Phosphorylation Sites (phosphorylation + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Phosphorylation Sites

  • major phosphorylation site
  • pkc phosphorylation site
  • putative phosphorylation site

  • Selected Abstracts

    Protein,protein interactions of tandem affinity purification-tagged protein kinases in rice

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    Jai S. Rohila
    Summary Forty-one rice cDNAs encoding protein kinases were fused to the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag and expressed in transgenic rice plants. The TAP-tagged kinases and interacting proteins were purified from the T1 progeny of the transgenic rice plants and identified by mass spectrometry. Ninety-five percent of the TAP-tagged kinases were recovered. Fifty-six percent of the TAP-tagged kinases were found to interact with other rice proteins. A number of these interactions were consistent with known protein complexes found in other species, validating the TAP-tag method in rice plants. Phosphorylation sites were identified on four of the kinases that interacted with either 14-3-3 proteins or cyclins. [source]

    Calcium,calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation modulates PSD-95 binding to NMDA receptors

    Fabrizio Gardoni
    Abstract At the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses, NMDA-type receptors are bound to scaffolding and signalling proteins that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. The cytosolic tails of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor bind to calcium,calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and to members of the MAGUK family such as PSD-95. In particular, although NR2A and NR2B subunits are highly homologous, the sites of their interaction with CaMKII as well as the regulation of this binding differ. We identified PSD-95 phosphorylation as a molecular mechanism responsible for the dynamic regulation of the interaction of both PSD-95 and CaMKII with the NR2A subunit. CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of PSD-95 occurs both in vitro, in GST-PSD-95 fusion proteins phosphorylated by purified active CaMKII, and in vivo, in transfected COS-7 as well as in cultured hippocampal neurons. We identified Ser73 as major phosphorylation site within the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95, as confirmed by point mutagenesis experiments and by using a phospho-specific antibody. PSD-95 Ser73 phosphorylation causes NR2A dissociation from PSD-95, while it does not interfere with NR2B binding to PSD-95. These results identify CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 as a mechanism regulating the signalling transduction pathway downstream NMDA receptor. [source]

    Changes in signaling pathways regulating neuroplasticity induced by neurokinin 1 receptor knockout

    Laura Musazzi
    Abstract Neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor knockout mice showed behavioral responses similar to animals chronically treated with antidepressants. The aim of this study was to analyse, in NK-1 receptor knockout, the molecular modifications of signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant mechanism. We found, in total cell cytosol from the prefrontal/frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum, a marked up-regulation of Ca2+ -independent enzymatic activity and Thr286 autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II. Similar changes in CaMKII regulation were previously observed in rats chronically treated with antidepressants. In striatum, up-regulation of the activity and phosphorylation of CaMKII was also found in the homogenate and synaptosomes. No major changes were observed in the Ca2+ -dependent kinase activity, with the exception of homogenate from the prefrontal/frontal cortex. We also analysed the expression and phosphorylation of presynaptic proteins, which modulate synaptic vesicle trafficking and exocytosis, and found a marked decrease in synapsin I total expression and basal phosphorylation of Ser603 (the phosphorylation site for CaMKII) in the prefrontal/frontal cortex. Accordingly, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent posthoc endogenous phosphorylation of synapsin I in the same area was increased. The knockout of NK-1 receptor had no consequences on the expression or phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and its regulating kinase CaMKIV. However, phosphorylation of ERK1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinases was reduced in the hippocampus and striatum, again resembling an effect previously observed in antidepressant-treated rats. These results show similarities between NK-1 knockouts and animals chronically treated with antidepressants and support the putative antidepressant activity of NK-1 receptor antagonists. [source]

    Rescue of ,2 subunit-deficient mice by transgenic overexpression of the GABAA receptor ,2S or ,2L subunit isoforms

    Kristin Baer
    Abstract The ,2 subunit is an important functional determinant of GABAA receptors and is essential for formation of high-affinity benzodiazepine binding sites and for synaptic clustering of major GABAA receptor subtypes along with gephyrin. There are two splice variants of the ,2 subunit, ,2 short (,2S) and ,2 long (,2L), the latter carrying in the cytoplasmic domain an additional eight amino acids with a putative phosphorylation site. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing either the ,2S or ,2L subunit on a ,2 subunit-deficient background are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type. They express nearly normal levels of ,2 subunit protein and [3H]flumazenil binding sites. Likewise, the distribution, number and size of GABAA receptor clusters colocalized with gephyrin are similar to wild-type in both juvenile and adult mice. Our results indicate that the two ,2 subunit splice variants can substitute for each other and fulfil the basic functions of GABAA receptors, allowing in vivo studies that address isoform-specific roles in phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms. [source]

    Mutagenic probes of the role of Ser209 on the cavity shaping loop of human monoamine oxidase A

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2009
    Jin Wang
    The available literature implicating human monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) in apoptotic processes reports levels of MAO A protein that do not correlate with activity, suggesting that unknown mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of catalytic function. Bioinformatic analysis suggests Ser209 as a possible phosphorylation site that may be relevant to catalytic function because it is adjacent to a six-residue loop termed the ,cavity shaping loop' from structural data. To probe the functional role of this site, MAO A Ser209Ala and Ser209Glu mutants were created and investigated. In its membrane-bound form, the MAO A Ser209Glu phosphorylation mimic exhibits catalytic and inhibitor binding properties similar to those of wild-type MAO A. Solubilization in detergent solution and purification of the Ser209Glu mutant results in considerable decreases in these functional parameters. By contrast, the MAO A Ser209Ala mutant exhibits similar catalytic properties to those of wild-type enzyme when purified. Compared to purified wild-type and Ser209Ala MAO A proteins, the Ser209Glu MAO A mutant shows significant differences in covalent flavin fluorescence yield, CD spectra and thermal stability. These structural differences in the purified MAO A Ser209Glu mutant are not exhibited in quantitative structure,activity relationship patterns using a series of para -substituted benzylamine analogs similar to the wild-type enzyme. These data suggest that Ser209 in MAO A does not appear to be the putative phosphorylation site for regulation of MAO A activity and demonstrate that the membrane environment plays a significant role in stabilizing the structure of MAO A and its mutant forms. [source]

    Phosphorylation modulates the local conformation and self-aggregation ability of a peptide from the fourth tau microtubule-binding repeat

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2007
    Jin-Tang Du
    Phosphorylation of tau protein modulates both its physiological role and its aggregation into paired helical fragments, as observed in Alzheimer's diseased neurons. It is of fundamental importance to study paired helical fragment formation and its modulation by phosphorylation. This study focused on the fourth microtubule-binding repeat of tau, encompassing an abnormal phosphorylation site, Ser356. The aggregation propensities of this repeat peptide and its corresponding phosphorylated form were investigated using turbidity, thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopy. There is evidence for a conformational change in the fourth microtubule-binding repeat of tau peptide upon phosphorylation, as well as changes in aggregation activity. Although both tau peptides have the ability to aggregate, this is weaker in the phosphorylated peptide. This study reveals that both tau peptides are capable of self-aggregation and that phosphorylation at Ser356 can modulate this process. [source]

    Modeling the three-dimensional structure of H+ -ATPase of Neurospora crassa

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2002
    Proposal for a proton pathway from the analysis of internal cavities
    Homology modeling in combination with transmembrane topology predictions are used to build the atomic model of Neurospora crassa plasma membrane H+ -ATPase, using as template the 2.6 Å crystal structure of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase [Toyoshima, C., Nakasako, M., Nomura, H. & Ogawa, H. (2000) Nature 405, 647,655]. Comparison of the two calcium-binding sites in the crystal structure of Ca2+ -ATPase with the equivalent region in the H+ -ATPase model shows that the latter is devoid of most of the negatively charged groups required to bind the cations, suggesting a different role for this region. Using the built model, a pathway for proton transport is then proposed from computed locations of internal polar cavities, large enough to contain at least one water molecule. As a control, the same approach is applied to the high-resolution crystal structure of halorhodopsin and the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. This revealed a striking correspondence between the positions of internal polar cavities, those of crystallographic water molecules and, in the case of bacteriorhodopsin, the residues mediating proton translocation. In our H+ -ATPase model, most of these cavities are in contact with residues previously shown to affect coupling of proton translocation to ATP hydrolysis. A string of six polar cavities identified in the cytoplasmic domain, the most accurate part of the model, suggests a proton entry path starting close to the phosphorylation site. Strikingly, members of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily, which are close structural homologs of this domain but do not share the same function, display only one polar cavity in the vicinity of the conserved catalytic Asp residue. [source]

    Mechanism of activation of the double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2001
    Role of dimerization, cellular localization in the stimulation of PKR phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2)
    An important defense against viral infection involves inhibition of translation by PKR phosphorylation of the , subunit of eIF2. Binding of viral dsRNAs to two dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) in PKR leads to relief of an inhibitory region and activation of eIF2 kinase activity. Interestingly, while deletion of the regulatory region of PKR significantly induces activity in vitro, the truncated kinase does not inhibit translation in vivo, suggesting that these sequences carry out additional functions required for PKR control. To delineate these functions and determine the order of events leading to activation of PKR, we fused truncated PKR to domains of known function and assayed the chimeras for in vivo activity. We found that fusion of a heterologous dimerization domain with the PKR catalytic domain enhanced autophosphorylation and eIF2 kinase function in vivo. The dsRBDs also mediate ribosome association and we proposed that such targeting increases the localized concentration of PKR, enhancing interaction between PKR molecules. We addressed this premise by linking the truncated PKR to RAS sequences mediating farnesylation and membrane localization and found that the fusion protein was functional in vivo. These results indicate that cellular localization along with oligomerization enhances interaction between PKR molecules. Alanine substitution for the phosphorylation site, threonine 446, impeded in vivo and in vitro activity of the PKR fusion proteins, while aspartate or glutamate substitutions partially restored the function of the truncated kinase. These results indicate that both dimerization and cellular localization play a role in transient protein,protein interactions and that trans -autophosphorylation is the final step in the mechanism of activation of PKR. [source]

    Phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase-5 by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase alters its catalytic and allosteric cGMP-binding activities

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2000
    Jackie D. Corbin
    In addition to its cGMP-selective catalytic site, cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5) contains two allosteric cGMP-binding sites and at least one phosphorylation site (Ser92) on each subunit [Thomas, M.K., Francis, S.H. & Corbin, J.D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem.265, 14971,14978]. In the present study, prior incubation of recombinant bovine PDE5 with a phosphorylation reaction mixture [cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) or catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), MgATP, cGMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine], shown earlier to produce Ser92 phosphorylation, caused a 50,70% increase in enzyme activity and also increased the affinity of cGMP binding to the allosteric cGMP-binding sites. Both effects were associated with increases in its phosphate content up to 0.6 mol per PDE5 subunit. Omission of any one of the preincubation components caused loss of stimulation of catalytic activity. Addition of the phosphorylation reaction mixture to a crude bovine lung extract, which contains PDE5, also produced a significant increase in cGMP PDE catalytic activity. The increase in recombinant PDE5 catalytic activity brought about by phosphorylation was time-dependent and was obtained with 0.2,0.5 ,m PKG subunit, which is approximately the cellular level of this enzyme in vascular smooth muscle. Significantly greater stimulation was observed using cGMP substrate concentrations below the Km value for PDE5, although stimulation was also seen at high cGMP concentrations. Considerably higher concentration of the catalytic subunit of PKA than of PKG was required for activation. There was no detectable difference between phosphorylated and unphosphorylated PDE5 in median inhibitory concentration for the PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil, or zaprinast 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Phosphorylation reduced the cGMP concentration required for half-maximum binding to the allosteric cGMP-binding sites from 0.13 to 0.03 ,m. The mechanism by which phosphorylation of PDE5 by PKG could be involved in physiological negative-feedback regulation of cGMP levels is discussed. [source]

    The Versatility of Helicobacter pylori CagA Effector Protein Functions: The Master Key Hypothesis

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 3 2010
    Steffen Backert
    Abstract Several bacterial pathogens inject virulence proteins into host target cells that are substrates of eukaryotic tyrosine kinases. One of the key examples is the Helicobacter pylori CagA effector protein which is translocated by a type-IV secretion system. Injected CagA becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated on EPIYA sequence motifs by Src and Abl family kinases. CagA then binds to and activates/inactivates multiple signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent manner. A recent proteomic screen systematically identified eukaryotic binding partners of the EPIYA phosphorylation sites of CagA and similar sites in other bacterial effectors by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Individual phosphorylation sites recruited a surprisingly high number of interaction partners suggesting that each phosphorylation site can interfere with many downstream pathways. We now count 20 reported cellular binding partners of CagA, which represents the highest quantitiy among all yet known virulence-associated effector proteins in the microbial world. This complexity generates a highly remarkable and puzzling scenario. In addition, the first crystal structure of CagA provided us with new information on the function of this important virulence determinant. Here we review the recent advances in characterizing the multiple binding signaling activities of CagA. Injected CagA can act as a ,master key' that evolved the ability to highjack multiple host cell signalling cascades, which include the induction of membrane dynamics, actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements and the disruption of cell-to-cell junctions as well as proliferative, pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic nuclear responses. The discovery that different pathogens use this common strategy to subvert host cell functions suggests that more examples will emerge soon. [source]

    Phosphopeptide fragmentation and analysis by mass spectrometry

    Paul J. Boersema
    Abstract Reversible phosphorylation is a key event in many biological processes and is therefore a much studied phenomenon. The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of phosphorylation is challenged by the substoichiometric levels of phosphorylation and the lability of the phosphate group in collision-induced dissociation (CID). Here, we review the fragmentation behaviour of phosphorylated peptides in MS and discuss several MS approaches that have been developed to improve and facilitate the analysis of phosphorylated peptides. CID of phosphopeptides typically results in spectra dominated by a neutral loss of the phosphate group. Several proposed mechanisms for this neutral loss and several factors affecting the extent at which this occurs are discussed. Approaches are described to interpret such neutral loss-dominated spectra to identify the phosphopeptide and localize the phosphorylation site. Methods using additional activation, such as MS3 and multistage activation (MSA), have been designed to generate more sequence-informative fragments from the ion produced by the neutral loss. The characteristics and benefits of these methods are reviewed together with approaches using phosphopeptide derivatization or specific MS scan modes. Additionally, electron-driven dissociation methods by electron capture dissociation (ECD) or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and their application in phosphopeptide analysis are evaluated. Finally, these techniques are put into perspective for their use in large-scale phosphoproteomics studies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    HTLV-1 infection in blood donors from the Western Brazilian Amazon region: Seroprevalence and molecular study of viral isolates

    Aline Cristina Mota-Miranda
    Abstract To determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in Brazil, and to review the virus molecular epidemiology in this Amazon population (Rio Branco-Acre), 219 blood donors were screened for HTLV-1. Only one case of infection (0.46% seroprevalence) was detected during July 2004 screening at the Acre Hospital Foundation (FUNDACRE). Neighbor-joining and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of two (n,=,2) complete LTR region sequences were performed with the PAUP* software. Since the HTLV-1 envelope surface (gp46) and transmembrane (gp21) glycoproteins are important for virus fitness, three envelope glycoproteins sequences (n,=,3) were analyzed using the Prosite tool to determinate potential protein sites. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the new isolate described in this study, and the unpublished LTR strain described in a previous report belong to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype, inside the Latin American cluster. A similar result was obtained when submitting, to the Automated Genotyping System, three LTR partial sequences from a previous study of the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in the same Amazon population. In all analyzed env sequences, the potential protein site was found: two PKC phosphorylation sites at amino acid (aa) positions 310,312 and 342,344, one CK2 phosphorylation site at 194,197aa, three N -glycosylation sites at 222,225aa, 244,247aa and 272,275aa, and a single N -myristylation site at 327,338aa. In conclusion, potential protein sites described in HTLV-1 gp46 and gp21 confirm the presence of conserved sites in the HTLV-1 envelope proteins, likewise phylogenetic analysis suggests a possible recent introduction of the virus into North Brazil. J. Med. Virol. 80:1966,1971, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Phosphorylation and activation of tryptophan hydroxylase 2: identification of serine-19 as the substrate site for calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    Donald M. Kuhn
    Abstract Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. TPH was once thought to be a single-gene product but it is now known to exist in two isoforms. TPH1 is found in the periphery and pineal gland whereas TPH2 is expressed specifically in the CNS. Both TPH isoforms are known to be regulated by protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation and the sites of modification of TPH1 by protein kinase A have been identified. While TPH2 is activated by calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), the sites at which this isoform is modified are not known. Treatment of wild-type TPH2 with CaMKII followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the enzyme was activated and phosphorylated at a single site, serine-19. Mutagenesis of serine-19 to alanine did not alter the catalytic function of TPH2 but this mutant enzyme was neither activated nor phosphorylated by CaMKII. A phosphopeptide bracketing phosphoserine-19 in TPH2 was used as an antigen to generate polyclonal antibodies against phosphoserine-19. The antibodies are highly specific for phosphoserine-19 in TPH2. The antibodies do not react with wild-type TPH2 or TPH1 and they do not recognize phophoserine-58 or phosphoserine-260 in TPH1. These results establish that activation of TPH2 by CaMKII is mediated by phosphorylation of serine-19 within the regulatory domain of the enzyme. Production of a specific antibody against the CaMKII phosphorylation site in TPH2 represents a valuable tool to advance the study of the mechanisms regulating the function of this important enzyme. [source]

    EAAT4 phosphorylation at the SGK1 consensus site is required for transport modulation by the kinase

    Jeyaganesh Rajamanickam
    Abstract EAAT4 (SLC1A6) is a Purkinje-Cell-specific post-synaptic excitatory amino acid transporter that plays a major role in clearing synaptic glutamate. EAAT4 abundance and function is known to be modulated by the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) 1 but the precise mechanism of kinase action has not been defined yet. The present work aims to identify the molecular mechanism of EAAT4 modulation by the kinase. The EAAT4 sequence bears two putative SGK1 consensus sites (at Thr40 and Thr504) at the amino and carboxy terminus that are conserved among species. Expression studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that EAAT4-mediated [3H] glutamate uptake and cell surface abundance are enhanced by co-expression of SGK1. Disruption of the SGK1 phosphorylation site at threonine 40 (T40AEAAT4) or of both phosphorylation sites (T40AT504AEAAT4) abrogated the effect of SGK1 on transporter function and expression. SGK1 modulates several transport proteins via inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. Co-expression of Nedd4-2 inhibited wild-type EAAT4 but not the T40AT504AEAAT4 mutant. Besides, RNA interference-mediated reduction of endogenous Nedd4-2 (xNedd4-2) expression increased the activity of the transporter. In conclusion, maximal glutamate transport modulation by SGK1 is accomplished by direct EAAT4 stimulation and to a lesser extent by inhibition of intrinsic Nedd4-2. [source]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates the transcriptional and neuroprotective activity of myocyte-enhancer factor 2C through an ERK1/2-RSK2 signaling cascade

    Yupeng Wang
    Abstract Neurotrophin activation of myocyte-enhancer factor (MEF) 2C is one of the strongest pro-survival signaling pathways in developing neurons. To date, neurotrophin stimulation of MEF2C has been largely attributed to its direct phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5. Because MEF2C is not directly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 in vitro, it is generally assumed that the ERK1/2 signaling cascade does not regulate MEF2C. Surprisingly, we discovered that ERK1/2 are required for both the transcriptional and neuroprotective activity of MEF2C in cortical neurons stimulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. ERK1/2 stimulation of MEF2C is mediated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), a Ser/Thr protein kinase downstream of ERK1/2. RSK2 strongly phosphorylates purified recombinant MEF2C protein in vitro. Furthermore, RSK2 can directly phosphorylate MEF2C on S192, a consensus RSK2-phosphorylation site located in the transactivation domain of MEF2C. Substitution of S192 with a non-phosphorylatable alanine diminishes both the transcriptional and neuroprotective activity of MEF2C to an extent similar to mutation on S387, an established activating phosphorylation site. Together, our data identifies ERK1/2-RSK2 signaling as a novel mechanism by which neurotrophins activate MEF2C and promote neuronal survival. [source]

    Pseudophosphorylation of tau at serine 422 inhibits caspase cleavage: in vitro evidence and implications for tangle formation in vivo

    Angela L. Guillozet-Bongaarts
    Abstract The tangles of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are comprised of the tau protein displaying numerous alterations, including phosphorylation at serine 422 (S422) and truncation at aspartic acid 421 (D421). Truncation at the latter site appears to result from activation of caspases, a class of proteases that cleave specifically at aspartic acid residues. It has been proposed that phosphorylation at or near caspase cleavage sites could regulate the ability of the protease to cleave at those sites. Here, we use tau pseudophosphorylated at S422 (S422E) to examine the effects of tau phosphorylation on its cleavage by caspase 3. We find that S422E tau is more resistant to proteolysis by caspase 3 than non-pseudophosphorylated tau. Additionally, we use antibodies directed against the phosphorylation site and against the truncation epitope to assess the presence of these epitopes in neurofibrillary tangles in the aged human brain. We show that phosphorylation precedes truncation during tangle maturation. Moreover, the distribution of the two epitopes suggests that a significant length of time (perhaps as much as two decades) elapses between S422 phosphorylation and cleavage at D421. We further conclude that tau phosphorylation at S422 may be a protective mechanism that inhibits cleavage in vivo. [source]

    Ser-59 is the major phosphorylation site in ,B-crystallin accumulated in the brains of patients with Alexander's disease

    Kanefusa Kato
    The phosphorylation state of ,B-crystallin accumulated in the brains of two patients with Alexander's disease (one infantile and one juvenile type) was determined by means of SDS-PAGE or isoelectric focusing of soluble and insoluble fractions of brain extracts and subsequent western blot analysis with specific antibodies against ,B-crystallin and each of three phosphorylated serine residues. The level of mammalian small heat shock protein of 25,28 kDa (Hsp27) in the same fraction was also estimated by western blot analysis. The majority of ,B-crystallin was detected in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates and phosphorylation was preferentially observed at Ser-59 in both cases. A significant level of phosphorylation at Ser-45 but not Ser-19 was also detected. Hsp27 was found at considerable levels in the insoluble fractions. ,B-crystallin and phosphorylated forms were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patient with the juvenile type. ,B-crystallin and phosphorylated forms were also detectable at considerable levels in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates from patients with Alzheimer's disease and aged controls. The phosphorylation site was mostly at Ser-59 in all cases. Immunohistochemically, ,B-crystallin was stained in Rosenthal fibers in brains of patients with Alexander's disease and their peripheral portions were immunostained with antibodies recognizing phosphorylated Ser-59. These results indicate that the major phosphorylation site in ,B-crystallin in brains of patients with Alexander's disease or Alzheimer's disease as well as in aged controls is Ser-59. [source]

    Neuregulin-1 induces acetylcholine receptor transcription in the absence of GABP, phosphorylation

    Carter A. Herndon
    Abstract Localization of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic region of muscle is mediated in part by transcriptional mechanisms, because the genes encoding AChR subunits are transcribed selectively in synaptic myofiber nuclei. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a synaptic signal and induces transcription of AChRs in muscle cells. Signaling by NRG-1 is thought to involve the transcription factor GA-binding protein (GABP), a heterodimer of GABP,, which is a member of the Ets family, and GABP,. Phosphorylation of certain other Ets proteins outside the Ets DNA-binding domain serves to stimulate transcriptional activation in response to extracellular signals. According to previous studies, NRG-1 stimulates phosphorylation of GABP, at threonine 280 in the N-terminal region adjacent to the Ets domain, suggesting that GABP, phosphorylation might contribute to NRG-1 responsiveness. To determine the functional importance of the N-terminal region of GABP, and whether its function is regulated by phosphorylation, we generated muscle cell lines in which the endogenous GABP, gene was deleted and replaced by variants of GABP, mutated in the N-terminal region. We found that NRG-1 can induce transcription in cells with mutated T280 phosphorylation site, indicating that T280 phosphorylation does not contribute to NRG-1 responsiveness. We also found that NRG-1-induced transcription occurs in cells missing the entire N-terminal region of GABP,. Because NRG-1 signaling is not expected to alter the function of the C-terminal region, which remains in these cells, these results suggest that GABP,, or other interacting components, rather than GABP, directly, is targeted by NRG-1 signaling. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Modulation of perch connexin35 hemi-channels by cyclic AMP requires a protein kinase A phosphorylation site

    Georgia Mitropoulou
    Abstract Retinal neurons are coupled via gap junctions, which function as electrical synapses that are gated by ambient light conditions. Gap junctions connecting either horizontal cells or AII amacrine cells are inhibited by the neurotransmitter dopamine, via the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Fish connexin35 (Cx35) and its mouse ortholog, Cx36, are good candidates to undergo dopaminergic modulation, because they have been detected in the inner plexiform layer of the retina, where Type II amacrine cells establish synaptic contacts. We have taken advantage of the ability of certain connexins to form functional connexons (hemi-channels), when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, to investigate whether pharmacological elevation of cAMP modulates voltage-activated hemi-channel currents in single oocytes. Injection of perch Cx35 RNA into Xenopus oocytes induced outward voltage-dependent currents that were recorded at positive membrane potentials. Incubation of oocytes with 8-bromoadenosine 3,,5,-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), a membrane permeable cAMP analog, resulted in a dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of hemi-channel currents at the more positive voltage steps. In contrast, treatment with 8-Br-cAMP did not have any effect on hemi-channel currents induced by skate Cx35. Amino acid sequence comparison of the two fish connexins revealed, in the middle cytoplasmic loop of perch Cx35, the presence of a PKA consensus sequence that was absent in the skate connexin. The results obtained with two constructs in which the putative PKA phosphorylation site was either suppressed (perch Cx35R108Q) or introduced (skate Cx35Q108R) indicate that it is responsible for the inhibition of hemi-channel currents. These studies demonstrate that perch Cx35 is a target of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and identify a consensus PKA phosphorylation site that is required for channel gating. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An integrated strategy for identification and relative quantification of site-specific protein phosphorylation using liquid chromatography coupled to MS2/MS3

    Florian Wolschin
    Reversible and differential multisite protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism controlling the activity of cellular proteins. Here we describe a robust and highly selective approach for the identification and relative quantification of site-specific phosphorylation events. This integrated strategy has three major parts: visualisation of phosphorylated proteins using fluorescently stained polyacrylamide gels, determination of the phosphorylation site(s) using automatic MS3 triggered by the loss of phosphoric acid, and relative quantification of phosphorylation by integrating MS2 - and MS3 -extracted ion traces using a fast-scanning, linear ion trap mass spectrometer. As a test case, recombinant sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) from Arabidopsis thaliana (At5g1110) was used for identification and quantification of site-specific phosphorylation. The identified phosphorylation site of the actively expressed protein coincides with the major regulatory in vivo phosphorylation site in spinach SPS. Site-specific differential in vitro phosphorylation of native protein was demonstrated after incubation of the recombinant protein with cold-adapted plant leaf extracts from A. thaliana, suggesting regulatory phosphorylation events of this key enzyme under stress response. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dysregulation of human bestrophin-1 by ceramide-induced dephosphorylation

    Qinghuan Xiao
    Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is an inherited autosomal dominant, juvenile onset form of macular degeneration caused by mutations in a chloride ion channel, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1). Mutations in Best1 have also been linked to several other forms of retinopathy. In addition to mutations, hBest1 dysfunction might come about by disruption of other processes that regulate Best1 function. Here we show that hBest1 chloride channel activity is regulated by ceramide and phosphorylation. We have identified a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site (serine 358) in hBest1 that is important for sustained channel function. Channel activity is maintained by PKC activators, protein phosphatase inhibitors, or pseudo-phosphorylation by substitution of glutamic acid for serine 358. When ceramide levels are elevated by exogenous addition of ceramide to the bath, by addition of bacterial sphingomyelinase, or by hypertonic stress, S358 is rapidly dephosphorylated. The dephosphorylation is mediated by protein phosphatase 2A. Hypertonic stress-induced dephosphorylation is blocked by a dihydroceramide, an inactive form of ceramide, and manumycin, an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase. Our results support a model in which ceramide accumulation during early stages of retinopathy inhibits hBest1 function, leading to abnormal fluid transport across the retina, and enhanced inflammation. [source]

    Rho kinase,dependent activation of SOX9 in chondrocytes

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2010
    Dominik R. Haudenschild
    Objective The transcription factor SOX9 directly regulates the expression of the major proteoglycans and collagens comprising the cartilage extracellular matrix. The DNA binding activity and cellular localization of SOX9 is controlled through posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. The activity of Rho kinase (ROCK) has profound effects on the actin cytoskeleton, and these effects are instrumental in determining the phenotype and differentiation of chondrocytes. However, the mechanisms linking ROCK to altered chondrocyte gene expression remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test for a direct interaction between ROCK and SOX9. Methods Human SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were transfected with constructs coding for RhoA, ROCK, Lim kinase, and SOX9. The interaction between ROCK and SOX9 was tested on purified proteins, and was verified within a cellular context using induced overexpression and activation of the Rho pathway. The effects of SOX9 transcriptional activation were quantified with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing SOX9 binding sites from the COL2A1 enhancer element. Results SOX9 was found to contain a consensus phosphorylation site for ROCK. In vitro, ROCK directly phosphorylated SOX9 at Ser181, and the overexpression of ROCK or the activation of the RhoA pathway in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells increased SOX9Ser181 phosphorylation. ROCK caused a dose-dependent increase in the transcription of a SOX9-luciferase reporter construct, and increased phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of SOX9 protein in response to transforming growth factor , treatment and mechanical compression. Conclusion These results demonstrate a new interaction that directly links ROCK to increased cartilage matrix production via activation of SOX9 in response to mechanical and growth factor stimulation. [source]

    Structures of the wild-type and activated catalytic domains of Brachydanio rerio Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1): changes in the active-site conformation and interactions with ligands

    Robert A. Elling
    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases involved in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and cytokinesis and is an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapeutics. A zebrafish homolog of the human Plk1 (hPlk1) kinase domain (KD) was identified that can be expressed in large quantities in bacteria and crystallizes readily, whether in a wild-type form or as a variant containing the activating Thr196,Asp substitution, in one space group and under similar conditions both in the absence and presence of active-site compounds. This construct was validated by testing a panel of hPlk1 inhibitors against human and zebrafish proteins and it was shown that the selected small molecules inhibited the homologs with a high degree of correlation. Crystal structures of ligand-free wild-type and activated zebrafish Plk1 (zPlk1) KDs revealed the organization of the secondary structural elements around the active site and demonstrated that the activation segment was disordered in the activated form of the domain but possessed a well defined secondary structure in the wild-type enzyme. The cocrystal structure of wild-type zPlk1 KD with ADP documented the hydrolysis of ATP and revealed the phosphorylation site. The cocrystal structure of the activated KD with wortmannin, a covalent inhibitor of Plk1 and PI3 kinases, showed the binding mode of the small molecule to the enzyme and may facilitate the design of more potent Plk1 inhibitors. The work presented in this study establishes the zPlk1 KD as a useful tool for rapid low- and high-throughput structure-based screening and drug discovery of compounds specific for this mitotic target. [source]

    Eyes Absent Proteins: Characterization of Substrate Specificity and Phosphatase Activity of Mutants Associated with Branchial, Otic and Renal Anomalies

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 14 2008
    Amna Musharraf
    Abstract The eyes absent (Eya) genes encode a family of proteins that combine the functions of transcriptional cofactors, signal transducers and enzymes, namely protein tyrosine phosphatases. The latter activity resides in the highly conserved C-terminal Eya domain (ED). Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of the Arabidopsis thaliana homologue (AtEya) by using low-molecular-weight compounds and synthetic phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing peptides that correspond either to phosphorylation sites in proteins or to peptides that were selected through the screening of a combinatorial peptide library. AtEya displayed modest peptide substrate specificity and was sensitive to charges adjacent to pY. In general, the presence of acidic residues on the N-terminal side of the phosphorylation site was critical for catalysis, whereas basic amino acids seemed to be preferred with respect to high-affinity binding. We also detected significant acyl phosphatase activity of AtEya; this suggests that Eya proteins might have further substrates in vivo. In addition, we analysed the phosphatase activity of a number of variants of the mouse Eya1 protein that harbours single point mutations that were associated with branchio,oto,renal syndrome (BOR), branchio,oto syndrome (BO) and ocular defects, respectively, in humans. While BOR mutations led to a significantly reduced phosphatase activity, BO mutants as well as those that are associated with ocular defects only displayed activity that was similar to wild-type levels. [source]

    An ESI-MS/MS Method for Screening of Small-Molecule Mixtures against Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3, (GSK-3,)

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 7 2008
    Ivan Partserniak
    Abstract Glycogen synthase kinase-3, (GSK-3,) is involved in the hyperphosphorylation of previously phosphorylated (primed) substrates, and is currently assayed using an approach based on the incorporation of ,- 32P-radiolabelled isotopes into substrate peptides. The requirement to detect hyperphosphorylation of a primed substrate poses a particular challenge for development of a high-throughput screening assay, as many current kinase assays are designed to produce a signal in the presence of any phosphorylation site, and thus are only suitable for ,-unphosphorylated substrates. Herein, we have developed an electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) assay to allow for direct detection of a hyperphosphorylated product which is formed in a solution reaction involving a primed peptide substrate (GSM peptide) and GSK-3,. Optimum reaction conditions (level of Mg2+, buffer type, ionic strength, pH, enzyme concentration, and reaction time) were established to both maintain the activity of GSK-3, and allow for substrate and product quantification through ESI/MS/MS. We show that the MS-based assay allows for rapid determination of GSK-3, activity from reaction volumes of ,40 ,L and that it can be used to assess IC50 values and the site of action of known inhibitors. It also can be used for automated screening of small-molecules mixtures to identify inhibitors of GSK-3,. [source]

    Preferential recognition of the phosphorylated major linear B-cell epitope of La/SSB 349,368aa by anti-La/SSB autoantibodies from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    A. G. Terzoglou
    Summary Sera from patients with primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) often contain autoantibodies directed against La/SSB. The sequence 349,368aa represents the major B-cell epitope of La/SSB, also it contains, at position 366, a serine aminoacid residue which constitutes the main phosphorylation site of the protein. In this study we investigated the differential recognition of the 349,368aa epitope and its phosphorylated form by antibodies found in sera from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the unphosphorylated (pep349,368aa) and the phosphorylated form (pep349,368aaPh) of the La/SSB epitope 349,368aa, as well as to a truncated form spanning the sequence 349,364aa and lacking the phosphorylation site (pep349,364aa), were synthesized. Sera from 53 patients with pSS and SLE with anti-La/SSB specificity, 30 patients with pSS and SLE without anti-La/SSB antibodies, 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 32 healthy individuals were investigated by ELISA experiments. Autoantibodies to pep349,368aaPh were detected in sera of anti-La/SSB positive patients with a higher prevalence compared to the pep349,368aa (66%versus 45%). Pep349,368aaPh inhibited the antibody binding almost completely (92%), while pep349,368aa inhibited the binding only partially (45%). Anti-La/SSB antibodies presented a higher relative avidity for the phosphorylated than the unphosphorylated peptide. Immunoadsorbent experiments using the truncated peptide pep349,364aa indicated that the flowthrough showed a selective specificity for pep349,368aaPh, while the eluted antibodies reacted with both peptide analogues of the La/SSB epitope. These data suggest that sera from pSS and SLE patients with anti-La/SSB reactivity possess autoantibodies that bind more frequently and with a higher avidity to the phosphorylated major B-cell epitope of the molecule. [source]

    Control of ,-catenin/Tcf-directed transcription in medulloblastoma

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2004
    C Raffel
    The ,-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3, (GSK-3,), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene products interact to form a network that influences the rate of cell proliferation. Medulloblastoma occurs as part of Turcot's syndrome and patients with Turcot's syndrome, who develop medulloblastomas, have been shown to harbor germline APC mutations. While APC mutations have been investigated and not identified in sporadic medulloblastomas, the status of the ,-catenin and GSK-3, genes has not been evaluated in this tumor. This study shows that 3 of 67 medulloblastomas harbor ,-catenin mutations, each of which converts a GSK-3, phosphorylation site from serine to cysteine. The ,-catenin mutation seen in the tumors was not present in matched constitutional DNA in the 2 cases where matched normal DNA was available. A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of 32 medulloblastomas with paired normal DNA samples was performed with 4 microsatellite markers flanking the GSK-3, locus; LOH with at least one marker was identified in 7 tumors. Sequencing of the remaining GSK-3, allele in these cases failed to identify any mutations. Taken together, these data suggest that activating mutations in the ,-catenin gene may be involved in the development of a subset of medulloblastomas. The GSK-3, gene does not appear to be a target for inactivation in this tumor. [source]

    LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase control of mTOR signalling and growth

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    R. J. Shaw
    Abstract The AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP following stresses such as nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. In the past 5 years, work from a large number of laboratories has revealed that one of the major downstream signalling pathways regulated by AMPK is the mammalian target-of-rapamycin [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway]. Interestingly, like AMPK, the mTOR serine/threonine kinase plays key roles not only in growth control and cell proliferation but also in metabolism. Recent work has revealed that across eukaryotes mTOR orthologues are found in two biochemically distinct complexes and only one of those complexes (mTORC1 in mammals) is acutely sensitive to rapamycin and regulated by nutrients and AMPK. Many details of the molecular mechanism by which AMPK inhibits mTORC1 signalling have also been decoded in the past 5 years. AMPK directly phosphorylates at least two proteins to induce rapid suppression of mTORC1 activity, the TSC2 tumour suppressor and the critical mTORC1 binding subunit raptor. Here we explore the molecular connections between AMPK and mTOR signalling pathways and examine the physiological processes in which AMPK regulation of mTOR is critical for growth or metabolic control. The functional conservation of AMPK and TOR in all eukaryotes, and the sequence conservation around the AMPK phosphorylation sites in raptor across all eukaryotes examined suggest that this represents a fundamental cell growth module connecting nutrient status to the cell growth machinery. These findings have broad implications for the control of cell growth by nutrients in a number of cellular and organismal contexts. [source]

    Impairment of CaMKII activation and attenuation of neuropathic pain in mice lacking NR2B phosphorylated at Tyr1472

    Shinji Matsumura
    Abstract Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP), which can be triggered by N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. We previously demonstrated that Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors at Tyr1472 in the dorsal horn was involved in a neuropathic pain state even 1 week after nerve injury. Here we show that Y1472F-KI mice with a knock-in mutation of the Tyr1472 site to phenylalanine did not exhibit neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve transection, whereas they did retain normal nociceptive responses and induction of inflammatory pain. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr1472 was only impaired in the spinal cord of Y1472F-KI mice among the major phosphorylation sites. There was no difference in the Ca2+ response to glutamate and sensitivity to NMDA receptor antagonists between naive wild-type and Y1472F-KI mice, and the Ca2+ response to glutamate was attenuated in the Y1472F-KI mice after nerve injury. Autophosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr286 was markedly impaired in Y1472F-KI mice after nerve injury, but there was no difference in phosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr305 or protein kinase C, at Thr674, and activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and microglia in the superficial layer of spinal cord between wild-type and Y1472F-KI mice after the operation. These results demonstrate that the attenuation of neuropathic pain is caused by the impaired NMDA receptor-mediated CaMKII signaling in Y1472F-KI mice, and suggest that autophosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr286 plays a central part not only in LTP, but also in persistent neuropathic pain. [source]

    Filopodial protrusions induced by glycoprotein M6a exhibit high motility and aids synapse formation

    Marcela A. Brocco
    Abstract M6a is a neuronal membrane glycoprotein whose expression diminishes during chronic stress. M6a overexpression in rat primary hippocampal neurons induces the formation of filopodial protrusions that could be spine precursors. As the filopodium and spine motility has been associated with synaptogenesis, we analysed the motility of M6a-induced protrusions by time-lapse imaging. Our data demonstrate that the motile protrusions formed by the neurons overexpressing M6a were more abundant and moved faster than those formed in control cells. When different putative M6a phosphorylation sites were mutated, the neurons transfected with a mutant lacking intracellular phosphorylation sites bore filopodia, but these protrusions did not move as fast as those formed by cells overexpressing wild-type M6a. This suggests a role for M6a phosphorylation state in filopodium motility. Furthermore, we show that M6a-induced protrusions could be stabilized upon contact with presynaptic region. The motility of filopodia contacting or not neurites overexpressing synaptophysin was analysed. We show that the protrusions that apparently contacted synaptophysin-labeled cells exhibited less motility. The behavior of filopodia from M6a-overexpressing cells and control cells was alike. Thus, M6a-induced protrusions may be spine precursors that move to reach presynaptic membrane. We suggest that M6a is a key molecule for spine formation during development. [source]