Phosphoric Acid (phosphoric + acid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Phosphoric Acid

  • chiral phosphoric acid

  • Terms modified by Phosphoric Acid

  • phosphoric acid etching
  • phosphoric acid solution

  • Selected Abstracts

    Highly Enantioselective Transfer Hydrogenation of ,-Imino Esters by a Phosphoric Acid

    Qiang Kang
    Abstract Chiral phosphoric acids have been identified as highly efficient organocatalysts for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ,-imino esters and amide. Utilizing Hantzsch esters as the hydrogen donor, versatile highly enantioenriched ,-amino esters and their derivatives were obtained with up to 98,% ee. [source]

    Titelbild: Which Is the Actual Catalyst: Chiral Phosphoric Acid or Chiral Calcium Phosphate? (Angew. Chem.

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 22 2010
    Aktiv sind beide die chirale Phosphorsäure und das chirale Calciumphosphat! K. Ishihara et,al. berichten in der Zuschrift auf S.,3911,ff. über eine hoch enantioselektive direkte Mannich-Reaktion von Aldiminen mit einer Vielzahl an 1,3-Dicarbonylverbindungen, einschließlich ungewöhnlichen ,-Ketothioestern und Thiomalonat. Die Reaktion wird in Gegenwart einer chiralen Phosphorsäure ausgeführt und läuft in An- und Abwesenheit von CaII ab. Phosphorsäure- und Calciumphosphat-Katalyse ergeben Produkte mit entgegengesetzter absoluter Konfiguration. [source]

    Which Is the Actual Catalyst: Chiral Phosphoric Acid or Chiral Calcium Phosphate?,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 22 2010
    Manabu Hatano Dr.
    Beide! Hoch enantioselektiv verlief die gezeigte direkte Mannich-Reaktion in Gegenwart einer chiralen Phosphorsäure mit oder ohne Calcium(II)-Zusatz. Phosphorsäure- und Calciumphosphat-Katalyse ergaben Produkte mit entgegengesetzter absoluter Konfiguration (Boc=tert -Butoxycarbonyl). [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Enantioselective Friedel,Crafts Alkylation of Indoles, Pyrroles, and Furans with Trifluoropyruvate Catalyzed by Chiral Phosphoric Acid.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 26 2010
    Wataru Kashikura
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Selective Synthesis of Cyclic Phosphoric Acid Diesters Through Oxorhenium(VII)-Catalyzed Dehydrative Condensation of Phosphoric Acid with Alcohols.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 10 2009
    Akira Sakakura
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Highly Enantioselective Friedel,Crafts Reaction of Indoles with Imines by a Chiral Phosphoric Acid.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 24 2007
    Qiang Kang
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Aqueous Phosphoric Acid as a Mild Reagent for Deprotection of tert-Butyl Carbamates, Esters, and Ethers.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 12 2007
    Bryan Li
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Selective Synthesis of Phosphate Monoesters by Dehydrative Condensation of Phosphoric Acid and Alcohols Promoted by Nucleophilic Bases.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 40 2005
    Akira Sakakura
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Highly Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Enamides Catalyzed by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2009
    Guilong Li
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    An Efficient Method for the Esterification of Phosphonic and Phosphoric Acids Using Silica Chloride.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 33 2006
    Manisha Sathe
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Synthesis and characterization of high molecular weight hexafluoroisopropylidene-containing polybenzimidazole for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Guoqing Qian
    Abstract A high molecular weight, thermally and chemical stable hexafluoroisopropylidene containing polybenzimidazole (6F-PBI) was synthesized from 3,3,-diaminobenzidine (TAB) and 2,2-bis(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (6F-diacid) using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as both the polycondensation agent and the polymerization solvent. Investigation of polymerization conditions to achieve high molecular weight polymers was explored via stepwise temperature control, monomer concentration in PPA, and final polymerization temperature. The polymer characterization included inherent viscosity (I.V.) measurement and GPC as a determination of polymer molecular weight, thermal and chemical stability assessment via thermo gravimetric analysis and Fenton test, respectively. The resulting high molecular weight polymer showed excellent thermal and chemical stability. Phosphoric acid doped 6F-PBI membranes were prepared using the PPA process. The physiochemical properties of phosphoric acid doped membranes were characterized by measuring the phosphoric acid doping level, mechanical properties, and proton conductivity. These membranes showed higher phosphoric acid doping levels and higher proton conductivities than the membranes prepared by the conventional membrane fabrication processes. These membranes had sufficient mechanical properties to be easily fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and the prepared MEAs were tested in single cell fuel cells under various conditions, with a focus on the high temperature performance and fuel impurity tolerance. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 4064,4073, 2009 [source]

    Control of polyaniline conductivity and contact angles by partial protonation

    Natalia V Blinova
    Abstract Many studies require a specific value of conductivity when investigating conducting polymers. The conductivity of polyaniline can efficiently be controlled by partial protonation of the polyaniline base. Although this is a simple task in principle, practical guidelines are missing. In the present study, the changes in the conductivity of polyaniline base after immersion in aqueous solutions of various acids are reported. Polyaniline base has been reprotonated in aqueous solutions of picric, camphorsulfonic and phosphoric acids. The conductivity of partially reprotonated polyaniline varied between 10,9 and 100 S cm,1. The relation between the pH of a phosphoric acid solution, which was in equilibrium with polyaniline, and the conductivity , is pH = 0.77 , 0.64 log(, [S cm,1]). The wettability, i.e. water contact angles, can similarly be set by partial protonation to between 78° for polyaniline base and 44° for polyaniline reprotonated in 1 mol L,1 phosphoric acid. In solutions of picric acid, the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting state occurs over a narrow range of acid concentrations, and the tuning of conductivity is consequently difficult. Phosphoric acid is well suited for the control of conductivity of polyaniline because of the moderate dependence of the conductivity on the acid concentration or pH. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Growth and characterization of magneto-optical YFeO3 crystals

    Hui Shen
    Abstract The floating zone growth of magneto-optical crystal YFeO3 has been investigated. The polycrystalline feed rod was prepared by a pressure of 250MPa and sintering at about 1500°C. A crack- free YFeO3 single crystal has been successfully grown. The crystal preferred to crystallize along <100> direction with about 10° deviation. The X-ray rocking curve of the crystal has a FWHM of 24 arcsec, confirming the high crystal quality of the sample. The (100) plane was etched by hot phosphoric acid and the dislocation density was about 104/cm2. A thin outer layer with Y2O3 -rich composition was found at the periphery of as-grown crystals, which was attributed to the Fe2O3 evaporation during growth. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effect of citric acid and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene 3,5-disulfonic acid on crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate under simulated conditions of phosphoric acid production

    M. M. Rashad
    Abstract The effect of citric acid and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene 3,5-disulfonic acid (DHBDSA), as additives, on the crystallization of gypsum was studied under simulated conditions of the of phosphoric acid production. Calcium hydrogen phosphate and sulfuric acid were mixed with dilute phosphoric acid at 80 °C, and the turbidity of the reaction mixture was measured at different time periods to calculate the induction time of gypsum crystals formation. Addition of citric acid increased the induction time and decreased the growth efficiency while addition of DHBDSA decreased the induction time and increased the growth efficiency compared with in absence of additives. The crystals mean and median diameters were found to decrease in the presence of citric acid and increased in the presence of DHBDSA. The surface energy decreased with citric acid and increased with DHBDSA compared to the baseline (without additives). Interestingly, the majority of the formed crystals are tabular with DHBDSA and needle-like type with citric acid and baseline [source]

    Effect of phosphonate additive on crystallization of gypsum in phosphoric and sulfuric acid medium

    H. El-Shall
    Abstract Understanding the mechanisms of growth and inhibition during crystallization of calcium sulfate is of primary importance for many industrial applications. For instance, inhibition of the crystallization process may be required to prevent scale formation in pipes, boilers, heat exchangers, reactors, reverse osmosis membrane surfaces, cooling water systems, secondary oil recovery utilizing water flooding techniques and desalination evaporators, etc. On the other hand, control growth and morphology of gypsum crystals is desired in achieving higher filtration rate and higher productivity of phosphoric acid from phosphate rocks. In this regard, this basic study is carried out to understand effect of Aminotris (methylenephosphonic acid (ATMP) on calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) crystallization. The time elapsed between the achievement of supersaturation and the appearance of a solid phase (termed as induction time) is measured under different supersaturation ratios ranging from 1.018 to 1.979. The data are used to calculate the surface energy, critical nucleus size, and crystal growth rates of gypsum under different conditions. The results show that, the induction time decreases exponentially with increasing the supersaturation ratio. In addition, the surface energy decreases with ATMP compared to the baseline (without ATMP). Interestingly, with addition of the ATMP, the crystals mean and median diameters are found to decrease. The inhibition efficiency ranges from 16% to 59% depending on supersaturation ratio. [source]

    Bonding of fractured permanent central incisor crown following radiographic localization of the tooth fragment in the lower lip: a case report

    Gabriela Ferrari Da Silva Schwengber
    The trauma also resulted in a cut on his mentum. Radiographic examination revealed the fractured tooth fragment embedded in the lower lip. The fractured tooth, with incomplete root formation, was treated endodontically and received a temporary restoration. After 15 days, the temporary restoration was removed and the fractured tooth fragment was etched with 37% phosphoric acid. A bonding system was then applied to the etched-fractured tooth surface without polymerization. The same bonding procedure was carried out on the tooth fragment. A layer of flowable resin composite was applied to the fragment, which was positioned on the remaining tooth. The resin composite was then polymerized, finished, and polished. [source]

    Two-year follow-up of fractured anterior teeth restored with direct composite resin: report of three cases

    Emre Ozel
    Fractures of maxillar central incisors including enamel and dentin were diagnosed. Beveling with diamond bur was performed in all four cases. Dentin was cleaned with tungsten carbid bur. The teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, restored with an adhesive system and microhybrid composite. Finishing and polishing procedures were performed by discs (Sof-Lex) and burs. Restorations were found successful according to modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria after 2 years in terms of retention, color match, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, marginal adaptation, and surface texture. [source]

    Pulp capping with adhesive resin-based composite vs. calcium hydroxide: a review

    A. H. B. Schuurs
    Abstract , The results of some short-term experiments suggest that direct capping of a vital pulp with the modern resin-based composite systems may be as effective as capping with calcium hydroxide. Total cavity etching with 10% phosphoric acid seems to be safe for the exposed pulp, but unless annulled by calcium hydroxide 35% phosphoric acid may be disastrous. For hemostasis and cleaning of the pulp wound both sodium hypochlorite and saline seem suitable, whereas the effectiveness of a 2% chlorhexidine solution is questionable. Although hard-setting calcium hydroxide cements may induce the formation of dentin bridges, they appear not to provide an effective long-term seal against bacterial factors. Within a few years, the majority of mechanically exposed and capped pulps show infection and necrosis due to microleakage of such capping materials and tunnel defects in the dentin bridges. It is unknown whether newer types of resin containing calcium-hydroxide-products will act as a permanent barrier. The cytotoxicity of the resin-based composites and the temperature rise during polymerisation may not be of concern, but microleakage, sensitisation and allergic reactions may pose problems. Based on available data, pulp capping with resin-based composites may be said to be promising, but more and long-term research is mandatory before the method can be recommended. [source]

    Reproducible protein analysis by CE using linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries and hydrochloric acid rinsing

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 13 2007
    Adhitasari Suratman
    Abstract Hydrochloric acid was investigated as a rinsing reagent to remove adsorbed proteins from linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries for electrophoresis. Three model proteins were used, namely cytochrome c as a basic protein, ,-lactoglobulin as an acidic protein, and ,-casein as a more easily denaturing protein. In order to regenerate capillary surfaces, they have been rinsed for 5,min with 2,M hydrochloric acid, 5,min with water, and then 30,min with buffer after every tenth run. It was found important to perform this regeneration procedure on time. The obtained results show good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobility with percentage RSDs below 3% (n,=,60) in various cases. These good results were mainly confirmed in long-term series with more than 200 runs each. Only very high concentrations (175,,M) of ,-lactoglobulin and ,-casein at pH,3.5 gave RSD% values above 5%. For these conditions, the further test of 85% m/m phosphoric acid as rinsing reagent showed a good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobilities as well. [source]

    Fast visible dye staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels compatible with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7-8 2004
    Jung-Kap Choi
    Abstract A fast and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) compatible protein staining method in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE) is described. It is based on the counterion dye staining method that employs oppositely charged two dyes, zincon (ZC) and ethyl violet (EV) to form an ion-pair complex. The protocol, including fixing, staining and quick washing steps, can be completed in 1,1.5 h depending upon gel thickness. It has a sensitivity of 4,8 ng, comparable to that of colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (CBBG) staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. The counterion dye stain does not induce protein modifications that complicate interpretation of peptide mapping data from MS. Considering the speed, sensitivity and compatibility with MS, the counterion dye stain may be more practical than any other dye-based protein stains for routine proteomic researches. [source]

    Direct chiral resolution of tartaric acid by ion-pair capillary electrophoresis using an aqueous background electrolyte with (1R,2R)-(,)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane as a chiral counterion

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2003
    Shuji Kodama
    Abstract Chiral resolution of native DL -tartaric acid was achieved by ion-pair capillary electrophoresis (CE) using an aqueous-ethanol background electrolyte with (1R,2R)-(,)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (R -DACH) as a chiral counterion. Factors affecting chiral resolution and migration time of tartaric acid were studied. By increasing the viscosity of the background electrolyte and the ion-pair formation, using organic solvents with a lower relative dielectric constant, resulted in a longer migration time. The optimum conditions for both high resolution and short migration time of tartaric acid were found to be a mixture of 65% v/v ethanol and 35% v/v aqueous solution containing 30 mMR -DACH and 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 5.1) with an applied voltage of ,30 kV at 25°C, using direct detection at 200 nm. By using this system, the resolution (Rs) of racemic tartaric acid was approximately 1. The electrophoretic patterns of tartaric and malic acids suggest that two carboxyl groups and two hydroxyl groups of tartaric acid are associated with the enantioseparation of tartaric acid by the proposed CE method. [source]

    Role of preliminary etching for one-step self-etch adhesives

    Michael Taschner
    Taschner M, Nato F, Mazzoni A, Frankenberger R, Krämer N, Di Lenarda R, Petschelt A, Breschi L. Role of preliminary etching for one-step self-etch adhesives. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 517,524. © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of preliminary phosphoric acid etching of enamel and dentine before the application of two, one-step self-etch adhesive systems. The systems were applied onto acid-etched or smear-layer-covered enamel and dentine. The treatment groups were as follows: group 1, Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE) on etched substrate; group 2, Adper Easy Bond (control); group 3, iBond Self-Etch (Heraeus Kulzer) on etched substrate; and group 4, iBond Self-Etch (control). Enamel and dentine bond strengths were calculated using microshear and microtensile bond-strength tests. Additional specimens were prepared to evaluate nanoleakage at the dentine,adhesive interface and were investigated using light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. Both adhesives demonstrated higher microshear bond strengths when enamel was pre-acid-etched with phosphoric acid (Adper Easy Bond 28.7 ± 4.8 MPa; iBond Self-Etch 19.7 ± 3.6 MPa) compared with controls (Adper Easy Bond 19.2 ± 3.3 MPa; iBond Self-Etch 17.5 ± 2.7 MPa) and increased microtensile bond strength when applied on acid-etched (Adper Easy Bond 35.8 ± 5.7 MPa; iBond Self-Etch 24.3 ± 7.9 MPa) vs. smear-layer-covered dentine (Adper Easy Bond 26.9 ± 6.2 MPa; iBond Self-Etch 17.6 ± 4.3 MPa). Adper Easy Bond showed lower nanoleakage than iBond Self-Etch, irrespective of preliminary etching. The results of this study support the use of phosphoric acid etching before the application of one-step self-etch adhesive systems. [source]

    Effect of post-space treatment on retention of fiber posts in different root regions using two self-etching systems

    Ling Zhang
    The effect of post-space treatment on the retention of fiber posts in different root regions was evaluated using two self-etching systems. Post spaces were prepared in extracted premolars and then the root canals were subjected to one of the following post-space treatments: (i) water irrigation (control); (ii) etching with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s; (iii) irrigation with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); and (iv) ultrasonic agitation associated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl irrigating solutions. The dentin surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after different post-space treatments. Fiber posts were then luted in the treated roots using resin cement with either Clearfil SE Bond or Clearfil DC Bond, and the thin-slice push-out test was performed. Scanning electron microscopy showed that all the post-space treatments tested were effective in removal of the smear layer of debris, or sealer/gutta-percha remnants, on the root canal. The apical push-out strength was affected by post-space treatment. Both 35% phosphoric acid etching and ultrasonic agitation in combination with EDTA/NaOCl irrigation improved the apical push-out strength of the fiber post, regardless of the type of self-etching system. A solo irrigation with an EDTA/NaOCl solution resulted in a lower apical push-out strength compared with the other two experimental groups. [source]

    Effect of dentin conditioning on dentin permeability and micro-shear bond strength

    Danuchit Banomyong
    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid flow rates across dentin surfaces treated with four conditioners. The effect of conditioning on the micro-shear bond strengths of glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based adhesives (Single Bond 2 or Clearfil SE Bond) were also investigated. Under a simulated pressure of 1.3 kPa, two dentin conditioners, phosphoric acid, and a self-etching primer were applied to the dentin surfaces. Dentinal fluid flows at baseline and after conditioning were recorded for 15 min each. The conditioned surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The micro-shear bond strengths of the glass ionomer cement and of the resin-based adhesives bonded to conditioned dentin surfaces were evaluated while simulated intrapulpal pressure was maintained at 0 or 1.3 kPa. Only the dentin surface etched with phosphoric acid showed a significant increase in permeability. Micro-shear bond strengths of Fuji IX GP were not affected by conditioning the dentin surfaces or by bonding at different intrapulpal pressures (0 or 1.3 kPa). The effects on bond strengths of resin-based adhesives depended on the system used. The simulated positive intrapulpal pressure during bonding significantly affected the adherence of Single Bond 2, whereas Clearfil SE Bond was unaffected. [source]

    Effects of additional and extended acid etching on bonding to caries-affected dentine

    César Augusto Galvão Arrais
    This study evaluated the effects of additional and extended acid etching on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of two adhesive systems to sound (SD) and caries-affected dentine (CAD). Flat surfaces of CAD surrounded by SD of 36 extracted carious third molars were assigned to four treatments (i): self-etching adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) applied to dentine surfaces following manufacturer's instructions (MI); (ii) after additional etching for 15 s (35% phosphoric acid, PA); (iii) total-etch one-bottle adhesive (Single Bond) applied to dentine surfaces following MI; or (iv), after etching for 45 s with PA. Composite ,blocks' were built on bonded surfaces and restored teeth were vertically sectioned to obtain bonded slices of 0.7 mm thick. Slices were trimmed to create hourglass-shaped specimens (cross-sectional area of 1 mm2), which were tested under tension in a universal testing machine. Additional CAD and SD samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopy observations. Additional and extended etching significantly increased µTBS to CAD; however, µTBS of both adhesives to CAD were significantly lower than to SD. Additional and extended etching can improve bonding to CAD; however, adhesives applied on SD showed the best results for bonding. [source]

    The effect of a self-etching primer on the continuous demineralization of dentin,

    Sofia S. A. Oliveira
    Self-etching primers (SEP), used for adhesion of resin restorations, contain an acidic monomer that is not rinsed off after application; therefore, residual acid could further demineralize dentin, jeopardizing adhesion. This study evaluated whether dentin demineralization continues after a 20-s application of a SEP and also after polymerization of the adhesive. Surface recession was measured, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), between the masked surface and dentin etched with SEP (Clearfil SE Bond) or phosphoric acid (pH 1.94) immediately, 5 min, 2 h or 12 h after application. AFM-based nanoindentations were performed to determine mechanical property profiles across resin-bonded interfaces of two sequence groups: SG 1, where the adhesive was applied and polymerized immediately after application of the primer and specimens were immersed in Hank's solution after 5 min, 2 h and 12 h; or SG 2, where specimens were placed in an incubator before the application of the adhesive, for the same time periods. Significant surface recession occurred over time for all groups, except for SEP before desiccation. Nanoindentations yielded decreased hardness and elastic modulus below the hybrid layer after application of the initial primer, even after polymerization of the adhesive. The results reveal a demineralized dentin zone below the hybrid layer formed by the SEP, not fully protected by the adhesive, which could jeopardize bond strength. [source]

    Four-year water degradation of a resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive bonded to dentin

    Jan De Munck
    Glass-ionomers are auto-adhesive to tooth tissue through combined micro-mechanical and chemical bonding. How much each of the two bonding components contributes to the actual bonding effectiveness is, however, not known and there is not much information available on long-term stability. The objective of this study was to assess the bonding effectiveness of a resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin after 4 yr of water storage. Fuji Bond LC (GC) was applied without (i) and with pretreatment using (ii) a polyalkenoic acid conditioner and (iii) a 37.5% phosphoric acid etchant. The etchant was used to exclude any chemical interaction with hydroxyapatite. The micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) to dentin decreased significantly over the 4 yr period in all three experimental groups. After 24 h and 4 yr, the lowest µTBS was recorded when dentin was not pretreated. The highest µTBS was obtained following polyalkenoic acid pretreatment, although this was not significantly different from specimens that were pretreated using phosphoric acid. Pretreating dentin with phosphoric acid intensified micromechanical interlocking at the expense of chemical bonding potential to hydroxyapatite. Nevertheless, correlating the µTBS data with failure analysis through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that combined micro-mechanical and chemical bonding involving pretreatment with the polyalkenoic acid conditioner yielded the most durable bond. [source]

    Surface characteristics of dentin experimentally exposed to hydrofluoric acid

    Thomas Pioch
    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the surface characteristics of dentin in vitro. Dentin was exposed in 50 human molars and divided into five groups according to different etching schedules: (i) no etching, (ii) 15 s HF, (iii) 15 s H3PO4, (iv) 15 s HF and 15 s H3PO4, (v) 15 s H3PO4 and 15 s HF. Teeth were examined under a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) or two layers of fluorescence-labeled primer followed by the composite were applied, and the teeth were sectioned and examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). With scanning electron microscopy, no openings of dentinal tubules were found in groups (i), (ii), and (iv). In group (v) only a few tubules were opened and in group (iii) the smear layer was completely removed and tubules appeared open. The EDX analysis revealed that fluoride was incorporated into the dentin surface when HF was used. With CLSM, distinct hybrid layers could be detected only in group (iii). In group (v) the hybrid layer appeared less established compared with group (iii). No dentin hybridization was found in groups (i), (ii), and (iv). It is concluded that HF has the ability to close the openings of dentin tubules which were opened due to etching by phosphoric acid and cannot dissolve the smear layer. [source]

    Inter-crystallite nanoretention of self-etching adhesives at enamel imaged by transmission electron microscopy

    Matthias Hannig
    The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyse the mode of action of self-etching adhesive systems when applied for resin-to-enamel bonding. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the enamel,resin interface after application of non-rinsing self-etching adhesive systems based on phosphoric acid estered methacrylates (Clearfil Liner Bond 2, Clearfil SE Bond, Etch & Prime 3.0 and Resulcin AquaPrime) compared with conventional phosphoric acid etching and bonding (Heliobond). Non-decalcified ultrathin sections from the interface between enamel and self-etching adhesive systems revealed a 1.5,3.2-µm deep enamel surface layer characterized by a less-dense arrangement of enamel crystallites separated from each other by nanometer-sized spaces. A 1.5,3.2-µm wide, netlike resinous structure was observed in corresponding decalcified specimens, indicating that self-etching priming agents dissolve the peripheral and central part of the enamel crystallites, while simultaneously promoting inter- and intra-crystallite monomer infiltration. A similar pattern, but greater depth (6.9 µm) of enamel surface hybridization was found in the phosphoric acid-etched and bonded specimens. The nanoretentive interlocking between enamel crystallites and resin could explain the potential of self-etching adhesive systems in resin-to-enamel bonding despite the less distinct enamel etching pattern observed in scanning electron microscopy investigations. [source]

    Phenylphosphoric Acid as a New Additive to Inhibit Olefin Isomerisation in Ruthenium-Catalysed Metathesis Reactions

    Nélida Gimeno
    Abstract A systematic study of the ruthenium-catalysed metathesis of alkenes containing hydrogen-bonding substituents (namely urea and thiourea groups) is presented. Under standard metathesis conditions, several of the substrates under study undergo alkene isomerisation instead of the targeted metathesis. However, in the course of these investigations it has been established that this unwanted isomerisation process can be suppressed by addition of phenylphosphoric acid to the reaction mixture. Some other potential isomerisation inhibitors (e.g. benzoic acid and salts of phosphoric acid) have been studied and their performance compared to that of phenylphosphoric acid. To extend the scope of phenylphosphoric acid, we also studied the metathesis of 1,3-diallylurea. Interestingly, not only did we observe the complete suppression of the isomerisation process, but also that it is possible to obtain instead of the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) product,ADMET oligomers resulting from the cross-metathesis of diallylurea at higher concentrations. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]