Phosphorus Release (phosphorus + release)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oxygen Controls the Phosphorus Release from Lake Sediments , a Long-Lasting Paradigm in Limnology

Michael Hupfer
Abstract The pioneer works of Einsele, Mortimer, and Ohle on the linking between phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) cycles seven decades ago created the theoretical basis for a long-standing paradigm among limnologists i.e., ,oxygen controls the P release from sediments'. While many empirical studies as well as strong correlations between oxygen depletion and P release seem to support this paradigm, various field observations, laboratory experiments, and repeated failures of hypolimnetic oxygenation measures cast doubt on its universal validity. The temporal existence of a thin oxidized sediment surface-layer could affect only fluctuations of the temporary P pool at the sediment surface but not the long-term P retention. On longer time scales P release is the imbalance between P sedimentation and P binding capacity of anoxic sediment layers. The P retention of lake sediments strongly depends on sediment characteristics and land use of the catchment. The presence of redox-insensitive P-binding systems such as Al(OH)3 and unreducible Fe(III) minerals can enhance the P retention and completely prevent P release even in case of anoxic conditions. Alternative release mechanisms such as a dissolution of calcium-bound P and decomposition of organic P under both, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, are often more important than the redox driven Fe-coupled P cycle. Additionally, bacteria affect P cycling not only by altering the redox conditions but also by releasing P during mineralization of organic matter and by accumulation and release of bacterial P. Since microbial processes consume oxygen and liberate P it is difficult to distinguish whether oxygen depletion is the result or the cause of P release. Nowadays, the old paradigm is discarded and a paradigm shift takes place. Sedimentary P exchange ought to be considered as a complex process which is mainly determined by the amount and species of settled P as well as their subsequent diagenetic transformation in the sediment. The classical paradigm is only valid in special cases since reality is much more complex than suggested by that paradigm. Everything should be made simple as possible, but not simpler! Albert Einstein (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Release from Decomposing Leaves under Sub-Humid Tropical Conditions,

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2001
A. B. Kwabiah
ABSTRACT For many soils of the tropics, inputs of organic materials are essential to sustain soil fertility and crop production. Research in the quality of organic inputs, a key factor controlling rates of decomposition and nutrient release, continues to guide selection and use of organic materials as nutrient sources. The relationship between decomposition patterns and the quality parameters of the fresh leaves of six agroforestry species: Sesbania sesban, Croton megalocarpus, Calliandra calothyrsus, Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, and Senna spectabilis, was investigated in a litterbag study over a period of 77 days in the highlands of western Kenya. The litterbags were buried 1 cm below the soil surface and covered with soil of ca 1 cm thickness. Percent leaf mass and total N and P that remained with time strongly correlated with total P and C/P ratio (R2= 0.60-0.90) during the first 35 days of study; but afterwards, correlation was stronger with the initial soluble polyphenolics (Pp)/P ratio (R2= 0.69-0.92) than with total P and C/P ratio. Loss of leaf mass and release of N and P followed the exponential function, yt= y0* e- kt, from which the specific decay rate constants (k) were calculated for loss of leaf mass (kB) and release of N (kN) and P (Kp). Among the plant species, the k values were lowest in Calliandra with kB= 0.012/d, kN= 0.017/d and kp= 0.044/d. Lantana had the highest K values with kg= 0.067/d and kp= 0.119/d, but the highest kN value of 0.109/d occurred in Tithonia. The kB values for all organic materials were lower than their corresponding kN and kp values, suggesting that leaching of N and P from litters may have augmented the microbial mineralization of N and P. There was a strong correlation between the kB, kN, and kp values and total P (r = 0.82-0.96; P 0.01), but not total N, lignin (LIG), or Pp. Rates of N and P release followed the general trend: Tithonia > Senna > Lantana > Sesbania > Croton > Calliandra. The results indicated that, among the quality parameters studied, total P is the most important factor controlling rate of decomposition and N and P release from organic inputs in the area of study. [source]

Fish habitat requirements as the basis for rehabilitation of eutrophic lakes by oxygenation

R. Müller
Abstract Eutrophic lakes often suffer from hypolimnetic oxygen depletion during summer and autumn, and the accumulation of reduced substances in the hypolimnion. The space fish can occupy is therefore reduced, and the potential for fish kills caused by toxic algae and the upwelling of anoxic water increases. Fish, such as coregonids, require at least 4 mg O2 L,1 to survive in the long-term. This critical level has been postulated as one of the major goals for the rehabilitation of several eutrophic Swiss lakes. It was predicted that this oxygen criterion would reduce phosphorus release from the sediment and increase phosphorus retention, and re-establish natural reproduction of coregonids. Rehabilitation measures applied to three eutrophic Swiss lakes were hypolimnetic oxygenation during summer stratification, and artificial mixing using compressed air to enhance circulation in winter. These lake-internal measures carried out for more than 15 years showed the 4 mg O2 L,1 criterion can be achieved most of the time. The measures have led to an expansion of habitat for oxygen-dependent organisms to greater depths. However, other goals were not attained, such as increasing phosphorus retention by the sediment. In addition, natural reproduction of coregonids could not be re-established. Excessive oxygen consumption by the sediment, arising from the decomposition of deposited organic matter produced during summer, caused death by suffocation of coregonid eggs developing on the sediment. Thus rehabilitation of eutrophic lakes by oxygenating the hypolimnion and artificial mixing will not be successful, unless it is accompanied by lowering the nutrient loading and thus primary production and oxygen consumption by the sediment. Nevertheless, positive effects of lake aeration were the expansion of living space for fish and benthic invertebrates, and the prevention of fish kills by upwelling anoxic hypolimnetic water. [source]

Seasonal response of nutrients to reduced phosphorus loading in 12 Danish lakes

Summary 1.,Concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen and silica and alkalinity were monitored in eight shallow and four deep Danish lakes for 13 years following a phosphorus loading reduction. The aim was to elucidate the seasonal changes in nutrient concentrations during recovery. Samples were taken biweekly during summer and monthly during winter. 2.,Overall, the most substantive changes in lake water concentrations were seen in the early phase of recovery. However, phosphorus continued to decline during summer as long as 10 years after the loading reduction, indicating a significant, albeit slow, decline in internal loading. 3.,Shallow and deep lakes responded differently to reduced loading. In shallow lakes the internal phosphorus release declined significantly in spring, early summer and autumn, and only non-significantly so in July and August. In contrast, in deep lakes the largest reduction occurred from May to August. This difference may reflect the much stronger benthic pelagic-coupling and the lack of stratification in shallow lakes. 4.,Nitrogen only showed minor changes during the recovery period, while alkalinity increased in late summer, probably conditioned by the reduced primary production, as also indicated by the lower pH. Silica tended to decline in winter and spring during the study period, probably reflecting a reduced release of silica from the sediment because of enhanced uptake by benthic diatoms following the improved water transparency. 5.,These results clearly indicate that internal loading of phosphorus can delay lake recovery for many years after phosphorus loading reduction, and that lake morphometry (i.e. deep versus shallow basins) influences the patterns of change in nutrient concentrations on both a seasonal and interannual basis. [source]

Effects of influent C/N ratio, C/P ratio and volumetric exchange ratio on biological phosphorus removal in UniFed SBR process

Chen-hong Zhao
Abstract BACKGROUND: UniFed SBR is a novel process that can achieve high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus removal simultaneously in a simple single SBR tank. In this study, effects of influent C/N ratio, influent C/P ratio and volumetric exchange ratio on biological phosphorus removal in UniFed SBR process were investigated in a lab-scale UniFed apparatus treating real domestic wastewater. RESULTS: The results showed that phosphorus removal efficiency increased as C/N ratio increased from 27% at 2.8 to 88% at 5.7. For C/N ratios 6.5 and above, complete phosphorus removal could be achieved. When C/N ratios and volumetric exchange ratio were fixed at 6 and 33%, respectively, phosphorus removal efficiency remained at 100% for C/P ratios higher than 33; effluent phosphate concentration was below the detection limit. For C/P ratios lower than 33, phosphorus removal efficiency decreased linearly with C/P ratio. Under the same influent C/N ratio and C/P ratio, the following factors all contributed to better phosphorus removal performance: greater volumetric exchange ratio; more organic substrate for PAOs to utilize, less inhibition by NOx, of phosphorus release during the feed/decant period; more PHB synthesized; and more aerobic phosphate uptake. CONCLUSION: High influent C/N ratio, high C/P ratio and high volumetric exchange ratio were beneficial to phosphorus removal in this process. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Performance assessment of a UASB,anoxic,oxic system for the treatment of tomato-processing wastes

Alpesh Gohil
Abstract An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB),anoxic,oxic system was used to achieve biochemical oxygen demand, NH4 and total suspended solids (TSS) criteria of 15, 1 and 15 mg dm,3 at 1.17 days of system hydraulic retention time during treatment of tomato-processing waste. The incorporation of an anoxic tank was found to affect the improvement in sludge-settling characteristics, as reflected by about 25,33% reduction in the sludge volume index, along with final effluent TSS and soluble biochemical oxygen demand concentrations of 13 and 9 mg dm,3, respectively, which met the discharge criteria. Despite incomplete denitrification, sludge settleability was very good (sludge volume index < 60 cm3 g,1) owing to reduction in volatile suspended solids/TSS ratio from 0.75 to 0.6 as a result of higher alkalinity in the UASB effluent. Also in this study, phosphorus release was observed in the anoxic tank, predominantly due to abundance of acetic acid in the UASB effluent. A phosphate release of 5.4 mg P dm,3 was observed in the anoxic tank with subsequent P uptake in the following aerobic stage. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effect of changes of pH on the anaerobic/aerobic transformations of biological phosphorus removal in wastewater fed with a mixture of propionic and acetic acids

Yinguang Chen
Abstract Most studies on the transformation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal have used acetic acid as the carbon source and focused on the anaerobic phase. In this paper the anaerobic and aerobic transformations of phosphorus removal microorganisms at various pH values were investigated with wastewater containing 3.14 mM C propionic acid and 1.56 mM C acetic acid. It was observed that the influence of acidic pH on the concentrations of mixed-liquor suspended solids and biomass was stronger than that of basic pH, and the maximal cell growth appeared at pH 7.6. The observed uptake rate of propionic acid was much faster than that of acetic acid at all pH values investigated, and both were affected by pH. The anaerobic transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen linearly decreased with increasing pH from 6.6 to 8.6, and a greater glycogen transformation correlated to greater polyhydroxyalkanoate transformation in both anaerobic and aerobic stages. Further studies revealed that at pH 6.6 and 8.6 the overall phosphorus release and uptake was low and there was no net phosphorus removal, although the initial phosphorus release was high. However, when the pH was controlled at pH 7.1 and 7.6, a phosphorus removal efficiency of 97.03% and 96.43% was achieved, respectively, which was greater than that of 87.46% at uncontrolled pH. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Sediment phosphorus characteristics in the clearwater state of Lake Mogan, Turkey

Serap Pulatsü
Abstract This study examined the vertical distributions of total phosphorus (TP) and phosphorus fractions, and the iron and organic matter, in the littoral sediment in a macrophyte-dominated, clearwater state in Lake Mogan between September 2005 and August 2006. Benthic macroinvertebrates and total bacteria in the sediment also were determined. No clear seasonal or depth-related (0,20 cm) patterns were found in sediment concentrations for the measured parameters. The phosphorus release was quantitatively very low, and a negative phosphorus release (,0.132 µg m,2 day,1) was measured during the summer months. The TP concentrations of the sediment samples ranged between 675.00 and 1463.80 µg g,1 dry weight (DW), and the trophic level of the lake was eutrophic. On average, inorganic phosphorus fractions comprised the largest fraction (63%), while organic-bound phosphorus (Org , P) constituted 37% of the TP in Lake Mogan. The most important phosphorus-immobilizing factors are high iron content (14 200,47 750 µg g,1 DW), the sediment's clay content (47.80,51.80%), and an abundance of macrophytes at the sampling station. The low abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates (510,850 individuals m,2), which depend on sediments with high iron and low organic matter (5.42,13.30%), played a role in the sediment phosphorus retention. Although bacterial abundance in the surficial sediment appeared to be positively correlated to temperature, the overlying water did not experience anoxic conditions, supporting a state in which bacteria were able to retain phosphorus in their cell structures. Long-term changes in the sediments of Lake Mogan must be monitored lake. In order to optimize the management of the lake, and to determine the longevity of a clearwater state following management measures and continued external phosphorus loading, long-term changes in the sediments of Lake Morgan must be monitored. [source]

Novel Phosphorus-Containing Poly(ether sulfone)s and Their Blends with an Epoxy Resin: Thermal Decomposition and Fire Retardancy

Ulrike Braun
Abstract Summary: The decomposition of novel phosphorus-containing poly(oxyphenylene-sulfonyl-phenylene-oxy-diphenyl phenylene phosphine oxide) (PSU_I), 2,5-dihydroxy-1-biphenylene-phosphine oxide based polysulfone (PSU_II), poly(sulfonyl-diphenylphenylene phosphonate) (PSU_P) and bisphenol A-based polysulfone (PSU) is studied. The influence of the chemical structure, charring and phosphorus release is discussed based on the mass loss, kinetics and products. The pyrolysis and fire behaviour of blends with epoxy resin (EP) are studied. For EP-PSU_II, phosphorus initiates water elimination and changes the decomposition pathway of EP. The fire behaviour of EP-PSU shows some improvements, whereas the heat release rate is crucially reduced for EP-PSU_II due to simultaneous char formation and flame inhibition. Decomposition model of PSU_II. [source]