Phase

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Phase

  • accelerated phase
  • acceptor phase
  • active phase
  • activity phase
  • acute phase
  • alternating phase
  • amorphous phase
  • anagen phase
  • anhepatic phase
  • antiferromagnetic phase
  • arterial phase
  • ascending phase
  • assessment phase
  • baseline phase
  • binary phase
  • biotrophic phase
  • blast phase
  • blastic phase
  • bonded stationary phase
  • build-up phase
  • bulk aqueous phase
  • bulk phase
  • c phase
  • c18 stationary phase
  • cardiac phase
  • carrier phase
  • cell cycle phase
  • cell growth phase
  • certain phase
  • chiral phase
  • chiral stationary phase
  • chronic phase
  • circadian phase
  • clear-water phase
  • clinical phase
  • coexisting phase
  • cold phase
  • columnar phase
  • condensed phase
  • conducting phase
  • consecutive phase
  • constituent phase
  • construction phase
  • continuous phase
  • control phase
  • convalescent phase
  • critical phase
  • crystal phase
  • crystalline phase
  • cubic phase
  • cycle phase
  • dark phase
  • death phase
  • decagonal phase
  • deformation phase
  • density phase
  • design phase
  • development phase
  • developmental phase
  • diastolic phase
  • different growth phase
  • different phase
  • disordered phase
  • dispersed phase
  • dispersion phase
  • distinct phase
  • donor phase
  • double-blind phase
  • dynamic phase
  • earliest phase
  • early follicular phase
  • early phase
  • early stationary phase
  • effector phase
  • elicitation phase
  • elimination phase
  • elongation phase
  • emulsion phase
  • epoxy phase
  • establishment phase
  • evaluation phase
  • execution phase
  • expansion phase
  • experimental phase
  • exponential growth phase
  • exponential phase
  • extension phase
  • external aqueous phase
  • fallow phase
  • female phase
  • ferroelectric phase
  • ferromagnetic phase
  • filling phase
  • final phase
  • first phase
  • fluid phase
  • follicular phase
  • follow-up phase
  • formative phase
  • g0/g1 phase
  • g1 phase
  • g2 phase
  • g2/m phase
  • gas phase
  • gaseous phase
  • gel phase
  • glass phase
  • glassy phase
  • growing phase
  • growth phase
  • hard phase
  • healing phase
  • hexagonal columnar phase
  • hexagonal phase
  • high-pressure phase
  • high-temperature phase
  • homogeneous phase
  • host phase
  • hydrated phase
  • hydrophobic phase
  • implementation phase
  • impurity phase
  • inactive phase
  • individual phase
  • induction phase
  • inflammatory phase
  • initial phase
  • initiation phase
  • inorganic phase
  • insertion phase
  • intermediate phase
  • intermetallic phase
  • intervention phase
  • ionic liquid phase
  • isocratic mobile phase
  • isotropic phase
  • juvenile phase
  • key phase
  • l phase
  • lag phase
  • lamellar phase
  • larval phase
  • last phase
  • late g1 phase
  • late phase
  • latest phase
  • lave phase
  • lc phase
  • ldpe phase
  • learning phase
  • leukemic phase
  • life phase
  • light phase
  • lipid phase
  • liquid crystalline phase
  • liquid phase
  • liquid-crystalline phase
  • log phase
  • logarithmic growth phase
  • low-temperature phase
  • lunar phase
  • luteal phase
  • m phase
  • magnetic phase
  • main phase
  • maintenance phase
  • major phase
  • male phase
  • matrix phase
  • maturation phase
  • mean phase
  • melt phase
  • membrane phase
  • menstrual cycle phase
  • menstrual phase
  • metal phase
  • metallic phase
  • metastable phase
  • micellar phase
  • middle phase
  • mineral phase
  • mineralogical phase
  • minimum phase
  • minor phase
  • mitotic phase
  • mixed phase
  • mobile phase
  • modulated phase
  • monoclinic phase
  • monomer phase
  • multiple phase
  • nao phase
  • negative phase
  • nematic phase
  • new phase
  • next phase
  • ni phase
  • non-minimum phase
  • nonaqueou phase
  • normal phase
  • nursery phase
  • oil phase
  • one phase
  • onset phase
  • open-label extension phase
  • ordered phase
  • organic mobile phase
  • organic phase
  • orthorhombic phase
  • other phase
  • oxide phase
  • pa6 phase
  • paramagnetic phase
  • parent phase
  • particle phase
  • particulate phase
  • perovskite phase
  • phosphate phase
  • placebo phase
  • planktonic phase
  • planning phase
  • plateau phase
  • polymer phase
  • positive phase
  • postoperative phase
  • pp phase
  • preclinical phase
  • preparatory phase
  • pressure phase
  • previous phase
  • prodromal phase
  • product phase
  • production phase
  • progressive phase
  • proliferative phase
  • prolonged phase
  • propagation phase
  • ps phase
  • rapid growth phase
  • rapid phase
  • receiving phase
  • recognition phase
  • recovery phase
  • regenerative phase
  • relative phase
  • remission phase
  • reperfusion phase
  • repolarization phase
  • reproductive phase
  • research phase
  • resolution phase
  • resting phase
  • reverse phase
  • reversed phase
  • rhombohedral phase
  • rising phase
  • rubber phase
  • sad phase
  • second phase
  • secondary phase
  • separate phase
  • several phase
  • sexual phase
  • silica phase
  • silica stationary phase
  • single phase
  • slow phase
  • smectic c phase
  • smectic phase
  • solid phase
  • solution phase
  • solvent phase
  • spinel phase
  • stabilization phase
  • stable phase
  • stance phase
  • stationary growth phase
  • stationary phase
  • structural phase
  • structure-factor phase
  • study phase
  • subacute phase
  • subsequent phase
  • successive phase
  • swing phase
  • temperature phase
  • terminal phase
  • ternary phase
  • test phase
  • tetragonal phase
  • the matrix phase
  • therapy phase
  • third phase
  • titration phase
  • tonic phase
  • transient phase
  • transition phase
  • transitional phase
  • treatment phase
  • type phase
  • unknown phase
  • vapor phase
  • vapour phase
  • various phase
  • venous phase
  • washout phase
  • water phase
  • weaning phase
  • zintl phase

  • Terms modified by Phase

  • phase additive
  • phase advance
  • phase ambiguity
  • phase analysis
  • phase angle
  • phase approximation
  • phase arrest
  • phase behavior
  • phase behaviour
  • phase being
  • phase boundary
  • phase cell
  • phase change
  • phase change material
  • phase change temperature
  • phase characteristic
  • phase chemistry
  • phase chromatography
  • phase cml
  • phase composition
  • phase concentration
  • phase condition
  • phase consisting
  • phase containing
  • phase content
  • phase contrast
  • phase contrast image
  • phase contrast microscopy
  • phase contrast mri
  • phase control
  • phase conversion
  • phase correction
  • phase culture
  • phase data
  • phase decomposition
  • phase decrease
  • phase decreased
  • phase delay
  • phase deposition
  • phase determination
  • phase diagram
  • phase difference
  • phase dispersion
  • phase distribution
  • phase domain
  • phase duration
  • phase encoding
  • phase epitaxy
  • phase equilibrium
  • phase error
  • phase evolution
  • phase extension
  • phase extraction
  • phase flow
  • phase formation
  • phase fraction
  • phase function
  • phase holdup
  • phase hplc
  • phase i
  • phase i clinical trial
  • phase i clinical trials
  • phase i metabolite
  • phase i study
  • phase i trial
  • phase i.
  • phase identification
  • phase ii
  • phase ii clinical trial
  • phase ii clinical trials
  • phase ii dose
  • phase ii metabolism
  • phase ii metabolite
  • phase ii studies
  • phase ii study
  • phase ii trial
  • phase ii trials
  • phase iia study
  • phase iii
  • phase iii clinical trial
  • phase iii clinical trials
  • phase iii studies
  • phase iii study
  • phase iii trial
  • phase iii trials
  • phase image
  • phase improvement
  • phase increase
  • phase information
  • phase interaction
  • phase inversion
  • phase inversion process
  • phase iv
  • phase lag
  • phase lead
  • phase leading
  • phase liquid
  • phase liquid chromatography
  • phase material
  • phase measurement
  • phase melanoma
  • phase method
  • phase microextraction
  • phase microscopy
  • phase mixture
  • phase modulation
  • phase morphology
  • phase noise
  • phase only
  • phase particle
  • phase partitioning
  • phase peptide synthesis
  • phase ph
  • phase polymerization
  • phase present
  • phase problem
  • phase process
  • phase property
  • phase protein
  • phase ratio
  • phase reactant
  • phase reaction
  • phase refinement
  • phase region
  • phase relation
  • phase relationships
  • phase response
  • phase segregation
  • phase selection
  • phase separation
  • phase separation behavior
  • phase separation process
  • phase sequence
  • phase set
  • phase shift
  • phase shows
  • phase space
  • phase speed
  • phase stability
  • phase structure
  • phase synchronization
  • phase syndrome
  • phase synthesis
  • phase system
  • phase transfer catalysis
  • phase transfer catalyst
  • phase transformation
  • phase transition
  • phase transition behavior
  • phase transition temperature
  • phase used
  • phase variation
  • phase velocity
  • phase viscosity
  • phase voltage
  • phase volume

  • Selected Abstracts


    CLINICAL TRIALS AND SCID ROW: THE ETHICS OF PHASE 1 TRIALS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2007
    JONATHAN KIMMELMAN
    ABSTRACT Relatively little has been written about the ethics of conducting early phase clinical trials involving subjects from the developing world. Below, I analyze ethical issues surrounding one of gene transfer's most widely praised studies conducted to date: in this study, Italian investigators recruited two subjects from the developing world who were ineligible for standard of care because of economic considerations. Though the study seems to have rendered a cure in these two subjects, it does not appear to have complied with various international guidelines that require that clinical trials conducted in the developing world be responsive to their populations' health needs. Nevertheless, policies devised to address large scale, late stage trials, such as the AZT short-course placebo trials, map somewhat awkwardly to early phase studies. I argue that interest in conducting translational research in the developing world, particularly in the context of hemophilia trials, should motivate more rigorous ethical thinking around clinical trials involving economically disadvantaged populations. [source]


    SPECIAL SECTION: EVALUATION OF THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN CANNABIS INFRINGEMENT NOTICE SCHEME,PHASE 1: Community attitudes towards cannabis law and the proposed Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 4 2005
    JAMES FETHERSTON
    Abstract Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a prohibition with civil penalties scheme for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. Previous criminological research has demonstrated the importance of public attitudes towards the law in determining the effectiveness of legislation. This survey represents the first phase of a pre-post study that attempted to gauge public attitudes towards the legal status of cannabis, the proposed legislative reforms surrounding the drug and their likely effects. A random telephone survey of 809 members of the WA population was conducted prior to the implementation of the new laws with a view to exploring contemporary views of the existing legal status of cannabis, attitudes to the proposed legislative model and respondent perceptions of its likely effects. Despite cannabis being viewed negatively by large numbers of the sample, criminal penalties for minor cannabis offences were viewed as inappropriate and ineffective. Once explained, the proposed civil penalty scheme was viewed as ,a good idea' by 79% of the sample, despite significant differences due to personal experience of cannabis use, political affiliation, religiosity and age of offspring. Most believed that the legislative change would not result in changes to levels of cannabis use (70%) or ease of obtaining cannabis (59%). These data suggest that prior to its implementation the new legislation was highly acceptable to the majority of the community. These baseline data will be compared with data to be collected at the post-change phase of the study to allow empirical observations of attitudinal and behavioural changes occurring in the community. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE PHASE ON SMOKING CESSATION TREATMENT OUTCOME: A HYPOTHESIS REGARDING THE DISCORDANT FINDINGS IN THE LITERATURE

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    TERESA R. FRANKLIN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Genetic variation in COL17A1 and the development of bullous pemphigoid

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Samantha Winsey
    Background: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin characterized by autoantibody attack on collagen XVII. Objectives: To characterize the genetic complexity of COL17A1, the gene which encodes for the autoantigen collagen XVII. The data will be used to determine whether there is an association between polymorphisms and haplotypes of COL17A1 and genetic susceptibility to development of BP. Methods: The genetic complexity in COL17A1 was deduced by screening and then sequencing the gene. Haplotypes were constructed from the resulting polymorphisms using the statistical programme PHASE. The linkage disequilibrium (D,) between the polymorphisms was deduced from haplotypic data using the statistical programme GOLD. Association of the polymorphisms and haplotypes was tested for, in a cohort of BP patients and controls. Results: Screening of COL17A1 for genetic variation was carried out in 29 individuals of North European caucasoid origin, and it revealed 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in approximately 14.7 kb of sequence. These variants resulted in 60 different haplotypes in 191 individuals, of which 13 occurred above 1% in the population. D, between the variants was found to be extensive, have a low correlation with physical distance and to extend over 33.8 kb. No association was found with any of the polymorphisms or haplotypes and development of BP, when tested for, in a cohort of patients and controls. Conclusion: This study provides an extensive description of the genetic variation in COL17A1 and shows no association of the genetic variants with susceptibility to BP. [source]


    ACTFL: CALL FOR APPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRIORITIES GRANTS: PHASE I,REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 3 2010
    Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    REGULATION OF FIBROGENESIS DURING THE EARLY PHASE OF COMMON BILE DUCT OBSTRUCTION

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 7 2006
    Atilla Engin
    Background: Both nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins have been proposed as inhibitor substances involved in collagen deposition in the hepatic parenchyma. The possible reciprocal connections between NO and eicosanoids in the development of liver fibrosis were investigated during the initial phase of common bile duct obstructions. Methods: A total of 30 male albino guinea pigs were randomly and equally assigned to three groups. Group 1 underwent sham laparotomy. Group 2 and group 3 were subjected to permanent common bile duct ligature for 24 and 72 h , respectively. Changes in the liver prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene C4, malondialdehyde contents and plasma nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were measured. To evaluate the extent of hepatic fibrosis, histological assessment of liver was confirmed with the equivalent hydroxyproline contents of liver. Results: Twenty-four hours after ligature, the amount of malondialdehyde and PGE2 and plasma nitrite plus nitrate concentrations increased significantly, whereas liver hydroxyproline contents did not change. However, 72 h after ligature (Group 3), lipid peroxidation and collagen deposition were significantly higher than that of the group 2 animals. The PGE2 : leukotriene C4 ratio peaked at 24 h and later decreased, whereas PGE2 : NO ratio remained unchanged in both group 2 and group 3 animals. Conclusions: The initiation of collagen synthesis occurred in portal tract as early as within the first 72 h of bile duct obstruction. The optimum function of reactive oxygen species on the stellate cell activation might be determined by the interaction between NO and PGE2. [source]


    CR10 LAPAROSCOPIC RIGHT HEMICOLECTOMY PERFORMED DURING THE ,LEARNING CURVE PHASE' DOES NOT IMPACT ON ONCOLOGICAL RESECTION

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 2007
    E. Mignanelli
    Purpose Laparoscopic colectomy for the management of colonic neoplasia is technically feasible and increasingly popular. It is expected that the laparoscopic operation deliver similar oncological clearance to open operation. The ,learning curve' for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy has been estimated to be 20 cases and is now set as a guideline by ASCRS. This study was performed to compare histopathology specimens following laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (LRH) performed during the ,learning curve' phase with those following open right hemicolectomy (ORH) to evaluate oncological clearance of colonic neoplasms. Methods 125 patients were identified as having undergone right hemicolectomy by two surgeons for colonic neoplasia from January 2001. Data regarding patient details and tumour pathology were obtained by retrospective case note review. Thirty-five patients underwent LRH compared to 90 who had ORH during the same period. Histopathology from the two groups were compared for length of specimen resected, proximal and distal resection margins, size of tumour resected or number of lymph nodes harvested. Analysis was performed using Student's T-test. Results The two groups were matched with respect to age, sex and tumour characteristics. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of length of specimen resected (p = 0.37), proximal (p = 0.29) and distal (p = 0.40) resection margins, size of tumour resected (p = 0.37) or number of lymph nodes harvested (p = 0.58). Conclusions ,Learning curve' laparoscopic right hemicolectomy allows similar lymphovascular clearance to traditional open surgery. [source]


    ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN IRISH FEEDLOT CATTLE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY INVOLVING PREHARVEST AND HARVEST PHASES OF THE FOOD CHAIN

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2003
    DONAL MINIHAN
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate fecal shedding and transmission of E. coli O157 in cohorts of cattle within a feedlot, to assess subsequent contamination of carcasses with this pathogen and to identify risk factors associated with fecal shedding of E. coli O157. A cohort of 133 heifers housed infour adjacent pens was examined over a five month period, from entering the feedlot to slaughter. Individual rectal fecal samples and pen environmental samples were taken at monthly intervals. The entire outer and inner surfaces of a carcass side of each animal were swabbed immediately following slaughter. E. coli O157 was isolated from 136 (23%) of the 600 rectal fecal samples; 96% of which contained virulent markers. One hundred and sixty environmental samples were examined and E. coli O157 was isolated from 46 (29%), all of which contained virulent markers. E. coli O157 was not isolated from any of the dressed carcasses. The prevalence of E. coli O157 fecal shedding may be related to the pen and E. coli O157 contamination of the pen floor feces, water trough and feed. E. coli O157 should be considered as a pathogen shed in the feces of a substantial proportion of feedlot cattle. However, with good hygienic practice at harvest, a very low level of this pathogen can be achieved on dressed carcasses. [source]


    Safety of pramlintide added to mealtime insulin in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: a large observational study

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    R. Pencek
    The objective of this Phase 4, open-label, multicentre, observational study was to fulfil food and drug administration (FDA) postapproval requirement to evaluate in healthcare practices the risk of insulin-induced severe hypoglycaemia following initiation of pramlintide therapy in N = 1297 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with inadequate glycaemic control. The duration of the study was approximately 6 months. During the adjustment period (0,3 months), the incidence and event rate of patient-ascertained severe hypoglycaemia (PASH) were 4.8% and 0.33 events/patient-year in patients with T1DM and 2.8% and 0.19 events/patient-year in patients with T2DM. During the maintenance period (>3,6 months), the incidence and event rate of PASH declined in patients with T1DM or T2DM. This study confirms that in healthcare practices, the risk of insulin-induced severe hypoglycaemia following the initiation of pramlintide is low in patients with T1DM or T2DM. [source]


    Mechanistic studies of blood pressure in rats treated with a series of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors,

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
    Michael DePasquale
    Abstract ILLUMINATE, the Phase 3 clinical trial of morbidity and mortality (M&M) with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi), torcetrapib (CP-529,414), was terminated in December 2006 due to an imbalance in all cause mortality. The underlying cause of the M&M remains undetermined. While torcetrapib produced dose-related increases in blood pressure in clinical trials, the mechanism of the increase in blood pressure is also undetermined. The pressor effects of torcetrapib and structurally related compounds were studied in several pathways involved in blood pressure control. Studies were conducted in rats treated with a series of structurally related molecules (CP-529,414, CP-532,623, PF-868,348, CP-746,281, CP-792,485, PF-868,343, and CE-308,958). CP-529,414, CP-532,623, CP-868,343, and CP-792,485 are potent CETP inhibitors; PF-868,348 is weakly potent and CP-746,281 and CE-308,958 are CETP-inactive. Changes in blood pressure were determined in conscious animals in conjunction with pharmacologic blockade of numerous pressor agents/pathways. Torcetrapib and CP-532,623 increased blood pressure following both chronic PO and acute IV administration. The CETP-inactive enantiomer of CP-532,623, CP-746,281 failed to raise blood pressure. PF-868,348, a structural analogue with ,50-fold lower CETPi activity also displayed pressor activity. Blockade of adrenergic, cholinergic, angiotensin, endothelin, NOS, Rho kinase, and thromboxane pathways failed to attenuate the pressor response. These data demonstrate that the blood pressure activity seen with torcetrapib can be dissociated from CETP inhibitor pharmacology and numerous pharmacology pathways can be discounted in the attempt to understand the molecular basis of the pressor pharmacology. Drug Dev Res 70:2009 © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Ni(II)cyclam Catalyzed Reduction of CO2 , Towards a Voltammetric Sensor for the Gas Phase

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 18 2003
    P. Jacquinot
    Abstract The detection of CO2 in the gas phase is possible in presence of oxygen with an amalgamated Au-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) gas diffusion electrode and an internal electrolyte solution containing Ni(II)cyclam. For concentrations between 0.1 to 1% the electrochemical cell has a sensitivity of 3.58 mA %,1 and the detection limit is 500,ppm. In preliminary experiments at rotating disk electrodes the optimum pH-range was found to be between 3.5 to 6 and a selectivity ratio of the catalyst for CO2/H+ of 5,:,1 could be determined. The relationship between reduction current and the square root of the angular speed is linear, indicating that the electrochemical process is limited by diffusion of CO2. Tl and Pb are presented as alternative electrode materials at which the Ni(II)cyclam catalyzed reduction of CO2 can be observed. Problems arise from fouling effects at the sensing electrode and a non-linearity of the calibration plot at higher concentrations. [source]


    Toxicity assessment of reference and natural freshwater sediments with the LuminoTox assay

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    P. M. Dellamatrice
    Abstract We examined the possibility of adapting the LuminoTox, a recently-commercialized bioanalytical testing procedure initially developed for aqueous samples, to assess the toxic potential of sediments. This portable fluorescent biosensor uses photosynthetic enzyme complexes (PECs) to rapidly measure photosynthetic efficiency. LuminoTox testing of 14 CRM (Certified Reference Material) sediments was first undertaken with (1) a "solid phase assay" (Lum-SPA) in which PECs are in intimate contact with sediment slurries for a 15 min exposure period and (2) an elutriate assay (Lum-ELU) in which PECs are exposed for 15 min to sediment water elutriates. CRM sediment toxicity data were then compared with those generated with the Microtox Solid Phase Assay (Mic-SPA). A significant correlation (P < 0.05) was shown to exist between Lum-SPA and Mic-SPA, indicating that both tests display a similar toxicity response pattern for CRM sediments having differing contaminant profiles. The sediment elutriate Lum-ELU assay displayed toxicity responses (i.e. measurable IC20s) for eight of the 14 CRM sediments, suggesting that it is capable of determining the presence of sediment contaminants that are readily soluble in an aqueous elutriate. Lum-SPA and Mic-SPA bioassays were further conducted on 12 natural freshwater sediments and their toxicity responses were more weakly, yet significantly, correlated. Finally, Lum-SPA testing undertaken with increasing mixtures of kaolin clay confirmed that its toxicity responses, in a manner similar to those reported for the Mic-SPA assay, are also subject to the influence of grain size. While further studies will be required to more fully understand the relationship between Lum-SPA assay responses and the physicochemical makeup of sediments (e.g., grain size, combined presence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants), these preliminary results suggest that LuminoTox testing could be a useful screen to assess the toxic potential of solid media. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 395,402, 2006. [source]


    Effects of a MAPK p38 inhibitor on lung function and airway inflammation in equine recurrent airway obstruction

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
    J.-P. LAVOIE
    Summary Reasons for performing study: It has been suggested that many of the beneficial effects of corticosteroids are mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibition. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the MAPK p38 inhibitor compound MRL-EQ1 to either prevent (Phase 1) or treat (Phase 2) recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Methods: MRL-EQ1 was administered i.v. at a dosage of 0.75-1.5 mg/kg bwt q. 12 h. In Phase 1, susceptible horses in clinical remission were divided into 2 groups (n = 5/group), based on historical values of respiratory mechanics. All horses were entered in the study in pairs (one control, one treated horse) and exposed to the same environmental challenge (stabling, mouldy hay and dusty conditions). The treatment group received MRL-EQ1 for 14 days while the control horses were untreated during the same period. In Phase 2, affected horses were ranked by severity of respiratory dysfunction and split randomly into either dexamethasone or MRL-EQ1 treatment groups (n = 5/group). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respiratory mechanic measurements, MRL-EQ1 plasma concentration and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) whole blood activity were evaluated sequentially. Results: In Phase 1, MRL-EQ1 did not prevent the occurrence of clinical signs and pulmonary inflammation. However, treatment was associated with a reduction in severity and a delay in the onset of signs and a reduction in pulmonary neutrophilia. In Phase 2, plasma concentrations achieved resulted in ex vivo suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF production in equine blood. MRL-EQ1 did not improve airway inflammation or lung function and was associated in a dose dependent manner with behavioural (depression, excitability) and blood changes (neutrophilia, increased serum muscle enzyme concentrations). Conclusions: Inhibition of p38 in the horse was partially effective in reducing clinical signs and airway inflammation when administered prior to, but not during clinical exacerbation in RAO. Potential relevance: Inhibitors of p38 MAPK with a better toxicity profile may be effective in the prevention or treatment of RAO. [source]


    The effect of long-term exercise on glucose metabolism and peripheral insulin sensitivity in Standardbred horses

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    E. de GRAAF-ROELFSEMA
    Summary Reasons for performing study: To study the possible long-term effect of improved glucose tolerance in horses after long-term training, as the impact of exercise training on glucose metabolism is still unclear in the equine species. It is not known whether there is a direct long-term effect of training or if the measurable effect on glucose metabolism is the residual effect of the last exercise session. Objectives: To determine the chronic effect on glucose metabolism and peripheral insulin sensitivity of long-term training in horses by use of the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. Methods: Eleven Standardbred horses were acclimatised to running on the high-speed treadmill for 4 weeks (Phase 1) followed by training for 18 weeks with an alternating endurance (, 60% HRmax) high intensity training programme (, 80% HRmax) (Phase 2). Training frequency was 4 days/week. At the end of Phase 1, a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed 72 h after the last bout of exercise in all horses. At the end of Phase 2, the horses were clamped 24 h or 72 h after the last bout of exercise. Results: Glucose metabolism rate did not change significantly after 18 weeks of training, measured 72 h after the last exercise bout (0.018 ± 0.009 and 0.022 ± 0.006 mmol/kg bwt/min, respectively). Peripheral insulin sensitivity also did not change significantly following training (7.6 ± 5.7 times 10,6 and 8.0 ± 3.1 times 10,6, respectively). The same measurements 24 h after the last bout of exercise showed no significant differences. Conclusions: Results indicated that long-term training in Standardbreds neither changed glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity 72 h after the last bout of exercise. Potential relevance: The fact that the beneficial effect of increased insulin sensitivity after acute exercise diminishes quickly in horses and no long-term effects on insulin sensitivity after chronic exercise have as yet been found in horses, implies that exercise should be performed on a regular basis in horses to retain the beneficial effect of improved insulin sensitivity. [source]


    After the Health Check What is the Future for the Common Agricultural Policy?

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2009
    Nach dem Gesundheitscheck: Wie geht es weiter mit der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik?
    Summary After the Health Check What is the Future for the Common Agricultural Policy? The CAP has now completed another stage in its development. The Health Check negotiating marathon has ended. The Czech Republic has been against unequal conditions for member states as these deform fair competition and the common market. Progressive modulation in the originally proposed form would have created barriers to a unified Europe, thus going against the motto of the Czech presidency ,Europe without Barriers'. The Czech Republic can certainly be satisfied with the essence of the compromise. The cancellation of the milk quota in 2015 is a liberalising measure, and as such we support it. The Health Check opens the door to the Czech presidency for a discussion on the elimination of unfair differences in direct payments between member states and we will definitely take up the opportunity. After 2013 the CAP will have to take much greater account of the situation following the unprecedented expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2006. For the Czech Republic, a further reinforcing of freedom in decision making for farmers and their focus on the specific needs of the local, community and global market is fundamental. Further simplification of the CAP and ,better regulation', focussing on a reduction in the administrative burden on farmers, is one of the priority challenges. La PAC a maintenant atteint un autre stade de son développement. Le marathon de négociation du bilan de santé a abouti. La République tchèque s'est opposée aux conditions inégales proposées aux pays membres car elles faussent la concurrence équitable et le marché commun. La modulation progressive sous sa forme initiale aurait créé des barrières dans une Europe unifiée, ce qui va à l'encontre de la devise de la présidence tchèque "Une Europe sans barrières". La République tchèque peut certainement être satisfaite de l'essence du compromis. La suppression du système des quotas laitiers en 2015 est une mesure de libéralisation et nous la soutenons en tant que telle. Le bilan de santé ouvre la porte à la présidence tchèque pour une discussion sur l'élimination des différences injustes entre paiements directs selon le pays membre et nous profiterons bien entendu de l'occasion. Après 2013, la PAC devra prendre davantage en compte la situation créée par l'élargissement sans précédent de l'UE entre 2004 et 2006. Pour la République tchèque, il est fondamental de renforcer encore la liberté qu'ont les agriculteurs pour prendre leurs décisions et de s'orienter vers les besoins spécifiques du marché local, communautaire et mondial. Un des défis prioritaires est de continuer à simplifier la PAC et d'améliorer la réglementation en s'orientant vers une réduction de la charge administrative qui pèse sur les agriculteurs. Eine weitere Phase in der Entwicklung der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik ist nun abgeschlossen. Der Verhandlungsmarathon hinsichtlich des Gesundheitschecks ist vorbei. Die Tschechische Republik war dagegen, dass für die Mitgliedsstaaten unterschiedliche Bedingungen gelten sollen, da diese den fairen Wettbewerb und den gemeinsamen Markt verzerren. Eine progressive Modulation in der ursprünglich vorgeschlagenen Form hätte einem einheitlichen Europa Steine in den Weg gelegt und somit dem Motto "Europa ohne Grenzen" der tschechischen Präsidentschaft widersprochen. Die Tschechische Republik hat zweifellos mit dem Kompromiss ein im Wesentlichen zufriedenstellendes Ergebnis erzielt. Die Abschaffung der Milchquote bis 2015 ist eine Maßnahme zur Liberalisierung, und als solche findet sie unsere Unterstützung. Der Gesundheitscheck eröffnet der tschechischen Präsidentschaft die Diskussion über die Beseitigung unterschiedlich hoher , und somit ungerechter , Direktzahlungen an die Mitgliedsstaaten. Diese Gelegenheit werden wir uns nicht entgehen lassen. Nach 2013 wird sich die GAP sehr viel mehr mit der Situation beschäftigen müssen, die sich aus der beispiellosen EU-Erweiterung aus den Jahren 2004 und 2006 ergibt. Für die Tschechische Republik ist es von grundlegender Bedeutung, die Entscheidungsfreiheit für Landwirte und deren Orientierung an den lokalen, regionalen und globalen Märkten fortwährend zu stärken. Die weitere Vereinfachung der GAP und eine "bessere Regulierung", die den Verwaltungsaufwand für Landwirte verringern soll, gehören zu den vorrangigen Zielen. [source]


    Dehydration and Dehydrogenation of Alcohols with Mononuclear Cationic Vanadium Oxides in the Gas Phase and Energetics of VOnH0/+ (n = 2, 3),

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 17 2007
    Marianne Engeser
    Abstract The ion/molecule reactions of selected alcohols with the vanadium oxide cations VO+ and VO2+ are studied by Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. Dehydrogenation is the dominating reaction pathway for methanol and allyl alcohols. With larger or less unsaturated alcohols, dehydration and carbocation formations prevail. While the valence in VO+ remains unchanged during alcohol dehydrogenation, VO2+ is reduced to VIII. Thermochemical data for VO2H0/+, VO3H and VO3H2+ are derived by means of ICR bracketing. The experimental results are further complemented by ab initio calculations using density functional theory. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    Fragmentation of the (Cyclam-acetato)iron Azide Cation in the Gas Phase

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2007
    Detlef Schröder
    Abstract Mass spectrometry is used to investigate the fragmentation of the ligated azidoiron cation [(cyclam-acetato)Fe(N3)]+, which is accessible in the gas phase by electrospray ionization of a solution of its hexafluorophosphate salt in methanol/water. Upon collisional activation, mass-selected [(cyclam-acetato)Fe(N3)]+ undergoes competing loss of dinitrogen or HN3 as the prevailing fragmentations. The former dissociation pathway is investigated in detail in order to determine whether or not the free, high-valent iron nitride [(cyclam-acetato)FeN]+ is formed. The evidence obtained indeed supports the formation of the iron nitride species as an intermediate, although the long-lived ion sampled after mass selection may also have undergone further rearrangements.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    Fragmentation of Alkoxo(catecholato)vanadium(V) Complexes[(C6H4O2)V(OR1)(OR2)]+ in the Gas Phase

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2005
    Malgorzata Kaczorowska
    Abstract Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry is used to investigate the gas-phase dissociation behavior of vanadium(V) complexes [(C6H4O2)V(OR1)(OR2)]+ containing two identical or different alkoxy groups (R1, R2 = CH3, C2H5, n -C3H7, i -C3H7 and t -C4H9) and a catecholato ligand (C6H4O2). The fragmentation reactions of the complexes are studied by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and labeling experiments. For [(C6H4O2)V(OR1)(OR2)]+ cations with alkoxo groups larger than methyl, a trend for preferential evaporation of hydrocarbon fragments is observed, followed by expulsion of neutral alcohols. Further, the CID spectra of all complexes show a signal which can be assigned to the complex [(C6H4O2)VO]+. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]


    Phase Change Materials for the Improvement of Heat Protection,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 5 2005
    M. Rossi
    Abstract The use of phase change materials (PCM) that absorb and store heat by an aggregate state change for applications in fire fighters' protective clothing was studied. PCM can help improve the heat protection of the clothing combination, and thus contribute to a reduction of the weight of the equipment and an improvement of the wearing comfort. It was found that PCM have a positive effect on heat protection, but the efficiency of the heat absorption depends on the location of the PCM layer and the incident heat intensity. Furthermore, as the PCM used was made of paraffin, its burning behavior has to be improved for a commercial use in fire fighters' protective clothing. [source]


    Television Shopping for Apparel in the United States: Effects of Perceived Amount of Information on Perceived Risks and Purchase Intentions

    FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 3 2000
    Minjeong Kim
    In a two-part study, the amount and types of information available in television-shopping segments selling apparel were examined. In Phase 1, a content analysis of 60 segments selling apparel was conducted. In Phase 2, using an experimental format, a convenience sample of 128 middle-aged women (M = 46 years) viewed a 6-minute television-shopping segment selling apparel and assessed perceived risk, perceived amount of information available in the segment, and purchase intentions, and they answered some open-ended questions about their information-searching activities. Taken together, results of Phases 1 and 2 revealed that when making apparel purchases, participants needed product and customer service information; however, in some segments, that information was never available or was available in less than half the segments coded. Results also revealed that the amount of information perceived from a television-shopping segment selling apparel was negatively related to perceived risk and positively related to purchase intent. [source]


    Molecular Magnets: Deposition of Functionalized Cr7Ni Molecular Rings on Graphite from the Liquid Phase (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 10 2010
    Mater.
    [source]


    Deposition of Functionalized Cr7Ni Molecular Rings on Graphite from the Liquid Phase

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 10 2010
    Alberto Ghirri
    Abstract Graphite is a clean substrate and its nanostructures hold great potential for applications. Anchoring large molecules on graphite represents a challenge for several reasons that essentially rise from the planar bonds of the packed honeycomb structure of carbon. Here, a systematic investigation by AFM and XPS on different derivatives of molecular Cr7Ni rings deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is reported. Cr7Ni is emerging as a prototipical example of molecular antiferromagnet on which quantum phenomena and coherence have been demonstrated. For the deposition of Cr7Ni on HOPG, two strategies are adopted: 1) Cr7Ni rings are functionalized with extended alkyl/benzene terminations and 2) a self-assembled monolayer of alkyl chains with sulfonate terminations is deposited and then a cationic Cr7Ni derivative is used. In both cases the electronic bond with the carbon surface is soft, but the two-step procedure is efficient, albeit indirect, in sticking molecular Cr7Ni on HOPG. These strategies can be easily extended to deposit other complex molecular aggregates on graphite from the liquid phase. [source]


    Spatial Patterning of the , -Phase in Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene): A Metamaterials-Inspired Molecular Conformation Approach to the Fabrication of Polymer Semiconductor Optical Structures

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Gihan Ryu
    Abstract Materials in which sub-wavelength physical structures, rather than variations in chemical composition, are used to modify the nature of their interaction with electromagnetic radiation form the promising new class of metamaterials. For molecular materials one has an intriguing alternative, namely structuring the conformation or physical geometry of the molecule. In order for this to be an effective methodology one needs the change in conformation i) to engender a significant change in electromagnetic properties and ii) to be spatially controllable to allow patterning of practical structures. In this paper the potential of such an approach is demonstrated through spatial patterning, via masked solvent vapor exposure, of the , -phase conformation in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO). Significantly the conformation change approach preserves a planar film format and is found not to negatively impact on optical gain properties, both very attractive features for optoelectronic and photonic lightwave circuit applications. As a specific demonstration the ability to spatially control the lasing wavelength for samples in which a , -phase conformation is selectively patterned in a glassy PFO film spin coated atop a one-dimensional distributed-feedback grating etched into a spectrosil substrate is shown. [source]


    Ferroelectric Response and Induced Biaxiality in the Nematic Phase of Bent-Core Mesogens

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 16 2009
    Oriano Francescangeli
    Abstract The still undiscovered fluid ferroelectric nematic phase is expected to exhibit a much faster and easier response to an external electric field compared to conventional ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals; therefore, the discovery of such a phase could open new avenues in electro-optic device technology. Here, experimental evidence of a ferroelectric response to a switching electric field in a low molar mass nematic liquid crystal is reported and connected with field-induced biaxiality. The fluid is made of bent-core polar molecules and is nematic over a range of 120,°C. Combining repolarization current measurements, electro-optical characterizations, X-ray diffraction and computer simulations, ferroelectric switching is demonstrated and it is concluded that the response is due to field-induced reorganization of polar cybotactic groups within the nematic phase. This work represents significant progress toward the realization of ferroelectric fluids that can be aligned at command with a simple electric field. [source]


    Traversing the Metal-Insulator Transition in a Zintl Phase: Rational Enhancement of Thermoelectric Efficiency in Yb14Mn1,xAlxSb11,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2008
    Eric S. Toberer
    Abstract For high temperature thermoelectric applications, Yb14MnSb11 has a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) of ,1.0 at 1273,K. Such a high zT is found despite a carrier concentration that is higher than typical thermoelectric materials. Here, we reduce the carrier concentration with the discovery of a continuous transition between metallic Yb14MnSb11 and semiconducting Yb14AlSb11. Yb14Mn1-xAlxSb11 forms a solid solution where the free carrier concentration gradually changes as expected from the Zintl valence formalism. Throughout this transition the electronic properties are found to obey a rigid band model with a band gap of 0.5,eV and an effective mass of 3 me. As the carrier concentration decreases, an increase in the Seebeck coefficient is observed at the expense of an increased electrical resistivity. At the optimum carrier concentration, a maximum zT of 1.3 at 1223,K is obtained, which is more than twice that of the state-of-the-art Si0.8Ge0.2 flown by NASA. [source]


    Manifestation of a Chiral Smectic C Phase in Diphenylbutadiene-Cored Bolaamphiphilic Sugars,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2008
    Suresh Das
    Abstract A series of symmetrical bolaamphiphiles possessing a diphenylbutadiene core and glucopyranoside head groups linked together by oligomethylene spacers, were synthesized and their thermotropic liquid crystalline properties investigated by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electro-optic switching. In spite of the presence of chiral centers, amphiphilic sugars in general do not exhibit macroscopic chirality and this phenomenon is attributed to strong hydrogen bonding between sugar head groups resulting in microphase-segregated layer like arrangements. In the present study all the molecules investigated exhibited the smectic C* phase, i.e., tilted lamellar phase with macroscopic chiral ordering of the molecules. The stability of this phase increased with increase in the length of the oligomethylene spacers. Whereas for derivatives with spacers containing ,4 methylene groups, the smectic C* phase was observed only in the cooling phase, for those containing spacers with ,5 methylene groups this phase was observed both in the heating and cooling cycles. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of these materials suggest that the unusual observation of macroscopic chirality in these bolaamphiphiles containing free hydroxyl groups could be attributed to self-aggregating behavior of the diphenylbutadiene core. [source]


    Structural Characterization of the Transient Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Precursor Phase in Sea Urchin Embryos,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 10 2006
    Y. Politi
    Abstract Sea urchin embryos form their calcitic spicular skeletons via a transient precursor phase composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Transition of ACC to calcite in whole larvae and isolated spicules during development has been monitored using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Remarkably, the changing nature of the mineral phase can clearly be monitored in the whole embryo samples. More detailed analyses of isolated spicules at different stages of development using both XAS and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the short-range order of the transient ACC phase resembles calcite, even though infrared spectra show that the spicules are mostly composed of an amorphous mineral phase. The coordination sphere is at first distorted but soon adopts the octahedral symmetry typical of calcite. Long-range lattice rearrangement follows to form the calcite single crystal of the mature spicule. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of mineralized-tissue development using XAS, including the structural characterization of transient amorphous phases at the atomic level. [source]


    The ,Azirine/Oxazolone Method' on Solid Phase: Introduction of Various ,,, -Disubstituted , -Amino Acids

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 1 2006
    Simon Stamm
    Abstract Peptides containing various ,,, -disubstituted , -amino acids, such as , -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), 1-aminocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid, , -methylphenylalanine, and 3-amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H -pyran-3-carboxylic acid have been synthesized from the N- to the C-terminus by the ,azirine/oxazolone method' under solid-phase conditions. In this convenient method for the synthesis of sterically demanding peptides on solid-phase, 2H -azirin-3-amines are used to introduce the ,,, -disubstituted , -amino acids without the need for additional reagents. Furthermore, the synthesis of poly(Aib) sequences has been explored. [source]


    The Evolutionary Role of Interorganizational Communication: Modeling Social Capital in Disaster Contexts

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Marya L. Doerfel
    Employing a community ecology perspective, this study examines how interorganizational (IO) communication and social capital (SC) facilitated organizational recovery after Hurricane Katrina. In-depth interviews with 56 New Orleans organizations enabled longitudinal analysis and a grounded theory model that illustrates how communication differentiated four phases of recovery: personal emergency, professional emergency, transition, rebuilding. Communicative action taking place across phases corresponds with the evolutionary mechanisms. Most organizations did not turn to interorganizational relationships (IORs) until the transitional phase, during which indirect ties were critical and incoming versus outgoing communication was substantively different. Organizations did not consistently use IO SC until the last phase. This study underlines the fact that organizations and their systems are fundamentally human and (re)constructed through communicative action. Le rôle évolutionnaire de la communication interorganisationnelle : la présentation du capital social en contextes de désastres Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning Adoptant la perspective de l'écologie des communautés, cette étude examine la manière dont la communication interorganisationnelle et le capital social ont facilité le rétablissement organisationnel après l'ouragan Katrina. Des entretiens en profondeur avec 56 organisations de la Nouvelle-Orléans ont permis une analyse longitudinale et un modèle de théorie ancrée illustrant la manière dont la communication distinguait quatre stades de rétablissement : l'urgence personnelle, l'urgence professionnelle, la transition et la reconstruction. L'action communicationnelle ayant lieu à travers les stades correspond aux mécanismes évolutionnaires. La plupart des organisations ne se sont pas tournées vers les relations interorganisationnelles avant le stade de transition, au cours duquel les liens indirects étaient cruciaux et la communication entrante était significativement différente de la communication sortante. Les organisations n'utilisaient pas systématiquement le capital social interorganisationnel avant le dernier stade. Cette étude souligne le fait que les organisations et leurs systèmes sont fondamentalement humains et (re)construits à travers l'action communicationnelle. Die evolutionäre Rolle von Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen: Die Modellierung von sozialem Kapital im Kontext von Katastrophen Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning Unter Anwendung einer gesellschaftsökonomischen Perspektive untersucht diese Studie, wie Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen und soziales Kapital die Erholung von Organisationen nach Hurrikan Katrina erleichterte. Tiefeninterviews mit 56 Organisationen in New Orleans ermöglichten eine Längsschnittanalyse und ein Grounded Theory Modell, welches zeigt, wie die Kommunikation sich in vier Phasen der Regeneration unterteilt: persönlicher Notfall, professioneller Notfall, Übergang, Erneuerung. Kommunikatives Handeln, welches in allen Phasen stattfand, korrespondiert mit evolutionären Mechanismen. Die meisten Organisationen wandten sich nicht Beziehungen zwischen Organisationen zu bis sie in die transitionale Phase kamen, in welcher indirekte Beziehungen wichtig waren und eingehende versus ausgehende Kommunikation fundamental verschieden waren. Organisationen nutzen soziales Kapital zwischen Organisationen durchgehend bis auf die letzte Phase. Die Studie unterstreicht die Tatsache, dass Organisationen und ihre Systeme elementar menschlich sind und durch kommunikatives Handeln konstruiert und rekonstruiert werden. El Rol Evolucionario de la Comunicación entre Organizaciones: Modelando el Capital Social en los Contextos de Desastre Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning School of Communication and Information Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA Resumen Empleando una perspectiva de comunidad ecológica, este estudio examina cómo la comunicación entre organizaciones y el capital social (SC) facilitaron la recuperación después del Huracán Katrina. Entrevistas en profundidad de 56 organizaciones de Nuevo Orleans permitieron un análisis longitudinal y un modelo de teoría construido sobre los datos que ilustran cómo la comunicación diferenció 4 fases de recuperación: emergencia personal, emergencia profesional, transición y reconstrucción. La acción comunicativa se lleva a cabo a través de las fases correspondientes con los mecanismos de evolución. La mayoría de las organizaciones no recurrieron a las relaciones entre organizaciones (IORs) hasta la fase transicional, durante la cual los lazos indirectos fueron críticos y la comunicación de entrada versus la de salida fueron substantivamente diferentes. Las organizaciones no son consistentemente usadas con IO SC hasta la última fase. Este estudio subraya el hecho que las organizaciones y sus sistemas son fundamentalmente humanos y (re)construidos a través de la acción de la comunicación. [source]


    Phase ,: Tracking Down Material Defects

    IMAGING & MICROSCOPY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2009
    Wanted: Steel to Handle Extreme Demands of Petroleum Extraction
    The quest for extraction of petroleum and natural gas requires superior competence from both humans and materials involved. The demands made on both go far beyond normal conditions. The materials used must be produced using the best raw materials and produced at premium quality levels. Then even the tiniest fluctuations in the composition of the steel used for drills, drill rods and their casing can influence and decisively alter their required properties , such as degree of hardness, ductility and malleability. [source]