Phase III Trials (phase + iii_trials)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Robust improvements in fasting and prandial measures of ,-cell function with vildagliptin in drug-nave patients: analysis of pooled vildagliptin monotherapy database

R. E. Pratley
Aim:, To assess the effects of 24-week treatment with vildagliptin on measures of ,-cell function in a broad spectrum of drug-nave patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods:, Data from all double-blind, multicentre, randomized, placebo- or active-controlled trials conducted in drug-nave patients with T2DM were pooled from all patients receiving monotherapy with vildagliptin (100 mg daily: 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg once daily, n = 1855) or placebo (n = 347). Fasting measures of ,-cell function [homeostasis model assessment of ,-cell function (HOMA-B) and proinsulin : insulin ratio] were assessed in the overall pooled monotherapy population. Standard meal tests were performed at baseline and week 24 in a subset of patients, and effects of vildagliptin (100 mg daily, n = 227) on dynamic (meal test,derived) measures of ,-cell function [insulin secretion rate relative to glucose (ISR/G) and insulinogenic indices] were assessed relative to baseline and vs. placebo (n = 29). Results:, In the overall population, vildagliptin significantly increased HOMA-B both relative to baseline [adjusted mean change (AM,) = 10.3 1.5] and vs. placebo (between-treatment difference in AM, = 11.5 4.5, p = 0.01) and significantly decreased the proinsulin : insulin ratio relative to baseline (AM, = ,0.05 0.01) and vs. placebo (between-treatment difference in AM, = ,0.09 0.02, p < 0.001). Relative to baseline, vildagliptin monotherapy significantly increased all meal test,derived parameters, and ISR/G (between-treatment difference in AM, = 9.8 2.8 pmol/min/m2/mM, p < 0.001) and the insulinogenic index0,peak glucose (between-treatment difference in AM, = 0.24 0.05 pmol/mmol, p = 0.045) were significantly increased vs. placebo. Conclusions:, Vildagliptin monotherapy consistently produced robust improvements in both fasting and meal test,derived measures of ,-cell function across a broad spectrum of drug-nave patients with T2DM. All Phase III trials described (NCT 00099905, NCT 00099866, NCT 00099918, NCT 00101673, NCT 00101803 and NCT 00120536) are registered with [source]

Eletriptan for the Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adolescents: Results of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2007
Paul Winner DO
Background.,Eletriptan is a potent 5-HT1B/1D agonist with proven efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine in adults. Objective.,To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of eletriptan 40 mg versus placebo in adolescent patients (aged 12-17). Methods.,A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was conducted comparing 40 mg of oral eletriptan with placebo for the treatment of migraine in adolescent patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was 2-hour headache response, and a number of secondary endpoints were also evaluated. An exploratory analysis evaluated which clinical and demographic characteristics might be correlated with high placebo response. Results.,Of 274 patients who treated a migraine attack, 267 were evaluated for efficacy (n = 138 eletriptan; n = 129 placebo) at 2 hours post-dose. There was no significant difference in 2-hour headache response for eletriptan 40 mg versus placebo (57% vs 57%), and no significant improvements were observed for any of the outcomes at 1 or 2 hours post-dose. By contrast, there was a significant advantage for eletriptan 40 mg in reducing headache recurrence within 24 hours post-dose (11% vs 25%, P= .028), and post hoc analyses showed statistically significant differences for sustained headache response rates (52% vs 39%; P= .04) and sustained pain-free response rates (22% vs 10%; P= .013). The strongest clinical predictor of placebo response was triptan-nave status (ie, no previous use of any triptan). Eletriptan 40 mg was well tolerated in this population, and the profile of adverse events was similar to that observed in Phase III trials in adult patients. Conclusions.,The high placebo response rates reported here for 1- and 2-hour outcomes are in accordance with other studies of triptans in adolescent patients. The evaluation of treatment effect in adolescent migraine might benefit from use of more stringent outcome measures, such as headache recurrence, sustained headache response, and sustained pain-free response at 24 hours post-dose. [source]

Recent aspects of medical care of malignant melanoma

Patrick Terheyden
Summary Recent developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of malignant melanoma are reviewed, with particular attention paid to established standards of care. When melanoma metastases are inoperable, they respond poorly to the various chemotherapy strategies, so that additional improvements are critically needed. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibodies, multikinase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic strategies and several other approaches are in progress in Phase III trials both as monotherapy as well as in combination with standard chemotherapy. [source]

Oral therapy for migraine: Comparisons between rizatriptan and sumatriptan.

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 2 2001
A review of 4 randomized, Denmark) Neurology 2000;55:S1, Glostrup, double-blinded clinical trials. (University of Copenhagen
Four comparative, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of oral rizatriptan versus oral sumatriptan including one Phase II trial and three Phase III trials were reported in this study. Forty mg rizatriptan was found to be more effective than 100 mg sumatriptan, but was associated with a high incidence of adverse effects. Five mg rizatriptan was comparable to 50 mg sumatriptan. In two trials, rizatriptan 10 mg, the recommended dose in most countries, had a more rapid onset of action than 50 mg and 100 mg of sumatriptan. In addition, 10 mg of rizatriptan resulted in more patients being pain-free after 2 h than 100 mg of sumatriptan, and resulted in fewer drug-related adverse events than sumatriptan. [source]

Determinants of the optimal first-line therapy for follicular lymphoma: A decision analysis,

Rebecca L. Olin
Combination immunochemotherapy is the most common approach for initial therapy of patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma, but no consensus exists as to the optimal selection or sequence of available regimens. We undertook this decision analysis to systematically evaluate the parameters affecting the choice of early therapy in patients with this disease. We designed a Markov model incorporating the three most commonly utilized regimens (RCVP, RCHOP, and RFlu) in combinations of first- and second-line therapies, with the endpoint of number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) until disease progression. Data sources included Phase II and Phase III trials and literature estimates of long-term toxicities and health state utilities. Meta-analytic methods were used to derive the values and ranges of regimen-related parameters. Based on our model, the strategy associated with the greatest number of expected quality-adjusted life years was treatment with RCHOP in first-line therapy followed by treatment with RFlu in second-line therapy (9.00 QALYs). Strategies containing RCVP either in first- or second-line therapy resulted in the lowest number of QALYs (range 6.24,7.71). Sensitivity analysis used to determine the relative contribution of each model parameter identified PFS after first-line therapy and not short-term QOL as the most important factor in prolonging overall quality-adjusted life years. Our results suggest that regimens associated with a longer PFS provide a greater number of total QALYs, despite their short-term toxicities. For patients without contraindications to any of these regimens, use of a more active regimen may maximize overall quality of life. Am. J. Hematol. 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clinical quality assurance: Auditing phase II trials

Terry Winchell
Abstract Clinical quality assurance (CQA) auditing of Phase II trials may help eliminate potential problems before they occur by providing valuable quality input before pivotal Phase III trials are undertaken. CQA auditing of Phase II trials can affect critical elements of design regarding Phase III protocols, and may be extremely useful in the early evaluation of vendors prior to investing in Phase III research. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hemospan: Design Principles for a New Class of Oxygen Therapeutic

Kim D. Vandegriff
Abstract Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers have been under development for decades, but safety concerns have prevented commercial approval. Early designs for modified hemoglobins by polymerization or intramolecular cross-linking reactions increased molecular size and decreased oxygen affinity, but all exhibited side effects of vasoconstriction and reduced blood flow. A new strategy has been established by applying principles of oxygen transport to cell-free hemoglobin. Sangart has developed a new oxygen therapeutic, Hemospan, using site-specific, poly(ethylene) glycol conjugation chemistry designed on two principles: (i) increased macromolecular size to prolong intravascular retention time, and (ii) increased oxygen affinity to prevent premature oxygen offloading in arterioles. In contrast to early-generation products, Hemospan infusion maintains normal arteriolar vascular tone and capillary flow. Phase I and Phase II clinical trials have been completed, showing that Hemospan is well-tolerated in humans, with evidence of efficacy to impart hemodynamic stability in surgical patients under anesthesia. Phase III trials in orthopedic surgery have recently completed enrollment in Europe. [source]

Phase III trials of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer , does size matter?

Laurence KRIEGER
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Prognostic factors and long-term survivorship in patients with recurrent or metastatic carcinoma of the head and neck,

CANCER, Issue 10 2004
An analysis of two Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group randomized trials
Abstract BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to identify prognostic factors and report the characteristics of long-term survivors in patients with recurrent or metastatic carcinoma of the head and neck who were treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy in two randomized, Phase III trials conducted by the Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group (ECOG) (E1393 and E1395). METHODS The authors analyzed prognostic factors for response and survival by combining data from the E1393 trial, which compared cisplatin plus paclitaxel at two dose levels, with data from the E1395 trial, which compared cisplatin plus paclitaxel with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using logistic regression and Cox regression models. RESULTS A total of 399 eligible patients were included. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. The 1-year overall survival (OS) rate for all patients was 32%, the median OS was 7.8 months, and the objective response rate was 32%. On multivariate analysis, the following were found to be independent unfavorable predictors of objective response: weight loss of > 5%, an ECOG performance status of 1 (vs. 0), residual disease at the primary tumor site, a primary tumor site other than the oropharynx, prior radiation therapy (RT) (P = 0.056), and well/moderate tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.067). Independent unfavorable prognostic factors for OS were weight loss, an ECOG performance status of 1 (vs. 0), well/moderate tumor cell differentiation, a primary tumor in the oral cavity or hypopharynx, and prior RT. The following were found to be independent unfavorable prognostic facotrs for time to disease progression: well/moderate tumor cell differentiation, a oral cavity or hypopharyngeal primary tumor, and prior RT. Patients with , 2 adverse prognostic factors were reported to have a median OS of 1 year, whereas patients with 3,5 adverse prognostic factors were found to have a median OS of 0.5 years (P < 0.0001). Forty-nine patients (12%) survived for , 2 years and 6 patients were alive at 5 years. Two-year survivors were more likely to have achieved an objective response to chemotherapy, have poor tumor cell differentiation, be white, have an ECOG performance status of 0, and have received no prior RT. CONCLUSIONS Clinical parameters and tumor cell differentiation appear to be strong pretreatment predictors of outcome in patients with carcinoma of the head and neck and should be considered in the design of future randomized trials. A small percentage of patients with recurrent head and neck carcinoma can achieve long-term survival. Cancer 2004. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

BAFF: a local and systemic target in autoimmune diseases

I. Moisini
Summary BAFF (B lymphocyte activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family) is a vital homeostatic cytokine for B cells that helps regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Increased serum levels of BAFF are found in a number of different autoimmune diseases, and BAFF is found in inflammatory sites in which there is lymphoid neogenesis. BAFF antagonism has been used in several autoimmune disease models, resulting in B cell depletion, decreased activation of T cells and dendritic cells (DC) and a reduction in the overall inflammatory burden. BAFF, through its interaction with BAFF-R, is required for survival of late transitional, marginal zone and mature naive B cells, all of which are depleted by BAFF blockade. Through their interactions with TACI (transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor) and BCMA (B cell maturation protein), BAFF and its homologue APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), support the survival of at least some subsets of plasma cells; blockade of both cytokines results in a decrease in serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. In contrast, neither BAFF nor APRIL is required for the survival or reactivation of memory B cells or B1 cells. BAFF also helps DC maturation and interleukin (IL)-6 release and is required for proper formation of a follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network within germinal centres, although not for B cell affinity maturation. The clinical efficacy of BAFF blockade in animal models of autoimmunity may be caused both by the decline in the number of inflammatory cells and by the inhibition of DC maturation within target organs. Blockade of BAFF and its homologue APRIL are being explored for human use; several Phase I and II clinical trials of BAFF inhibitors for autoimmunity have been completed and Phase III trials are in progress. [source]

Efficacy of Vinblastine for Treatment of Canine Mast Cell Tumors

K.M. Rassnick
Background: The optimal dosage and clinical efficacy of vinblastine (VBL) for treatment of mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs has not been established. Hypothesis: Single-agent VBL has antitumor activity against MCTs in dogs. Animals: Fifty-one dogs with nonresectable grade II or III cutaneous MCTs. Methods: Prospective, open clinical trial. Dogs were systematically allocated (by hospital record number) to receive IV treatment with VBL at a dosage of 2.0 mg/m2 (weekly for 4 treatments then biweekly for 4 treatments; VBL 2.0) or treatment with VBL at a dosage of 3.5 mg/m2 (biweekly for 5 treatments; VBL 3.5). The primary outcome measure was reduction in tumor size. Results: Twenty-five dogs were allocated to the VBL 2.0 group and 26 were allocated to the VBL 3.5 group. In the VBL 2.0 group, 3 (12%) had a partial response (PR) for a median of 77 days (range, 48,229 days). Overall response rate in the VBL 3.5 group was 27%. One dog (4%) had a complete response for 63 days and 6 dogs (23%) had a PR for a median of 28 days (range, 28,78 days). Toxicoses were uncommon in the VBL 2.0 group. Twelve (46%) dogs in the VBL 3.5 group had <500 neutrophils/,L 7 days after treatment; 2 dogs with neutropenia developed concurrent fevers. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: VBL, when used as a single-agent, has activity against MCTs in dogs although the response rate is lower than those reported for VBL-containing combination protocols. Further, findings suggest VBL at a dosage of 3.5 mg/m2 should be considered for use in future phase II/III trials. [source]

Almotriptan Reduces the Incidence of Migraine-Associated Symptoms: A Pooled Analysis

HEADACHE, Issue 2002
Roger Cady MD
Objectives.,Evaluate the reduction in migraine-associated symptoms after administration of a single oral dose of almotriptan. Methods.,This pooled analysis (N=1773) used data from three randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trials (studies A, B, and C) to determine the incidence of migraine-associated symptoms (defined as nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia) 2 hours after a single oral dose of study medication (almotriptan, sumatriptan, or placebo). Outcome data was extracted from studies A and B for placebo and the almotriptan 6.25-mg and 12.5-mg groups, and from study C for placebo, almotriptan 12.5-mg, and sumatriptan 100-mg groups. Results.,The incidence of nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia at 2 hours after dosing with study medication was significantly reduced (all P < .05) with almotriptan 6.25 mg or 12.5 mg compared with placebo. The percentage of patients with vomiting was lower with both doses of almotriptan in studies A and B compared with placebo, although differences were significant only for the 6.25-mg dose in study A (P < .001). For study C, the incidence of nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia was similar for almotriptan and sumatriptan and lower than with placebo at 2 hours after dosing. Significant reductions (all P < .05) versus placebo were observed in the incidence of vomiting and phonophobia with almotriptan 12.5 mg, and photophobia and phonophobia with sumatriptan 100 mg. Conclusion.,Almotriptan provides relief from migraine-associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia, and thus represents an attractive treatment option for a wide spectrum of migraine symptomatology. [source]

Almotriptan Increases Pain-Free Status in Patients With Acute Migraine Treated in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

HEADACHE, Issue 2002
FRCP(C), Ninan T. Mathew MD
Objectives.,Evaluate the efficacy of a single oral dose of almotriptan in achieving pain-free status during treatment of acute migraine attacks. Methods.,This pooled analysis (N=1321) used data from two randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trials (studies A and B) to determine the proportion of patients with migraine achieving pain-free status 2 hours after a single oral dose of study medication (almotriptan or placebo). Pain was assessed using a 4-point integer scale (0=no headache, 3=severe headache), and recorded in a patient self-assessment booklet. Results.,The proportion of patients pain-free at 2 hours after study medication was significantly greater with almotriptan 6.25 mg (both studies P,.002) and almotriptan 12.5 mg (both studies P,.001) than with placebo. In study A, 11.6% of patients taking almotriptan 12.5 mg versus 2.5% of patients receiving placebo were pain-free at 1 hour (P=.016). At 1.5 hours, 26.8% of patients taking almotriptan 12.5 mg versus 8.8% receiving placebo (P=.001) were pain-free, and at 2 hours, 38.4% on almotriptan versus 11.3% on placebo were pain-free (P<.001). In study B, 23.8% of patients taking almotriptan 12.5 mg were free from pain at 1.5 hours versus 10.2% receiving placebo (P<.001). At 2 hours, 39.2% taking almotriptan 12.5 mg versus 15.3% receiving placebo were pain-free (P<.001). Increases in pain-free status with almotriptan generally occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion.,Compared with placebo, almotriptan 12.5 mg significantly increases the proportion of patients who are pain-free by as early as 1 hour, and consistently by 1.5 hours, after a single dose. [source]

The current status of targeted therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

H. Francis
Abstract Lung cancer accounts for more cancer-related deaths than any other malignancy in Australia and worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of lung cancers and is associated with a 5-year survival of only 15%. Treatment with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting and single agent chemotherapy in the second-line setting has improved survival and quality of life in patients with NSCLC. However, the benefits associated with chemotherapy are modest and serve to stress the need for novel therapeutic approaches. In the last decade a range of targeted therapies has been evaluated in NSCLC. Dramatic and often durable responses were seen in patients treated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib and erlotinib particularly in females, non-smokers, patients of East Asian ethnicity and those with adenocarcinomas , a group subsequently found to be enriched for tumours with activating EGFR mutations. Large randomized phase III trials have since established a role for EGFR TKI in the second- and third-line setting as well as a potential role for the monoclonal antibodies bevacizumab and cetuximab, directed at vascular endothelial growth factor and EGFR, respectively, in the combination with chemotherapy in the first-line setting. Recently it has been shown that patients with EGFR mutations may benefit from gefitinib in the first-line setting. Other promising agents under evaluation are inhibitors of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and inhibitors of recently described ALK gene rearrangements. [source]

Trospium chloride once-daily extended release is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: an integrated analysis of two randomised, phase III trials

D. R. Staskin
Summary Background:, Trospium chloride is an antimuscarinic agent with a hydrophilic polar quaternary amine structure that is minimally metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 and is actively excreted in the urine, each of which confers a potential benefit with regard to efficacy and tolerability. Purpose:, We analysed pooled data from two identically designed phase III trials of a once-daily, extended-release (XR) formulation of trospium chloride (trospium XR 60-mg capsules) in subjects with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Methods:, Adults with OAB of , 6 months' duration with urinary urgency, frequency and , 1 urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episode/day were enrolled in these multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind trials. Participants were randomised (1 : 1) to receive trospium XR 60 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were changes in urinary frequency and the number of UUI episodes/day. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout. Results:, In total, 1165 subjects were randomised (trospium XR, 578; placebo, 587). At baseline, subjects averaged 12.8 toilet voids/day and 4.1 UUI episodes/day. Compared with placebo, subjects treated with trospium XR had significantly greater reductions from baseline in the mean number of toilet voids/day (,1.9 vs. ,2.7; p < 0.001) and UUI episodes/day (,1.8 vs. ,2.4; p < 0.001) at week 12. The most frequent AEs considered possibly related to study treatment were dry mouth (trospium XR, 10.7%; placebo, 3.7%) and constipation (trospium XR, 8.5%; placebo, 1.5%). Notably, rates of central nervous system (CNS) AEs were lower with trospium XR vs. placebo (dizziness: 0.2% vs. 1.0%; headache: 1.4% vs. 2.4%). Conclusions:, Treatment with trospium XR resulted in statistically significant improvements in both of the dual primary and all of the secondary outcome variables. Trospium XR demonstrated favourable rates of AEs, particularly CNS AEs (numerically lower than with placebo) and dry mouth (lower than previously reported with trospium immediate-release, although not compared in a head-to-head study). [source]

Treatment of invasive candidiasis with echinocandins

MYCOSES, Issue 6 2009
Andreas Glckner
Summary Blood stream infections by Candida spp. represent the majority of invasive fungal infections in intensive care patients. The high crude mortality of invasive candidiasis remained essentially unchanged during the last two decades despite new treatment options that became available. The echinocandins, the latest class of antifungals introduced since 2001, exhibit potent activity against clinically relevant fungi including most Candida spp. In several randomised multicentre phase III trials, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin showed convincing efficacy when compared with standard treatment regimens. In all trials, echinocandins were at least non-inferior to standard treatments. Anidulafungin was shown to be superior to fluconazole. Echinocandins have a favourable tolerability profile and exhibit a minimal potential for drug interactions since their pharmacokinetics is independent of renal and , largely , hepatic function. As a result of these properties, echinocandins are appropriate drugs of choice for invasive candidiasis in intensive care where many patients experience organ failure and receive multiple drugs with complex interactions. [source]

Desmopressin treatment in nocturia; an analysis of risk factors for hyponatremia

A. Rembratt
Abstract Aims To explore the incidence, severity, time course, and risk factors of clinically significant hyponatremia in desmopressin treatment for nocturia. Methods Data from three multi-center phase III trials were pooled. Hyponatremia was categorised as borderline (134,130 mmol/L) or significant (<130 mmol/L). Risk factors were explored with logistic regression and subgroup analysis performed to explore threshold values for contra-indication. Results In total 632 patients (344 men, 288 women) were analyzed. During dose-titration, serum sodium concentration below normal range was recorded in 95 patients (15%) and 31 patients (4.9%) experienced significant hyponatremia. The risk increased with age, lower serum sodium concentration at baseline, higher basal 24-hr urine volume per bodyweight and weight gain at time of minimum serum sodium concentration. Age was the best single predictor. Elderly patients (,65 years of age) with a baseline serum sodium concentration below normal range were at high risk (75%). Limiting treatment in elderly with normal basal serum sodium concentration to those below 79 years and with a 24-hr urine output below 28 ml/kg would reduce the risk from 8.1% to 3.0% at the cost of 34% fulfilling the contra-indication. Conclusions The majority of nocturia patients tolerate desmopressin treatment without clinically significant hyponatremia. However, the risk increases with increasing age and decreasing baseline serum sodium concentration. Treatment of nocturia in elderly patients with desmopressin should only be undertaken together with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration. Patients with a baseline serum sodium concentration below normal range should not be treated. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clarithromycin (Biaxin)-lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone (BiRd) versus lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) for newly diagnosed myeloma

Francesca Gay
The objective of this case-matched study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of the addition of clarithromycin (Biaxin) to lenalidomide/low-dose dexamethasone (BiRd) vs. lenalidomide/low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) for newly diagnosed myeloma. Data from 72 patients treated at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center were retrospectively compared with an equal number of matched pair mates selected among patients seen at the Mayo Clinic who received Rd. Case matching was blinded and was performed according to age, gender, and transplant status. On intention-to-treat analysis, complete response (45.8% vs. 13.9%, P < 0.001) and very-good-partial-response or better (73.6% vs. 33.3%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher with BiRd. Time-to-progression (median 48.3 vs. 27.5 months, P = 0.071), and progression-free survival (median 48.3 vs. 27.5 months, P = 0.044) were higher with BiRd. There was a trend toward better OS with BiRd (3-year OS: 89.7% vs. 73.0%, P = 0.170). Main grade 3,4 toxicities of BiRd were hematological, in particular thrombocytopenia (23.6% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.012). Infections (16.7% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.218) and dermatological toxicity (12.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.129) were higher with Rd. Results of this case-matchedanalysis suggest that there is significant additive value when clarithromycin is added to Rd. Randomized phase III trials are needed to confirm these results. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Quality assurance within the scope of Good Clinical Practice (GCP),what is the cost of GCP-related activities?

A survey within the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF)'s members
Abstract The bureaucracy that the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) system generates, due to industry over-interpretation of documentation requirements, clinical monitoring, data verifications etc. is substantial. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage cost of all such GCP-related activities within phase III clinical trials performed in Sweden in 2005. Method: An electronic questionnaire on ICH GCP-activities and their related costs was sent to 47 of the 60 member companies of the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF). Results: The number of respondents was 29, giving a response rate of 62% and covering 97% (n=250) of phase III trials performed in Sweden in 2005. Approximately 50% of the total budget for a phase III study was reported to be GCP-related. 50% of the GCP-related cost was related to Source Data Verification (SDV). A vast majority (71%) of respondents did not support the notion that these GCP-related activities increase the scientific reliability of clinical trials. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Enantioselective HPLC-UV method for determination of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093) and its metabolites in human plasma

Gilberto Alves
Abstract Eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093) is a novel central nervous system drug undergoing clinical phase III trials for epilepsy and phase II trials for bipolar disorder. A simple and reliable chiral reversed-phase HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eslicarbazepine acetate, oxcarbazepine, S- licarbazepine and R -licarbazepine in human plasma. The analytes and internal standard were extracted from plasma by a solid-phase extraction using Waters Oasis HLB cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved by isocratic elution with water,methanol (88:12, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min, on a LichroCART 250-4 ChiraDex (, -cyclodextrin, 5 m) column at 30C. All compounds were detected at 225 nm. Calibration curves were linear over the range 0.4,8 g/mL for eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine, and 0.4,80 g/mL for each licarbazepine enantiomer. The overall intra- and interday precision and accuracy did not exceed 15%. Mean relative recoveries varied from 94.00 to 102.23% and the limit of quantification of the assay was 0.4 g/mL for all compounds. This method seems to be a useful tool for clinical research and therapeutic drug monitoring of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites S- licarbazepine, R -licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Inhibition of angiogenesis in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2007
Vicki L. Keedy
Angiogenesis and its role in the growth and development of metastases has become a topic of increasing importance. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis, growth of the primary tumor, and development of metastases. In addition, elevated expression in tissue samples is a negative prognostic feature. For these reasons, VEGF is a worthy target for novel therapies. Recent clinical trials have shown that the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab adds to the effect of chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Hypertension and proteinuria are, as expected, commonly seen in this patient population, but the unexpected toxicity of life-threatening hemoptysis has also been observed. This makes careful patient selection especially important for this class of drugs. Our understanding of the VEGF pathway is increasing, as are the number of available targeted agents. In addition to the monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multitargeted kinase inhibitors, and combination VEGF and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, are all being evaluated in NSCLC. Small phase I and II trials have suggested modest benefit when used alone; however, we now know that the anti-angiogenic therapies work best in combination with chemotherapy. The results of ongoing trials using these agents in combination with standard therapy will provide more insight into their potential benefit. As it is known that small tumors require angiogenesis to grow and metastasize, the use of anti-angiogenic therapies in the adjuvant setting may provide even greater benefit, and increase the potential cure rate in this population of patients. The results of well-designed phase III trials will be required to truly understand how to best use this class of targeted therapies in resectable and metastatic NSCLC. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 1825,1830) [source]

What are the reasons for negative phase III trials of molecular-target-based drugs?

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2004
Nagahiro Saijo
The results of molecular-biological studies of cancer are changing the way we diagnose and treat cancer. Target-based drug discovery selects agents for development based on their mechanisms of action. The interaction between target-based drugs and their targets can be described by classical drug-receptor theory. Clinical trials have demonstrated that some effective target-based drugs induce apoptosis, even though they are considered to be cyto-static. Numerous phase III trials of target-based drugs have been conducted. Although some have yielded strongly positive results, the majority of the results have been negative. This article seeks to clarify the value of molecular-target-based therapy and to discuss the reasons for negative results in phase III trials. The importance of proof-of-principle studies is stressed throughout preclinical and clinical trials of molecular-target-based drugs. [source]

Dronedarone: Current Evidence and Future Questions

Jeremy A. Schafer
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia, affecting more than 2.2 million Americans. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with AF recommend amiodarone for maintaining sinus rhythm. Dronedarone is a derivative of amiodarone indicated for the treatment of AF. To provide an overview of dronedarone with a focus on the phase III trials and discuss unresolved questions of dronedarone. A literature search was conducted via the PubMed database using the keyword "dronedarone." Search was limited to human trials in english. The FDA website was searched for briefing documents and subcommittee meetings on dronedarone. was searched with the keyword dronedarone for upcoming or unpublished clinical trials. Five phase III trials are available for dronedarone: ANDROMEDA, EURIDIS/ADONIS, ATHENA, ERATO, and DIONYSIS. EURIDIS/ADONIS and ATHENA demonstrated a reduction AF recurrence with dronedarone compared to placebo. The ANDROMEDA trial recruited patients with recent hospitalization for heart failure and was terminated due to an excess of deaths in the dronedarone group. The DIONYSIS trial was a comparative effectiveness trial that demonstrated less efficacy for dronedarone but improved tolerability compared to amiodarone. Dronedarone represents an option in the management of AF in select patients. Dronedarone is not appropriate in patients with recently decompensated heart failure or those treated with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or medications prolonging the QT interval. Dronedarone appears to have improved tolerability at the expense of decreased efficacy when compared to amiodarone. Questions remain on the long-term safety, use in patients with heart failure, retreatment after dronedarone or amiodarone failure, and comparative efficacy with a rate control strategy. [source]