Phospholipid Metabolism (phospholipid + metabolism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome

B. K. Puri
Puri BK, Counsell SJ, Zaman R, Main J, Collins AG, Hajnal JV, Davey NJ. Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002: 106: 224,226. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2002. Objective:,To test the hypothesis that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with altered cerebral metabolites in the frontal and occipital cortices. Method:,Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was carried out in eight CFS patients and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Spectra were obtained from 20 × 20 × 20 mm3 voxels in the dominant motor and occipital cortices using a point-resolved spectroscopy pulse sequence. Results:,The mean ratio of choline (Cho) to creatine (Cr) in the occipital cortex in CFS (0.97) was significantly higher than in the controls (0.76; P=0.008). No other metabolite ratios were significantly different between the two groups in either the frontal or occipital cortex. In addition, there was a loss of the normal spatial variation of Cho in CFS. Conclusion:,Our results suggest that there may be an abnormality of phospholipid metabolism in the brain in CFS. [source]

,-tocopherol improves impaired physiology of rat type II pneumocytes isolated from experimentally injured lungs

B. Müller
Background Oxidant stress delivered by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inhalation impairs the function of extracellular surfactant as well as surfactant phospholipid metabolism in type II pneumocytes. Because protection against oxidant stress is important to normal lung function, the lung contains a variety of antioxidants, including vitamin E. Whether administration of this antioxidant during NO2 inhalation attenuates NO2 -induced alterations in phospholipid metabolism in type II pneumocytes has not been studied. Methods We exposed rats to identical NO2 body doses (720 p.p.m. x h) using continuous, intermittent, or repetitive protocols. During exposure periods, the animals received daily intramuscular injections of vitamin E (25 mg kg,1). We isolated type II pneumocytes from NO2 -exposed rats and evaluated them for cell yield and viability, as well as for synthesis and secretion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) as measures of surfactant metabolism. Results The yield of type II pneumocytes was significantly elevated from animals that had been exposed continuously to NO2 whereas in intermittently and repeatedly exposed rats, cell yield was similar to yield from control animals. Viability of the isolated cells was similar in controls and all NO2 exposure protocols. Vitamin E treatment of the NO2 -exposed rats neither changed cell yield nor cell viability. Phospholipid de novo synthesis, as estimated by choline incorporation into PC, was increased most after continuous NO2 inhalation whereas in the other conditions there was only a slight increase. Vitamin E administration further increased phospholipid synthesis; this difference reached statistical significance only in the case of intermittent NO2 exposure. Secretion of phosphatidylcholine from type II cells was only reduced after continuous NO2 inhalation and administration of the antioxidant reduced the impairment. Conclusion Because vitamin E appears to preserve the ability of type II pneumocytes isolated from NO2 -exposed rats to synthesize and secrete surfactant lipid, we conclude that administration of vitamin E may mitigate NO2 -induced lung injury. [source]

Identification of phosphatidylserine decarboxylases 1 and 2 from Pichia pastoris

Tamara Wriessnegger
Abstract Genetic manipulation of lipid biosynthetic enzymes allows modification of cellular membranes. We made use of this strategy and constructed mutants in phospholipid metabolism of Pichia pastoris, which is widely used in biotechnology for expression of heterologous proteins. Here we describe identification of two P. pastoris phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSDs) encoded by genes homologous to PSD1 and PSD2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using P. pastoris psd1, and psd2, mutants we investigated the contribution of the respective gene products to phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis, membrane composition and cell growth. Deletion of PSD1 caused loss of PSD activity in mitochondria, a severe growth defect on minimal media and depletion of cellular and mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine levels. This defect could not be compensated by Psd2p, but by supplementation with ethanolamine, which is the substrate for the cytidine diphosphate (CDP),ethanolamine pathway, the third route of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in yeast. Fatty acid analysis showed selectivity of both Psd1p and Psd2p in vivo for the synthesis of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine species. Phosphatidylethanolamine species containing palmitic acid (16:0), however, were preferentially assembled into mitochondria. In summary, this study provides first insight into membrane manipulation of P. pastoris, which may serve as a useful method to modify cell biological properties of this microorganism for biotechnological purposes. [source]

Quantitative Lipid Metabolomic Changes in Alcoholic Micropigs With Fatty Liver Disease

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
Angela M. Zivkovic
Background:, Chronic ethanol consumption coupled with folate deficiency leads to rapid liver fat accumulation and progression to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). However, the specific effects of alcohol on key liver lipid metabolic pathways involved in fat accumulation are unknown. It is unclear whether lipid synthesis, lipid export, or a combination of both is contributing to hepatic steatosis in ASH. Methods:, In this study we estimated the flux of fatty acids (FA) through the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), phosphatidylethanolamine- N -methyltransferase (PEMT), and FA elongation pathways in relation to liver triacylglycerol (TG) content in Yucatan micropigs fed a 40% ethanol folate-deficient diet with or without supplementation with S -adenosyl methionine (SAM) compared with controls. Flux through the SCD and PEMT pathways was used to assess the contribution of lipid synthesis and lipid export respectively on the accumulation of fat in the liver. Liver FA composition within TG, cholesterol ester (CE), phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine classes was quantified by gas chromatography. Results:, Alcoholic pigs had increased liver TG content relative to controls, accompanied by increased flux through the SCD pathway as indicated by increases in the ratios of 16:1n7 to 16:0 and 18:1n9 to 18:0. Conversely, flux through the elongation and PEMT pathways was suppressed by alcohol, as indicated by multiple metabolite ratios. SAM supplementation attenuated the TG accumulation associated with alcohol. Conclusions:, These data provide an in vivo examination of liver lipid metabolic pathways confirming that both increased de novo lipogenesis (e.g., lipid synthesis) and altered phospholipid metabolism (e.g., lipid export) contribute to the excessive accumulation of lipids in liver affected by ASH. [source]

Choline kinase overexpression increases invasiveness and drug resistance of human breast cancer cells

Tariq Shah
Abstract A direct correlation exists between increased choline kinase (Chk) expression, and the resulting increase of phosphocholine levels, and histological tumor grade. To better understand the function of Chk and choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer we have stably overexpressed one of the two isoforms of Chk-, known to be upregulated in malignant cells, in non-invasive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Dynamic tracking of cell invasion and cell metabolism were studied with a magnetic resonance (MR) compatible cell perfusion assay. The MR based invasion assay demonstrated that MCF-7 cells overexpressing Chk-, (MCF-7-Chk) exhibited an increase of invasion relative to control MCF-7 cells (0.84 vs 0.3). Proton MR spectroscopy studies showed significantly higher phosphocholine and elevated triglyceride signals in Chk overexpressing clones compared to control cells. A test of drug resistance in MCF-7-Chk cells revealed that these cells had an increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil and higher expression of thymidylate synthase compared to control MCF-7 cells. To further characterize increased drug resistance in these cells, we performed rhodamine-123 efflux studies to evaluate drug efflux pumps. MCF-7-Chk cells effluxed twice as much rhodamine-123 compared to MCF-7 cells. Chk-, overexpression resulted in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells acquiring an increasingly aggressive phenotype, supporting the role of Chk-, in mediating invasion and drug resistance, and the use of phosphocholine as a biomarker of aggressive breast cancers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

NMR metabolite profiling analysis reveals changes in phospholipid metabolism associated with the re-establishment of desiccation tolerance upon osmotic stress in germinated radicles of cucumber

ABSTRACT The adaptation of metabolism is thought to play a role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance (DT). However, the importance of such a role and whether specific regulatory pathways exist remain to be assessed. Using in vitro31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and biochemical assays, we analysed metabolite profiles of perchloric extracts from germinating radicles of cucumber to identify changes in carbon and phosphate metabolism associated with DT. Emerged radicles measuring 2 mm long can be rendered tolerant to desiccation by incubation in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution with a water potential of ,1.5 MPa. However, in 4-mm-long emerged radicles, this treatment was ineffective. This manipulable system enabled the discrimination of changes in metabolites associated with DT from those associated with the response to osmotic stress. Independent of radicle length, the PEG treatment resulted in an increase in sucrose (Suc) content, whereas glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru) and the hexose phosphate pool, as well as phosphoenolpyruvate decreased three- to fourfold. In addition, three derivatives arising early during phospholipid catabolism (glycerylphosphorylcholine, glycerylphosphorylethanolamine and glycerylphosphorylinositol) appeared in the PEG-treated radicles. Interestingly, phospholipid degradation was much more pronounced in osmotically challenged radicles that remain sensitive to drying. This was proved by the appearance of catabolites, such as phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, solely in 4 mm PEG-treated radicles. Furthermore, glycerol-3-phosphate and its derivative 3-phosphoglycerate increased significantly. Our data suggest that the metabolic response leading to the re-establishment of DT is not entirely identical to that of an osmotic response. It is inferred that membrane remodelling and/or increased phospholipid catabolism is an adaptive response common to osmotic adjustment and DT but is controlled differently in tolerant and sensitive radicles. [source]

Signal transduction responses to lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate in human prostate cancer cells

THE PROSTATE, Issue 14 2009
Terra C. Gibbs
Abstract BACKGROUND Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are lipid mediators that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors. In this study, signaling responses to 18:1 LPA and S1P were examined in parallel in three human prostate cancer cell lines: PC-3, Du145, and LNCaP. METHODS Receptor expression was assessed by RT-PCR, Northern blotting, and immunoblotting. Cellular responses to mediators were studied by proliferation assays, phosphoprotein immunoblotting, and phospholipid metabolism assays. RESULTS All cell lines express mRNA for both LPA and S1P receptors. PC-3 and Du145, but not LNCaP, proliferate in response to LPA and S1P. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), LPA, and S1P induce activation of Erks in PC-3 and Du145; only EGF and PMA activate Erks in LNCaP. In Du145 and PC-3, Akt is activated by EGF, LPA, and S1P. Akt is constitutively active in LNCaP; EGF but not LPA or S1P stimulates further phosphorylation. FAK is phosphorylated in response to both LPA and S1P in PC-3 and Du145, but not in LNCaP. LPA and S1P stimulate phospholipase D (PLD) activity to varying extents in the different cell lines. Notably, both lipid mediators activate PLD in LNCaP. In Du145, LPA, but not S1P, activates PLD and enhances cellular production of LPA. CONCLUSIONS Although both LPA and S1P induce signal transduction in all prostate cancer cell lines studied, a proliferation response is observed only when the Erk, Akt, and FAK pathways are activated. Other responses to the lipid mediators, such as PLD activation, likely contribute to other cellular outcomes. Prostate 69: 1493,1506, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The early history of 32P as a radioactive tracer in biochemical research: A personal memoir

Howard Gest
The concept of using radioactive isotopes as "tracers" of chemical conversions was conceived and developed by inorganic chemist Georg de Hevesy (Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1943). In 1935, he began to apply the technique to various biological processes using 32P, and his experiments revealed the dynamic character of physiology and metabolism. Following de Hevesy's lead, Samuel Ruben (University of California, Berkeley) exploited 32P in 1937,38 for investigation of phospholipid metabolism. Between 1937 and 1940, Ruben and colleague Martin Kamen spearheaded tracer studies in various biological systems using 32P, short-lived 11C, and other radioactive isotopes. During this period, Kamen was responsible for cyclotron-produced radioactive tracers and was able to sustain de Hevesy's research by supplying him with 32P. In 1940, Ruben and Kamen discovered long-lived 14C, which later proved to be a very powerful tool for analysis of complex biochemical processes, such as the path of carbon in photosynthesis. Between 1946 and 1950, 32P was used in studies of bacteriophage replication and photosynthetic metabolism. This memoir surveys the history of these early investigations. [source]

Corrected values of brain metabolites for the article: ,Abnormal cellular energy and phospholipid metabolism in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of medication-free individuals with bipolar disorder: an in vivo1H MRS study'

Benicio N. Frey
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Neuroimaging in bipolar disorder

Stephen M Strakowski
Objective: The authors reviewed neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder in order to evaluate how this literature contributes to the current understanding of the neurophysiology of the illness. Method: Papers were reviewed as identified, using the NIMH PubMed literature search systems that reported results of neuroimaging studies involving a minimum of five bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy comparison subjects. Results: Structural neuroimaging studies report mixed results for lateral and third ventriculomegaly. Recent studies suggest subcortical structural abnormalities in the striatum and amygdala, as well as the prefrontal cortex. Proton spectroscopic studies suggest that abnormalities in choline metabolism exist in bipolar disorder, particularly in the basal ganglia. Additionally, phosphorous MRS suggests that there may be abnormalities in frontal phospholipid metabolism in bipolar disorder. Functional studies have identified affective state-related changes in cerebral glucose metabolism and blood flow, particularly in the prefrontal cortex during depression, but no clear abnormalities specific to bipolar disorder have been consistently observed. Conclusions: The current literature examining the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder using neuroimaging is limited. Nonetheless, abnormalities in specific frontal-subcortical brain circuits seem likely. Additional targeted studies are needed to capitalize on this burgeoning technology to advance our understanding of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. [source]