Photo-oxidative Stress (photo-oxidative + stress)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of sunlight exposure and aging on skin surface lipids and urate

Nobumasa Hayashi
Abstract Free fatty acids (FFA), squalene, squalene hydroperoxide, and uric acid in the methanol extracts from human skin surface were measured. Levels of FFA and squalene were significantly lower in the older (83.7 ▒ 9.4 years) than in the younger (22.2 ▒ 3.9 years) group. FFA are mostly saturated, and linoleic acid is an exclusive polyunsaturated fatty acid. The composition of linoleic acid decreased in the older group by 40%, suggesting age-dependent loss of oxidatively vulnerable polyunsaturated fatty acid. Even monounsaturated acids such as palmitoleic and oleic acids decreased significantly in the older group. This could be interesting because 2-nonenal is the oxidation product of palmitoleic acid and has been identified as the major aged body odor component. Sunlight exposure for 1.5 h did not change levels of FFA and squalene, or FFA composition. However, squalene hydroperoxide increased by 60-fold, as reported previously, suggesting that hydroperoxide is produced by singlet oxygen. Uric acid increased by two-fold, which may be the adaptive response against photo-oxidative stress because uric acid is a good scavenger of singlet oxygen and oxygen radicals. [source]

Cover Picture: Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of a Highly Derivatized C60 Fullerol (Adv. Funct.

Abstract The photo-oxidative stress in aqueous milieus can readily be generated in the presence of newly synthesized highly derivatized fullerenes (fullerols) reported in the Full Paper by Vileno and co-workers on p.,120. Their basic structural and photophysical properties were characterized using a range of methods, including X-ray photoelectron and IR spectroscopies, and electron spin resonance. Moreover, a significant drop of the local stiffness of a living cell was monitored using atomic force microscopy. This cell softening was attributed to the early effects of the photo-oxidative stress. Hydroxylated C60 molecules, also called fullerols, are a class of water-soluble fullerenes. Here we report the synthesis in acidic conditions of a highly derivatized fullerol (up to 36 carbons per C60 are oxidized). Spectroscopic investigations (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared absorption) highlight the coexistence of both acidic and basic forms for the hydroxyl addends of derivatized C60. pH titrimetry reveals that, at millimolar concentrations, only ten protons per fullerol molecule are labile. Such a low value, as compared to 36 hydroxyl groups, is explained by the formation of clusters. A UV-vis absorption study performed over a large range of concentrations also points to the aggregation phenomenon. Moreover, this study shows that the clusters of fullerols appear at relatively low (micromolar) concentrations. An electron spin resonance (ESR) study, based on the attack of singlet oxygen (1,g) on 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol (TMP-OH), has proved the potential of hydroxylated C60 for performing efficient generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. ESR measurements, which allow detection and quantification of 1,g, have also revealed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The yield of generation of 1,g and ROS is strongly correlated to the concentration of fullerol, thus also pointing to the aggregation of fullerol molecules. Exposing glioblastoma cells to oxidative stress in the presence of hydroxylated C60 and visible light has also been performed. Atomic force microscopy is used to monitor the relevant diminishment of the Young's modulus values for cells exposed to the oxidative stress. These results point to a possible application field of fullerols for performing bio-oxidations. [source]


Crude and refined Mackerel liver oil with or without antioxidants were stored in artificial light or in darkness to assess the effects of photo-oxidative stress on the stability of oils and the antioxidant activity of butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) on those oils. Changes in peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) were monitored over 18 days at 5C and 40C. The results showed that visible light exposure played the most critical role in the acceleration of fish liver oil oxidation. The addition of antioxidants showed a significant effect in retarding oxidation with TBHQ more effective than BHA. The oxidation rate of the oils decreased in the following order: control with light > control + BHA with light > control without light > control + TBHQ with light > control + BHA without light > control + TBHQ without light. Higher PV and TBA values were observed in refined oils versus crude oils. Increasing storage temperature accelerated the oxidation of only refined oils in light. [source]

Overexpression of bacterial catalase in tomato leaf chloroplasts enhances photo-oxidative stress tolerance

ABSTRACT The Escherichia coli gene katE, which is driven by the promoter of the Rubisco small subunit gene of tomato, rbcS3C, was introduced into a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. Catalase activity in progeny from transgenic plants was approximately three-fold higher than that in wild-type plants. Leaf discs from transgenic plants remained green at 24 h after treatment with 1 Ám paraquat under moderate light intensity, whereas leaf discs from wild-type plants showed severe bleaching after the same treatment. Moreover, ion leakage from transgenic leaf discs was significantly less than that from wild-type leaf discs at 24 h after treatment with 1 Ám paraquat and 10 mm H2O2, respectively, under moderate light intensity. To evaluate the efficiency of the E. coli catalase to protect the whole transgenic plant from the oxidative stress, transgenic and wild-type plants were sprayed with 100 Ám paraquat and exposed to high light illumination (800 Ámol m,2 s,1). After 24 h, the leaves of the transgenic plants were less damaged than the leaves of the wild-type plants. The catalase activity and the photosynthesis activity (indicated by the Fv/Fm ratio) were less affected by paraquat treatment in leaves of transgenic plants, whereas the activities of the chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes and the ascorbate content decreased in both lines. In addition, the transgenic plants showed increased tolerance to the oxidative damage (decrease of the CO2 fixation and photosystem II activity and increase of the lipid peroxidation) caused by drought stress or chilling stress (4 ░C) under high light intensity (1000 Ámol m,2 s,1). These results indicate that the expression of the catalase in chloroplasts has a positive effect on the protection of the transgenic plants from the photo-oxidative stress invoked by paraquat treatment, drought stress and chilling stress. [source]

The chloroplastic lipocalin AtCHL prevents lipid peroxidation and protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

Gabriel Levesque-Tremblay
Summary Lipocalins are small ligand-binding proteins with a simple tertiary structure that gives them the ability to bind small, generally hydrophobic, molecules. Recent studies have shown that animal lipocalins play important roles in the regulation of developmental processes and are involved in tolerance to oxidative stress. Plants also possess various types of lipocalins, and bioinformatics analyses have predicted that some lipocalin members may be present in the chloroplast. Here we report the functional characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic lipocalin AtCHL. Cellular fractionation showed that AtCHL is a thylakoid lumenal protein. Drought, high light, paraquat and abscisic acid treatments induce AtCHL transcript and protein accumulation. Under normal growth conditions, knockout (KO) and over-expressing (OEX) lines do not differ from wild-type plants in terms of phenotype and photosynthetic performance. However, KO plants, which do not accumulate AtCHL, show more damage upon photo-oxidative stress induced by drought, high light or paraquat. In contrast, a high level of AtCHL allows OEX plants to cope better with these stress conditions. When exposed to excess light, KO plants display a rapid accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids relative to the wild-type, whereas the lipid peroxidation level remains very low in OEX plants. The increased lipid peroxidation in KO plants is mediated by singlet oxygen and is not correlated with photo-inhibition of the photosystems. This work provides evidence suggesting that AtCHL is involved in the protection of thylakoidal membrane lipids against reactive oxygen species, especially singlet oxygen, produced in excess light. [source]

A mutation in the Arabidopsis mTERF-related plastid protein SOLDAT10 activates retrograde signaling and suppresses 1O2 -induced cell death

Rasa Meskauskiene
Summary The conditional flu mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana generates singlet oxygen (1O2) in plastids during a dark-to-light shift. Seedlings of flu bleach and die, whereas mature plants stop growing and develop macroscopic necrotic lesions. Several suppressor mutants, dubbed singlet oxygen-linked death activator (soldat), were identified that abrogate 1O2 -mediated cell death of flu seedlings. One of the soldat mutations, soldat10, affects a gene encoding a plastid-localized protein related to the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF. As a consequence of this mutation, plastid-specific rRNA levels decrease and protein synthesis in plastids of soldat10 is attenuated. This disruption of chloroplast homeostasis in soldat10 seedlings affects communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus and leads to changes in the steady-state concentration of nuclear gene transcripts. The soldat10 seedlings suffer from mild photo-oxidative stress, as indicated by the constitutive up-regulation of stress-related genes. Even though soldat10/flu seedlings overaccumulate the photosensitizer protochlorophyllide in the dark and activate the expression of 1O2 -responsive genes after a dark-to-light shift they do not show a 1O2 -dependent cell death response. Disturbance of chloroplast homeostasis in emerging soldat10/flu seedlings seems to antagonize a subsequent 1O2 -mediated cell death response without suppressing 1O2 -dependent retrograde signaling. The results of this work reveal the unexpected complexity of what is commonly referred to as ,plastid signaling'. [source]