric settings, few have considered general hospitals and in particular, variation among professions and locations. In addition, studies often fail to include all forms of aggression such as threatening behaviour and verbal aggression. Methods., This study extends existing research by evaluating physical assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression from patients/visitors towards general hospital staff in the context of different professions and departments. Results and conclusions., The survey of staff showed that aggression is widespread. Within the preceding year, 27% of the respondents were assaulted, 23% experienced threatening behaviour from patients and 15.5% experienced threatening behaviour from visitors. Over 68% reported verbal aggression, 25.7% experiencing it more regularly than monthly. By departments, over 42% of the medical department staff, 36% of the surgical staff and over 30% of the Accident and Emergency staff were assaulted. By profession, staff nurses and enrolled nurses reported the most assaults (43.4%) and doctors, the fewest (13.8%). Other nursing grades and health care professions all reported levels of physical assault in excess of 20%. Correspondingly high levels of threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were also reported although the patterns of victimization differed according to the various professions and departments. Independently, significant levels of assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were reported. When aggregated they demonstrate the higher levels of victimization that general hospital staff experienced on a regular basis. Relevance to clinical practice., Institutional averages actually obscure the much higher levels of aggression experienced by the particular professions in particular departments. This study helps to localize the problem and identify those at most risk, but more research is needed into the aetiology of the aggression and of vulnerability factors associated with victimization. [source]

Work stress and physical assault of nursing aides in rural nursing homes with and without dementia special care units

D. G. MORGAN phd rn
Purpose:, This study compared nursing aides (NAs) employed in rural nursing homes with and without dementia special care units (SCUs) on (1) exposure to and distress from disruptive behaviours exhibited by residents, (2) job strain and (3) physical assault. Design and methods:, The data were drawn from a larger study conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in which all rural nursing homes of ,,100 beds that had an SCU were matched to same-sized rural facilities with no SCU. Nursing aides (n = 355) completed a mailed survey questionnaire. Results:, Nursing aides employed in nursing homes with an SCU reported significantly less frequent exposure to disruptive behaviours (including aggressive and aversive behaviours) than NAs in non-SCU facilities, less distress when these behaviours were directed toward them, less exposure to aggressive behaviour during caregiving, lower job demands and lower job strain. There was a trend toward increased risk of being assaulted in the last year associated with being in a non-SCU facility. Having a permanent position, increased job strain, and feeling inadequately prepared for dementia care were significantly associated with higher risk of being assaulted. In the SCU facilities, NAs who worked more time on the SCU reported more assaults but less distress from disruptive behaviour, lower psychological job demands, lower job strain and greater work autonomy. Implications:, Providing more dementia care training and reducing job demands and job strain may help to reduce work-related stress and physical assault of nursing aides employed in nursing homes. [source]

Participation in trauma research: Is there evidence of harm?

Michael G. Griffin
Abstract Few studies have examined the impact of trauma research participation upon trauma survivors. Empirical data regarding reactions to research participation would be very useful to address the question of whether it is harmful for trauma survivors to participate in trauma studies. We examined participant reactions to different trauma assessment procedures in domestic violence (N = 260), rape (N = 108), and physical assault (N = 62) samples. Results indicated that participation was very well tolerated by the vast majority of the trauma survivors. Participants generally found that the assessment experience was not distressing and was, in fact, viewed as an interesting and valuable experience. The findings suggest that trauma survivors are not too fragile to participate in trauma research even in the acute aftermath of a traumatic experience. [source]

Associations Between Coerced Anal Sex and Psychopathology, Marital Distress and Non-Sexual Violence

Parvaneh Mohammadkhani PhD
ABSTRACT Background., There is a dearth of scientific data on anal intercourse in heterosexual relationships. Likewise, anal sex within marital relationships has yet to be fully explored. Objectives., Among a representative sample of married women in the Iranian capital, Tehran, we aimed to determine the association of self-reported coerced anal sex with: (i) self-reported coerced vaginal sex; (ii) self-reported non-sexual violence; (iii) psychopathology; and (iv) marital attitude. Method., The data presented here were obtained from the Family Violence Survey conducted in Tehran in 2007. A total of 230 married Iranian women were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from four different randomized regions. The subjects' sociodemographic data, psychological distress (Symptom Check List; SCL-90-R), personality, and relationship characteristics (Personal and Relationships Profile), and marital attitude (Marital Attitude Survey) were gathered. In addition, the participants' self-reported histories of lifetime victimization through all types of violence by the husband, including coerced anal and vaginal sex as well as psychological and physical assault (Conflict Tactic Scales-Revised; CTS-2), were collected. Results., There were associations between self-reported victimization through coerced anal and vaginal sex (P < 0.001), psychological (P < 0.001), and physical aggression (P < 0.001). Those reporting to have been forced into anal intercourse cited higher rates of paranoid and psychotic features, jealousy, attribution of problems to one's own behavior, conflict, and male dominance, as well as lower expectations of improvement in one's marital relationship. Conclusion., In marital relationships, women are at a higher risk of coerced anal sex if subjected to other types of sexual or non-sexual violence. Higher rates of psychopathology and poorer marital relationships are also allied to self-reported anal sexual coercion. Mohammadkhani P, Khooshabi KS, Forouzan AS, Azadmehr H, Assari S, and Lankarani MM. Associations between coerced anal sex and psychopathology, marital distress and non-sexual violence. J Sex Med 2009;6:1938,1946. [source]

Prevalence, antecedent causes and consequences of domestic violence in Myanmar

Nilar Kyu
The present study explored women's experiences of domestic violence in Myanmar. In particular, the study examined the relation between antecedents and outcomes of their experiences as well as influences of attribution styles, response styles and different types of violence on their experiences. Using the Myanmar version of the Revised Conflict Tactic Scale, survey data from a representative sample of 286 women in Myanmar were conducted. Results indicated that 27% of women experienced physical assault and 69% of women experienced psychological aggression in a 1-year period. The factors associated with increased risks of violence included witnessing parental violence, husbands' unemployment, husbands' frequent alcohol use, and women's feminism attitudes. Severe physical assault was a strong predictor of negative outcomes and formal intervention. Formal intervention was related to fewer negative outcomes. [source]

Anger and assaultiveness of male forensic patients with developmental disabilities: links to volatile parents

Raymond W. Novaco
Abstract This study with 107 male forensic patients with developmental disabilities investigated whether exposure to parental anger and aggression was related to anger and assaultiveness in a hospital, controlling for background variables. Patient anger and aggression were assessed by self-report, staff-ratings, and archival records. Exposure to parental anger/aggression, assessed by a clinical interview, was significantly related to patient self-reported anger, staff-rated anger and aggression, and physical assaults in hospital, controlling for age, intelligence quotient, length of hospital stay, violent offense history, and childhood physical abuse. Results are consonant with previous findings concerning detrimental effects of witnessing parental violence and with the theory on acquisition of cognitive scripts for aggression. Implications for clinical assessment and cognitive restructuring in anger treatment are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 34:380,393, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nature, extent, and causes of bullying among personality-disordered patients in a high-secure hospital

Jane L. Ireland
Abstract The present study explored the perceptions and experiences of the nature, extent and causes of bullying among personality-disordered patients, with a subsidiary aim of exploring differences in perceptions between staff and patients. The sample was selected from the Personality Disorder Unit of a high secure hospital. The total sample consisted of 60 participants, 30 patients and 30 staff. Participants engaged in a semi-structured interview based on that developed by Brookes [1993] and modified by Ireland and Archer [1996] and Ireland [2002a]. The interview assessed their perceptions and experiences of patient-to-patient bullying. One fifth of patients and staff reported that they had seen a patient being bullied in the previous week. One-fifth of patients reported that they had been bullied in the previous week and less than one tenth reported that they had bullied others. The most frequent types of bullying reported were theft-related, verbal abuse, being made to do chores, physical assaults and intimidation. One fifth of the sample reported that sexual abuse took place. Victims were generally perceived to be ,easy targets' that were vulnerable, either physically or emotionally. Staff identified a wider range of victim types than patients. The results highlight how patient-to-patient bullying does occur and is an important issue worthy of further research. A number of similarities were found between the current findings and those of prison-based research suggesting that both hospitals and prisons share a number of environmental similarities that help to explain why bullying takes placed in secure forensic settings. Aggr. Behav. 30:229,242, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]