Phospholipid Membranes (phospholipid + membrane)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Membrane Photolithography: Direct Micropatterning and Manipulation of Fluid Phospholipid Membranes in the Aqueous Phase Using Deep-UV Light,

K. Yee
A wet photolithography approach using light-activated, localized, oxidative chemistry can directly pattern fluid phospholipid bilayers submerged in aqueous phases. Targeted incorporation of secondary components within pattern voids (see Figure) allows many membrane dynamical processes to be probed and optically defined arrays of holes, functional membrane microdomains, and proteins embedded in a lipidic background can be designed. [source]

Interpretation of biological activity data of bacterial endotoxins by simple molecular models of mechanism of action

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2000
Vladimir Frecer
Lipid A moiety has been identified as the bioactive component of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides). However, the molecular mechanism of biological activity of lipid A is still not fully understood. This paper contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of bacterial endotoxins by comparing molecular modelling results for two possible mechanisms with the underlying experimental data. Mechanisms of action involving specific binding of lipid A to a protein receptor as well as nonspecific intercalation into phospholipid membrane of a host cell were modelled and analysed. As the cellular receptor for endotoxin has not been identified, a model of a peptidic pseudoreceptor was proposed, based on molecular structure, symmetry of the lipid A moiety and the observed character of endotoxin-binding sites in proteins. We have studied the monomeric form of lipid A from Escherichia coli and its seven synthetic analogues with varying numbers of phosphate groups and correlated them with known biological activities determined by the Limulus assay. Gibbs free energies associated with the interaction of lipid A with the pseudoreceptor model and intercalation into phospholipid membrane calculated by molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics methods were used to compare the two possible mechanisms of action. The results suggest that specific binding of lipid A analogues to the peptidic pseudoreceptor carrying an amphipathic cationic binding pattern BHPHB (B, basic; H, hydrophobic; P, polar residue, respectively) is energetically more favourable than intercalation into the phospholipid membrane. In addition, binding affinities of lipid A analogues to the best minimum binding sequence KFSFK of the pseudoreceptor correlated with the experimental Limulus activity parameter. This correlation enabled us to rationalize the observed relationship between the number and position of the phosphate groups in the lipid A moiety and its biological activity in terms of specific ligand,receptor interactions. If lipid A,receptor interaction involves formation of phosphate-ammonium ion-pair(s) with cationic amino-acid residues, the specific mechanism of action was fully consistent with the underlying experimental data. As a consequence, recognition of lipid A variants by an amphipathic binding sequence BHPHB of a host-cell protein receptor might represent the initial and/or rate-determining molecular event of the mechanism of action of lipid A (or endotoxin). The insight into the molecular mechanism of action and the structure of the lipid A-binding pattern have potential implications for rational drug design strategies of endotoxin-neutralizing agents or binding factors. [source]

Parallel and antiparallel dimers of magainin 2: their interaction with phospholipid membrane and antibacterial activity

Yasuhiro Mukai
Abstract Magainin 2 (M2) forms pores by associating with several other M2 molecules in lipid membranes and shows antibacterial activity. To examine the effect of M2 dimerization on biological activity and membrane interaction, parallel and antiparallel M2 dimers were prepared from two monomeric precursors. Antibacterial and haemolytic activities were enhanced by dimerization. CD measurements showed that both dimers and monomers have an ,-helical structure in the presence of lipid vesicles. Tryptophan fluorescence shift and KI quenching studies showed that all the peptides were more deeply embedded in acidic liposomes than in neutral liposomes. Experiments on dye-leakage activity and membrane translocation of peptides suggest that dimers and monomers form pores through lipid membranes, although the pore formation may be accompanied by membrane disturbance. Although dimerization of M2 increased the interaction activity with lipid membranes, no appreciable difference between the activities of parallel and antiparallel M2 dimers was observed. Copyright © 2002 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The potential interactions between polyunsaturated fatty acids and colonic inflammatory processes

S C. Mills
Summary n- 3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognized as having an anti-inflammatory effect, which is initiated and propagated via a number of mechanisms involving the cells of the immune system. These include: eicosanoid profiles, membrane fluidity and lipid rafts, signal transduction, gene expression and antigen presentation. The wide-range of mechanisms of action of n- 3 PUFAs offer a number of potential therapeutic tools with which to treat inflammatory diseases. In this review we discuss the molecular, animal model and clinical evidence for manipulation of the immune profile by n- 3 PUFAs with respect to inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to providing a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease there is also recent evidence that abnormalities in fatty acid profiles, both in the plasma phospholipid membrane and in perinodal adipose tissue, may be a key component in the multi-factorial aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Such abnormalities are likely to be the result of a genetic susceptibility to the changing ratios of n- 3 : n- 6 fatty acids in the western diet. Evidence that the fatty acid components of perinodal adipose are fuelling the pro- or anti-inflammatory bias of the immune response is also reviewed. [source]

Salt-resistant homodimeric bactenecin, a cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2008
Ju Y. Lee
The cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide bactenecin is a ,-hairpin molecule with a single disulfide bond and broad antimicrobial activity. The proform of bactenecin exists as a dimer, however, and it has been proposed that bactenecin is released as a dimer in vivo, although there has been little study of the dimeric form of bactenecin. To investigate the effect of bactenecin dimerization on its biological activity, we characterized the dimer's effect on phospholipid membranes, the kinetics of its bactericidal activity, and its salt sensitivity. We initially synthesized two bactenecin dimers (antiparallel and parallel) and two monomers (,-hairpin and linear). Under oxidative folding conditions, reduced linear bactenecin preferentially folded into a dimer forming a ladder-like structure via intermolecular disulfide bonding. As compared to the monomer, the dimer had a greater ability to induce lysis of lipid bilayers and was more rapidly bactericidal. Interestingly, the dimer retained antimicrobial activity at physiological salt concentrations (150 mm NaCl), although the monomer was inactivated. This salt resistance was also seen with bactenecin dimer containing one intermolecular disulfide bond, and the bactenecin dimer appears to undergo multimeric oligomerization at high salt concentrations. Overall, dimeric bactenecin shows potent and rapid antimicrobial activity, and resists salt-induced inactivation under physiological conditions through condensation and oligomerization. These characteristics shed light on the features that a peptide would need to serve as an effective therapeutic agent. [source]

Interaction of bovine coagulation factor X and its glutamic-acid-containing fragments with phospholipid membranes

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2002
A surface plasmon resonance study
The interaction of blood coagulation factor X and its Gla-containing fragments with negatively charged phospholipid membranes composed of 25 mol% phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and 75 mol% phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was studied by surface plasmon resonance. The binding to 100 mol% PtdCho membranes was negligible. The calcium dependence in the membrane binding was evaluated for intact bovine factor X (factor X) and the fragment containing the Gla-domain and the N-terminal EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like domain, Gla,EGFN, from factor X. Both proteins show the same calcium dependence in the membrane binding. Calcium binding is cooperative and half-maximum binding was observed at 1.5 mm and 1.4 mm, with the best fit to the experimental data with three cooperatively bound calcium ions for both the intact protein and the fragment. The dissociation constant (Kd) for binding to membranes containing 25 mol% PtdSer decreased from 4.6 µm for the isolated Gla-domain to 1 µm for the fragments Gla,EGFN and Gla,EGFNC (the Gla-domain and both EGF-like domains) fragments and to 40 nm for the entire protein as zymogen, activated enzyme or in the active-site inhibited form. Analysis of the kinetics of adsorption and desorption confirmed the equilibrium binding data. [source]

Phytanic Acid Accumulation Is Associated with Conduction Delay and Sudden Cardiac Death in Sterol Carrier Protein-2/Sterol Carrier Protein-x Deficient Mice

Introduction: The sterol carrier protein-2 gene encodes two functionally distinct proteins: sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2, a peroxisomal lipid carrier) and sterol carrier protein-x (SCPx, a peroxisomal thiolase known as peroxisomal thiolase-2), which is involved in peroxisomal metabolism of bile acids and branched-chain fatty acids. We show in this study that mice deficient in SCP2 and SCPx (SCP2null) develop a cardiac phenotype leading to a high sudden cardiac death rate if mice are maintained on diets enriched for phytol (a metabolic precursor of branched-chain fatty acids). Methods and Results: In 210 surface and 305 telemetric ECGs recorded in wild-type (C57BL/6; wt; n = 40) and SCP2 null mice (n = 40), no difference was observed at baseline. However, on diet, cycle lengths were prolonged in SCP2 null mice (262.9 ± 190 vs 146.3 ± 43 msec), AV conduction was prolonged (58.3 ± 17 vs 42.6 ± 4 ms), and QRS complexes were wider (19.1 ± 5 vs 14.0 ± 4 ms). In 11 gene-targeted Langendorff-perfused hearts isolated from SCP2 null mice after dietary challenge, complete AV blocks (n = 5/11) or impaired AV conduction (Wenckebach point 132 ± 27 vs 92 ± 10 msec; P < 0.05) could be confirmed. Monophasic action potentials were not different between the two genotypes. Left ventricular function studied by echocardiography was similar in both strains. Phytanic acid but not pristanic acid accumulated in the phospholipid fraction of myocardial membranes isolated from SCP2 null mice. Conclusion: Accumulation of phytanic acid in myocardial phospholipid membranes is associated with bradycardia and impaired AV nodal and intraventricular impulse conduction, which could provide an explanation for sudden cardiac death in this model. [source]

The peptaibol antiamoebin as a model ion channel: similarities to bacterial potassium channels,

Andrias O. O'Reilly
Abstract Antiamoebin (AAM) is a polypeptide antibiotic that is capable of forming ion channels in phospholipid membranes; planar bilayer studies have suggested the channels are octamers. The crystal structure of a monomeric form of AAM has provided the basis for molecular modelling of an octameric helical bundle channel. The channel model is funnel-shaped due to a substantial bend in the middle of the polypeptide chain caused by the presence of several imino acids. Inter-monomer hydrogen bonds orientate a ring of glutamine side chains to form a constriction in the pore lumen. The channel lumen is lined both by side chains of Gln11 and by polypeptide backbone carbonyl groups. Electrostatic calculations on the model are compatible with a channel that transports cations across membranes. The AAM channel model is compared with the crystal structures of two bacterial (KcsA and MthK) potassium channels. AAM and the potassium channels exhibit common functional features, such as cation-selectivity and similar single channel conductances. Common structural features include being multimers, each formed from a bundle of eight transmembrane helices, with lengths roughly comparable to the thickness of lipid bilayers. In addition, they all have aromatic amino acids that lie at the bilayer interfaces and which may aid in the stabilization of the transmembrane helices, as well as narrower constrictions that define the ion binding sites or selectivity filters in the pore lumen. The commonality of structural and functional features in these channels thus suggests that antiamoebin is a good, simple model for more complex bacterial and eukaryotic ion channels, capable of providing insight into details of the mechanisms of ion transport and multimeric channel stability. Copyright © 2003 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Overlay for Membrane-Bound Protein Biochips:

A Combined Optical Microscopy, AFM Study
Phospholipids bilayer membrane represents a fundamental element within the cell, protecting the inner cell from the outside while enabling the communication of the cell with its environment. Composed of several kinds of phospholipids, mixed at defined ratio, it presents also numerous proteins assembly as for example chemotaxis receptors, or larger structure such as the bacterial flagellar Nano-Motor [1]. Despite its importance, studying phospholipids membrane in native environment remains challenging due to numerous technical limitations. [source]