Phosphorylated Residues (phosphorylated + residue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Kinetic and biochemical analyses on the reaction mechanism of a bacterial ATP-citrate lyase

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2002
Tadayoshi Kanao
The prokaryotic ATP-citrate lyase is considered to be a key enzyme of the carbon dioxide-fixing reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle. Kinetic examination of the ATP-citrate lyase from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium limicola (Cl -ACL), an ,4,4 heteromeric enzyme, revealed that the enzyme displayed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics toward ATP with an apparent Km value of 0.21 0.04 mm. However, strong negative cooperativity was observed with respect to citrate binding, with a Hill coefficient (nH) of 0.45. Although the dissociation constant of the first citrate molecule was 0.057 0.008 mm, binding of the first citrate molecule to the enzyme drastically decreased the affinity of the enzyme for the second molecule by a factor of 23. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of ATP with a Ki value of 0.037 0.006 mm. Together with previous findings that the enzyme catalyzed the reaction only in the direction of citrate cleavage, these kinetic features indicated that Cl -ACL can regulate both the direction and carbon flux of the RTCA cycle in C. limicola. Furthermore, in order to gain insight on the reaction mechanism, we performed biochemical analyses of Cl -ACL. His273 of the , subunit was indicated to be the phosphorylated residue in the catalytic center, as both catalytic activity and phosphorylation of the enzyme by ATP were abolished in an H273A mutant enzyme. We found that phosphorylation of the subunit was reversible. Nucleotide preference for activity was in good accordance with the preference for phosphorylation of the enzyme. Although residues interacting with nucleotides in the succinyl-CoA synthetase from Escherichia coli were conserved in AclB, AclA alone could be phoshorylated with the same nucleotide specificity observed in the holoenzyme. However, AclB was necessary for enzyme activity and contributed to enhance phosphorylation and stabilization of AclA. [source]

The centrosomal protein Lats2 is a phosphorylation target of Aurora-A kinase

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 5 2004
Shingo Toji
Human Lats2, a novel serine/threonine kinase, is a member of the Lats kinase family that includes the Drosophila tumour suppressor lats/warts. Lats1, a counterpart of Lats2, is phosphorylated in mitosis and localized to the mitotic apparatus. However, the regulation, function and intracellular distribution of Lats2 remain unclear. Here, we show that Lats2 is a novel phosphorylation target of Aurora-A kinase. We first showed that the phosphorylated residue of Lats2 is S83 in vitro. Antibody that recognizes this phosphorylated S83 indicated that the phosphorylation also occurs in vivo. We found that Lats2 transiently interacts with Aurora-A, and that Lats2 and Aurora-A co-localize at the centrosomes during the cell cycle. Furthermore, we showed that the inhibition of Aurora-A-induced phosphorylation of S83 on Lats2 partially perturbed its centrosomal localization. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that S83 of Lats2 is a phosphorylation target of Aurora-A and this phosphorylation plays a role of the centrosomal localization of Lats2. [source]

Retention time prediction using the model of liquid chromatography of biomacromolecules at critical conditions in LC-MS phosphopeptide analysis

Tatiana Yu Perlova
Abstract LC combined with MS/MS analysis of complex mixtures of protein digests is a reliable and sensitive method for characterization of protein phosphorylation. Peptide retention times (RTs) measured during an LC-MS/MS run depend on both the peptide sequence and the location of modified amino acids. These RTs can be predicted using the LC of biomacromolecules at critical conditions model (BioLCCC). Comparing the observed RTs to those obtained from the BioLCCC model can provide additional validation of MS/MS-based peptide identifications to reduce the false discovery rate and to improve the reliability of phosphoproteome profiling. In this study, energies of interaction between phosphorylated residues and the surface of RP separation media for both "classic" alkyl C18 and polar-embedded C18 stationary phases were experimentally determined and included in the BioLCCC model extended for phosphopeptide analysis. The RTs for phosphorylated peptides and their nonphosphorylated analogs were predicted using the extended BioLCCC model and compared with their experimental RTs. The extended model was evaluated using literary data and a complex phosphoproteome data set distributed through the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Proteome Informatics Research Group 2010 study. The reported results demonstrate the capability of the extended BioLCCC model to predict RTs which may lead to improved sensitivity and reliability of LC-MS/MS-based phosphoproteome profiling. [source]

Identification of in vitro phosphorylation sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases

Rumyana Karlova
Abstract The Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK) family consists of five leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) with diverse functions such as brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1)-mediated brassinosteroid perception, development and innate immunity. The autophosphorylation activity of the kinase domains of the five SERK proteins was compared and the phosphorylated residues were identified by LC-MS/MS. Differences in autophosphorylation that ranged from high activity of SERK1, intermediate activities for SERK2 and SERK3 to low activity for SERK5 were noted. In the SERK1 kinase the C-terminally located residue Ser-562 controls full autophosphorylation activity. Activation loop phosphorylation, including that of residue Thr-462 previously shown to be required for SERK1 kinase activity, was not affected. In vivo SERK1 phosphorylation was induced by brassinosteroids. Immunoprecipitation of CFP-tagged SERK1 from plant extracts followed by MS/MS identified Ser-303, Thr-337, Thr-459, Thr-462, Thr-463, Thr-468, and Ser-612 or Thr-613 or Tyr-614 as in vivo phosphorylation sites of SERK1. Transphosphorylation of SERK1 by the kinase domain of the main brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 occurred only on Ser-299 and Thr-462. This suggests both intra- and intermolecular control of SERK1 kinase activity. Conversely, BRI1 was transphosphorylated by the kinase domain of SERK1 on Ser-887. BRI1 kinase activity was not required for interaction with the SERK1 receptor in a pull down assay. [source]

A combination of neutral loss and targeted product ion scanning with two enzymatic digestions facilitates the comprehensive mapping of phosphorylation sites

Juan Casado-Vela
Abstract We propose here a new strategy for the exhaustive mapping of phosphorylation sites in the Xenopus laevis Cdc25 phosphatase, which regulates cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. Two different MS analyses in a linear IT were used to identify the phosphorylated residues. First, a data-dependent neutral loss (DDNL) analysis triggered the fragmentation of peptides that show enhanced neutral loss of phosphoric acid. Second, a targeted product ion scanning (TPIS) mass analysis was carried out in which MS2 events are triggered for specific m/z values. Full coverage of the protein sequence was obtained by combining the two analyses with two enzymatic digestions, trypsin and chymotrypsin, yielding a comprehensive map of the phosphorylation sites. Previous reports have shown Cdc25C to be phosphorylated by Cdc2,cyclin B at four residues (Thr48, Thr67, Thr138 and Ser205). By using this combination of scan modes, we have identified four additional phosphorylation sites (Thr86, Ser99, Thr112 and Ser163) in a recombinant Cdc25C protein containing 198 residues of the NH2 -terminal noncatalytic domain. The sensitivity of this combined approach makes it extremely useful for the comprehensive characterization of phosphorylation sites, virtually permitting complete coverage of the protein sequence with peptides within the mass detection range of the linear IT. [source]

Chaperone-like activities of different molecular forms of ,-casein.

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 8 2009
Importance of polarity of N-terminal hydrophilic domain
Abstract As a member of intrinsically unstructured protein family, ,-casein (,-CN) contains relatively high amount of prolyl residues, adopts noncompact and flexible structure and exhibits chaperone-like activity in vitro. Like many chaperones, native ,-CN does not contain cysteinyl residues and exhibits strong tendencies for self-association. The chaperone-like activities of three recombinant ,-CNs wild type (WT) ,-CN, C4 ,-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 4) and C208 ,-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 208), expressed and purified from E. coli, which, consequently, lack the phosphorylated residues, were examined and compared with that of native ,-CN using insulin and alcohol dehydrogenase as target/substrate proteins. The dimers (,-CND) of C4-,-CN and C208 ,-CN were also studied and their chaperone-like activities were compared with those of their monomeric forms. Lacking phosphorylation, WT ,-CN, C208 ,-CN, C4 ,-CN and C4 ,-CND exhibited significantly lower chaperone-like activities than native ,-CN. Dimerization of C208 ,-CN with two distal hydrophilic domains considerably improved its chaperone-like activity in comparison with its monomeric form. The obtained results demonstrate the significant role played by the polar contributions of phosphorylated residues and N-terminal hydrophilic domain as important functional elements in enhancing the chaperone-like activity of native ,-CN. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 623,632, 2009. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at [source]