Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (phosphorylated + erk1/2)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increase of MCP-1 (CCL2) in myelin mutant Schwann cells is mediated by MEK-ERK signaling pathway

GLIA, Issue 8 2008
Stefan Fischer
Abstract Macrophages are critically involved in the pathogenesis of genetically caused demyelination, as it occurs in inherited demyelinating neuropathies. On the basis of the observation that upregulation of the Schwann cell-derived chemokine MCP-1 (CCL2) is a pathologically relevant mechanism for macrophage activation in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin component P0 (P0+/,), we posed the question of the intracellular signaling cascade involved. By using western blot analysis of peripheral nerve lysates the MAP-kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and MAP kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) showed an early and constantly increasing activation in P0 mutants. Furthermore, in nerve fibers from the P0+/, mutants, Schwann cell nuclei were much more often positive for phosphorylated ERK1/2 than in nerve fibers from wild type mice. In vitro experiments using the MEK1/2-inhibitor CI-1040 decreased ERK1/2-phosphorylation and MCP-1 expression in a Schwann cell-derived cell line. Finally, systemic application of CI-1040 lead to a decreased ERK1/2-phosphorylation and substantially reduced MCP-1-production in peripheral nerves of P0+/, mutant mice. Our study identifies MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling as an important intracellular pathway that connects the Schwann cell mutation with the activation of pathogenetically relevant macrophages in the peripheral nerves. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of inherited peripheral neuropathies in humans. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Methylseleninic acid enhances the effect of etoposide to inhibit prostate cancer growth in vivo

Oscar Gonzalez-Moreno
Abstract New therapeutic agents are needed for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PrCa). We have investigated the effect of methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumor stage-specific prostate cells derived from the C3 (1)/Tag model for PrCa: Pr111, a slow-growing and nontumorigenic cell line isolated from a prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesion; Pr14, a tumorigenic line derived from a primary tumor; and Pr14C1, a sub-clone of Pr14 explanted from a lung metastasis. We demonstrate that MSA strongly inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in C3 (1)/Tag tumor cells, in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 and AKT was also found in tumor cells, but not in Pr111. Microarray analysis using affymetrix showed that the number of genes with an altered expression in tumor cells is significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in nontumoral cells. Pathways analyses revealed a decrease in the expression of genes involved in metabolism (Fabp5, Cyba), signal transduction (ERK, AKT), angiogenesis (neuropilin-1, Flt-4) and transcription (cAMP response element-binding protein) in tumor cells. The expression of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in VEGF signaling and tumor angiogenesis, was 97-fold repressed in Pr14 cells treated with MSA. Combination treatments using low doses of etoposide or taxotere (docetaxel), plus low doses of MSA revealed a strong enhancement of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in tumor cells. Our in vivo studies using Pr14 cells xenografted into nude mice demonstrated that MSA significantly enhances the chemotherapeutical effect of etoposide, resulting in 78.3% tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest that MSA could be used against PrCa to enhance the effect of etoposide. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

ERK 1/2 signaling pathway is involved in nicotine-mediated neuroprotection in spinal cord neurons

Michal Toborek
Abstract Evidence indicates that agonists of neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), including nicotine, can induce neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects in the CNS. To study these mechanisms, the present study focused on nicotine-mediated modulation of the extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in cultured spinal cord neurons. Exposure to nicotine (0.1,10 M) for as short as 1 min markedly upregulated levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased total ERK1/2 activity. Inhibition studies with mecamylamine and ,-bungarotoxin revealed that these effects were mediated by the ,7 nicotinic receptor. In addition, pre-exposure to U0126, a specific inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signaling, prevented nicotine-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. To indicate if treatment with nicotine also can activate ERK1/2 in vivo, a moderate spinal cord injury (SCI) was induced in rats using a weight-drop device and nicotine was injected 2 h post-trauma. Consistent with in vitro data, nicotine increased levels of pERK1/2 in this animal model of spinal cord trauma. Results of the present study indicate that the ERK1/2 pathway is involved in anti-apoptotic effects of nicotine in spinal cord neurons and may be involved in therapeutic effects of nicotine in spinal cord trauma. J. Cell. Biochem. 100: 279,292, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Basic fibroblast growth factor induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in human periodontal ligament cells through the MEK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

Atsushi Shimazu
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is one of the potent mitogens for periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. However, the role of bFGF on the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression in PDL cells is unknown. In this study, the effect of bFGF on MMP-3 expression in PDL cells and the mechanism of this process were examined. Human PDL cells were exposed to bFGF at various concentrations (0.01,10 ng/ml) in monolayer cultures. bFGF increased [3H]thymidine incorporation and suppressed proteoglycan synthesis concentration-dependently. However, similar concentration ranges of bFGF increased the release of the cell-associated proteoglycans into the medium. Furthermore, bFGF increased MMP-3 mRNA levels concentration-dependently as examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Induction of MMP-3 after the stimulation with bFGF was observed as early as 12 h with maximal at 24 h. Thereafter, the MMP-3 mRNA level gradually decreased until 72 h. Cycloheximide blocked the induction of MMP-3 by bFGF, indicating the requirement of de novo protein synthesis for this stimulation. Furthermore, MMP-3 expression induced by bFGF was abrogated by U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, not by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK1. In addition, bFGF up-regulated the phosphorylated ERK1/2 in 5 min with the maximal at 20 min as examined by Western blotting, and U0126 inhibited the ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by bFGF. These findings suggest that bFGF induces MMP-3 expression in PDL cells through the activation of the MEK2 in MAP kinase pathway. bFGF stimulation on MMP-3 synthesis may be involved in the control of the cell-associated proteoglycans in PDL cells during periodontal regeneration and degradation. [source]

Increased KIT signalling with up-regulation of cyclin D correlates to accelerated proliferation and shorter disease-free survival in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) with KIT exon 11 deletions,

F Haller
Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) with deletions in KIT exon 11 are characterized by higher proliferation rates and shorter disease-free survival times, compared to GISTs with KIT exon 11 point mutations. Up-regulation of cyclin D is a crucial event for entry into the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and links mitogenic signalling to cell proliferation. Signalling from activated KIT to cyclin D is directed through the RAS/RAF/ERK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR/EIF4E, and JAK/STATs cascades. ERK and STATs initiate mRNA transcription of cyclin D, whereas EIF4E activation leads to increased translation efficiency and reduced degradation of cyclin D protein. The aim of the current study was to analyse the mRNA and protein expression as well as protein phosphorylation of central hubs of these signalling cascades in primary GISTs, to evaluate whether tumours with KIT exon 11 deletions and point mutations differently utilize these pathways. GISTs with KIT exon 11 deletions had significantly higher mitotic counts, higher proliferation rates, and shorter disease-free survival times. In line with this, they had significantly higher expression of cyclin D on the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2, and a higher protein amount of STAT3, mTOR, and EIF4E. PI3K and phosphorylated AKT were also up-regulated, but this was not significant. Ultimately, GISTs with KIT exon 11 deletions had significantly higher phosphorylation of the central negative cell-cycle regulator RB. Phosphorylation of RB is accomplished by activated cyclin D/CDK4/6 complex, and marks a central event in the release of the cell cycle. Altogether, these observations suggest increased KIT signalling with up-regulation of cyclin D as the basis for the unfavourable clinical course in GISTs with KIT exon 11 deletions. Copyright 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Chitosan Oligosaccharides Inhibit the Expression of Interleukin-6 in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Through p38 and ERK1/2 Protein Kinases

Hong-Tao Liu
However, the potential roles of COS in the treatment of vascular inflammations remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of COS on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Induction of HUVECs with LPS (100 ng/ml) increased the mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 (versus the vehicle-treated group, p < 0.01), which were significantly reverted by the pre-treatment with COS (50,200 ,g/ml) for 24 hr before LPS exposure (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.05 or 0.01). Signal transduction studies showed that the pre-treatment of HUVECs with COS (50,200 ,g/ml) for 24 hr markedly inhibited the LPS-induced over-expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphorylated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B). Moreover, the LPS-induced NF-,B activation was suppressed by the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (30 ,M) (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.01), but not by the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (25 ,M). Additionally, both MAPK inhibitors markedly suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression in HUVECs (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our results suggest that COS inhibit LPS-induced up-regulation of IL-6 in HUVECs, and this can be regulated by at least two parallel signalling pathways: one via p38 MAPK pathway independent of NF-,B activation and one via ERK1/2 pathway dependent on NF-,B activation. [source]

Toward an in situ phospho-protein atlas: phospho- and site-specific antibody-based spatio-temporally systematized detection of phosphorylated proteins in vivo

BIOESSAYS, Issue 8 2009
Toshiya Teraishi
Abstract The "Human Genome Project" was completed in 2003, shifting the focus to proteome and transcriptome research. One approach to proteomics involves the comprehensive visualization of the localization of proteins in all tissues and organs. We discuss in situ phospho-protein atlases, which are systematized representations of the localization of proteins. Protein atlases provide important information about the identity and presence of proteins in specific organs, tissues and cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Antibody-based immunohistochemical analysis is a powerful method for generating a protein atlas. However, it is difficult to localize phosphorylated proteins under in vivo physiological conditions, even with immunohistochemistry, because these proteins tend to be dephosphorylated or phosphorylated due to the experimental manipulations. We also discuss an improved immunohistochemical method for precisely detecting phosphorylated protein, using the detection of phosphorylated ERK1/2 as an example. We consider that it is possible and useful to generate a phospho-protein atlas. [source]

Parathyroid hormone inhibits phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 through inhibition of c-Raf and activation of MKP-1 in osteoblastic cells

Lick Pui Lai
Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2 contributes to PTH regulation of osteoblast growth and apoptosis. We investigated the mechanisms by which PTH inhibits ERK1/2 activity in osteoblastic UMR 106-01 cells. Treatment with PTH significantly inhibited phosphorylated ERK1/2 between 5 and 60,min. Transient transfection of cells with a cDNA encoding MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) resulted in 30,40% inhibition of pERK1/2; however MKP-1 protein levels were only significantly stimulated by PTH after 30,mins, suggesting another mechanism for the early phase of pERK1/2 inhibition. The active upstream kinase c-Raf phosphorylation at serine 338 (ser338) was significantly inhibited by PTH treatment within 5,min and transfection of the cells with constitutively-active c-Raf blocked PTH inhibition of pERK1/2. Inhibition of pERK1/2 and phosphor-c-Raf were seen when cells were treated with PTH(1-34) or PTH(1-31) analogues that stimulate cAMP, but not with PTH(3-34), PTH(7-34) or PTH(18-48) that do not stimulate cAMP. Stimulation of the cells with forskolin or 8BrcAMP also inhibited pERK1/2 and c-Raf.p338. Our results suggest that rapid PTH inhibition of ERK1/2 activity is mediated by PKA dependent inhibition of c-Raf activity and that stimulation of MKP-1 may contribute to maintaining pERK1/2 inhibition over prolonged time. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]