Personality Variables (personality + variable)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology


Selected Abstracts


Personality and anorexia nervosa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue S1 2005
Stephen A. Wonderlich PhD
Abstract We provided a selective review of the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and personality. They reviewed the existing empirical literature examining the relationship between AN and personality. In spite of continued methodologic challenges related to personality assessment, there appears to be a relatively common phenotype in restricting-type AN characterized by high degrees of obsessionality, restraint, and perfectionism. However, there is also evidence of variability within the AN diagnostic category that is related to personality variables. Importantly, personality variables may significantly predict the course and outcome of AN. Personality variables may be risk factors for AN, consequences of AN, share a common cause with AN, or affect the course and outcome of AN. This literature would be enhanced by the articulation of conceptual models of these relationships that can be empirically tested. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Factors Influencing Levels of Credit-Card Debt in College Students,

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
Jill M. Norvilitis
The current study examined the relationship between money attitudes, impulsivity, locus of control, life satisfaction, and stress and credit-card debt in 227 college students. Students reported an average credit-card debt of $ 1,518, with over 75% of students holding at least one credit card. Students with credit cards from on-campus solicitation had higher debt-to-income ratios than did those with credit cards from other sources. Personality variables were generally unrelated to level of debt, although they were related to attitudes toward money. Many students requested information about credit and debt, suggesting that knowledge of financial issues may be an important variable for future consideration. [source]


The relationship among personality variables, exposure to traumatic events, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms,

JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS, Issue 1 2001
Dean Lauterbach
Abstract In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and borderline traits were significant predictors of retraumatization, accounting for 12% of the variance. Personality variables and trauma intensity were significant predictors of PTSD severity, accounting for 43% of the variance. Neuroticism interacted with trauma intensity in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity. Among persons low in Neuroticism, there was a modest trauma intensity,PTSD relationship, whereas among persons high in neuroticism there was a strong relationship. [source]


Self-Engagement Magnifies the Relationship Between Qualitative Overload and Performance in a Training Setting,

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
Thomas W. Britt
The present study examined whether personal engagement in a leadership course would predict rated performance for the course, and whether qualitative overload would moderate the relationship. Participants were Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets participating in a 5-week long leadership assessment course. Participants completed measures of qualitative overload (the extent to which they felt they lacked the skills and expertise required for effective performance) and the degree to which they were engaged in the course during the 4th week. Results revealed that course engagement was a significant predictor of rated leadership performance, even after controlling for the personality variable of conscientiousness. Course engagement interacted with qualitative overload to predict rated performance, indicating that qualitative overload was a stronger predictor of rated performance for those cadets engaged in the course. Discussion of the results focuses on engagement as a predictor of performance, and how work-related impediments matter more for engaged individuals. [source]


Willingness to express emotion: The impact of relationship type, communal orientation, and their interaction

PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, Issue 2 2005
Margaret S. Clark
This research examines the effects of relationship type (close vs. business), a personality variable (dispositional communal orientation), and the interaction of these two variables on individuals' willingness to express emotions to relationship partners. Results supported our predictions that (a) people are willing to express more emotion in relationships likely to be high in communal strength than in relationships likely to be low in communal strength, (b) individuals high in communal orientation are willing to express more emotion than those who are low in communal orientation, and (c) relationship type and communal orientation interact to influence willingness to express two emotions that reveal weakness and vulnerability (fear and anxiety). Specifically, communal orientation had little effect on willingness to express fear and anxiety in business relationships, whereas high relative to low communal orientation was associated with willingness to express more fear and anxiety within close relationships. [source]


Personality traits and health-risk behaviours in university students

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 8 2009
Ryan Y. Hong
Abstract Relations between personality and health-risk behaviours in university undergraduates were examined using multiple measures of personality across multiple samples (N,=,1151). Big Five personality variables, at both factor and facet levels, were used to predict three specific health-risk behaviours: (a) tobacco consumption, (b) alcohol consumption and (c) speeding in an automobile. Our findings showed that low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness were uniformly associated with this cluster of potentially health damaging behaviours. Extraversion was additionally associated with alcohol use. Interaction effects were found between Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on smoking and (for men only) on drinking. Other personality variables not centrally related to the Big Five, such as Risk-Taking (high) and Integrity (low), were also implicated in the present health-risk behaviours. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A defence of the lexical approach to the study of personality structure

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2005
Michael C. Ashton
In recent years there have been many investigations of personality structure, and much of this research has been based on the lexical strategy for finding the major personality dimensions. However, this approach has frequently been criticized on several grounds, including concerns regarding the use of adjectives as personality variables, the use of lay observers of personality, the limited explanatory power of lexically derived personality dimensions, and the lack of any similar strategies used in other sciences. In this paper, these criticisms are addressed in detail and judged to be invalid. It is argued that the study of personality structure via the lexical approach is an important area of research. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Gray's model of personality and aggregate level factor analysis

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2003
Chris J. Jackson
Previous research shows that correlations tend to increase in magnitude when individuals are aggregated across groups. This suggests that uncorrelated constellations of personality variables (such as the primary scales of Extraversion and Neuroticism) may display much higher correlations in aggregate factor analysis. We hypothesize and report that individual level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Giant Three (or Big Five) descriptions of personality, whereas aggregate level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Gray's physiological based model. Although alternative interpretations exist, aggregate level factor analysis may correctly identify the basis of an individual's personality as a result of better reliability of measures due to aggregation. We discuss the implications of this form of analysis in terms of construct validity, personality theory, and its applicability in general. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The impact of personality on training-related aspects of motivation: Test of a longitudinal model

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2007
Jens Rowold
A model that proposed dispositional influences on training-related aspects of motivation was developed. More specifically, the model predicted influences of the Big Five personality variables on motivation to learn and transfer motivation, while controlling for general attitudes toward training. The model was tested empirically, drawing on a sample of ninety-four employees from call centers who participated in a training program. Results indicated that motivation to learn was predicted by extraversion and agreeableness, and transfer motivation was predicted by motivation to learn, extraversion, and emotional stability. The impact of extraversion on transfer motivation was partially mediated by motivation to learn. In sum, the importance of dispositional factors in training research was explored and clarified. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. [source]


Personality traits after recovery from eating disorders: Do subtypes differ?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2006
Angela Wagner MD
Abstract Objective: We compared individuals recovered from anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) to determine characteristics that are shared by or distinguish eating disorder (ED) subtypes. Method: Sixty women recovered for , 1 year from AN or BN were compared with 47 control women (CW). Assessments included the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Results: Individuals recovered from an ED had similar scores for mood and personality variables that were significantly higher than the scores for CW. Few recovered subjects had Cluster B personality disorder. Most individuals recovered within 6 years of their ED onset. A latent profile analysis identified an "inhibited" and "disinhibited" cluster based on personality traits. Conclusion: A wide range of symptoms persist after recovery and do not differ between subtypes of ED. These findings may aid in identifying traits that create vulnerabilities for developing an ED. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006. [source]


Relationships between features associated with vomiting in purging-type eating disorders

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2005
Lauren Reba BA
Abstract Objective Vomiting is a pernicious symptom of eating disorders. We explored the relation between the symptom of vomiting and features of eating disorder course and severity, personality traits, and Axis I and II comorbidity in individuals with purging-type eating disorders. Method The sample included participants from the multisite, international Price Foundation Genetic Studies, who had an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified) and had data available for the frequency of purging behaviors (n = 1,048). Axis I disorders, personality disorders, trait anxiety, perfectionism, and temperament and character dimensions were included as possible correlates. Results The presence of vomiting was associated with less regular laxative use, lower self-directedness, organization, personal standards, and higher novelty seeking. Conclusion Vomiting remains a prevalent and potentially destructive symptom of eating disorders, with significant dental and medical morbidity. Our findings suggest that certain clinical and personality variables distinguish individuals with purging-type eating disorders who vomit from those who do not, although there were no marked differences in Axis I or II comorbidity. Specifically targeting treatment to decrease duration of exposure to this dangerous symptom continues to be an important clinical objective. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Personality and anorexia nervosa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue S1 2005
Stephen A. Wonderlich PhD
Abstract We provided a selective review of the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and personality. They reviewed the existing empirical literature examining the relationship between AN and personality. In spite of continued methodologic challenges related to personality assessment, there appears to be a relatively common phenotype in restricting-type AN characterized by high degrees of obsessionality, restraint, and perfectionism. However, there is also evidence of variability within the AN diagnostic category that is related to personality variables. Importantly, personality variables may significantly predict the course and outcome of AN. Personality variables may be risk factors for AN, consequences of AN, share a common cause with AN, or affect the course and outcome of AN. This literature would be enhanced by the articulation of conceptual models of these relationships that can be empirically tested. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Predicting General Well-Being From Emotional Intelligence and Three Broad Personality Traits

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Malika Singh
This paper examined the joint predictive effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait-EI), Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism on 2 facets of general well-being and job satisfaction. An employed community sample of 123 individuals from the Indian subcontinent participated in the study, and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, trait-EI, job satisfaction, and general well-being facets worn-out and up-tight. Trait-EI was related but distinct from the 3 personality variables. Trait-EI demonstrated the strongest correlation with job satisfaction, but predicted general well-being no better than Neuroticism. In regression analyses, trait-EI predicted between 6% and 9% additional variance in the well-being criteria, beyond the 3 personality traits. It was concluded that trait-EI may be useful in examining dispositional influences on psychological well-being. [source]


Stress generation in depression: Reflections on origins, research, and future directions

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
Constance Hammen
Depressed individuals report higher rates of stressful life events, especially those that have occurred in part because of the person's characteristics and behaviors affecting interpersonal interactions. Termed stress generation, this phenomenon draws attention to the role of the individual as an active contributor rather than passive player in his or her environment, and is therefore an example of action theory. In this article, the author speculates about the intellectual origins of her stress generation perspective, and notes somewhat similar transactional approaches to the stress-disorder link outside of depression research. The literature on stress generation in depression is reviewed, including studies that attempt to explore its correlates and predictors, covering clinical, contextual, family, genetic, cognitive, interpersonal, and personality variables. Empirical and conceptual gaps in our understanding of processes contributing to stressors in the lives of depressed people remain. The author concludes with suggestions for further research, with the goal of furthering understanding both of mechanisms of depression and of dysfunctional interpersonal processes, as well as development of effective interventions to help break the stress-recurrence cycle of depression. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 1065,1082, 2006. [source]


Quarrelsomeness in Daily Life

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2010
D. S. MoskowitzArticle first published online: 20 JAN 2010
ABSTRACT It is common in studies of interpersonal characteristics to examine personality variables as static predictors. Yet in recent years it has also become possible to examine personality and related interpersonal processes as they unfold over time in association with event specific cues. The present article reviews research that (1) identifies behaviors that reflect the occurrence of hostile-irritable-quarrelsome traits in daily life, (2) demonstrates both the stability and within-person variability of these behaviors over time, (3) documents event-level interpersonal cues that are systematically associated with within-person variation in quarrelsome behavior, and (4) describes how dispositional level agreeableness and irritability moderate the associations of event-level cues with quarrelsome behavior. The influence of the neurotransmitter serotonin on quarrelsome behavior is also considered. The studies indicate that quarrelsome individuals have reduced affective reactivity to engaging in quarrelsome behavior, increased behavioral reactivity to perceptions of quarrelsomeness in others, and greater responsiveness to change in serotonin levels. [source]


General and Specific Traits of Personality and Their Relation to Sleep and Academic Performance

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2002
Elizabeth K. Gray
ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the links between personality variables and sleep and their combined effect on specific real-world outcomes. Participants in this study completed numerous personality, sleep, and performance measures; we examined the associations among these measures. Personality was assessed using the Five-Factor Model. The personality trait of Conscientiousness (especially its facet of Achievement Striving) was a substantial predictor of academic performance. Analyses of the sleep variables revealed three distinct constructs: quantity, quality, and schedule. Sleep quantity showed few interesting correlates. In contrast, sleep quality was associated with greater well-being and improved psychological functioning, whereas sleep schedule (i.e., average rising and retiring times) was significantly related to Conscientiousness, such that conscientious individuals maintain earlier schedules. [source]


Analyses of Digman's Child-Personality Data: Derivation of Big-Five Factor Scores From Each of Six Samples

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2001
Lewis R. Goldberg
One of the world's richest collections of teacher descriptions of elementary-school children was obtained by John M. Digman from 1959 to 1967 in schools on two Hawaiian islands. In six phases of data collection, 88 teachers described 2,572 of their students, using one of five different sets of personality variables. The present report provides findings from new analyses of these important data, which have never before been analyzed in a comprehensive manner. When factors developed from carefully selected markers of the Big-Five factor structure were compared to those based on the total set of variables in each sample, the congruence between both types of factors was quite high. Attempts to extend the structure to 6 and 7 factors revealed no other broad factors beyond the Big Five in any of the 6 samples. These robust findings provide significant new evidence for the structure of teacher-based assessments of child personality attributes. [source]


Predicting Depression From Temperament, Personality, and Patterns of Social Relations

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2001
John F. Finch
The present study used a levels-of-analysis perspective (McAdams, 1995) to link temperament to depression. We hypothesized a mediational role for three personality variables (Agreeableness, Extraversion Neuroticism) and two interpersonal variables (social support and negative social exchange) in channeling the effects of temperament. A structural equation modeling approach supported the hypothesis that these three personality variables were mediators of the link between temperament and depression. The patterns of mediation differed for Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. In addition to the three personality variables, social support and negative social exchange were also found to mediate the effects of temperament. There was no evidence that patterns of relations among the variables differed between males and females. Results are discussed in terms of a levels-of-analysis approach to the examination of the effects of temperament and personality on adaptation outcomes. [source]


Coping-related Expectancies and Dispositions as Prospective Predictors of Coping Responses and Symptoms

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2000
Salvatore J. Catanzaro
We used Rotter's (1954, 1982) social learning theory and Kirsch's (1985, 1999) response expectancy extension thereof to clarify distinctions between coping-related expectancies (beliefs about the outcomes of coping efforts) and coping dispositions (tendencies to use particular coping responses), specifically focusing on the role of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation (NMR) as a predictor of individual differences in coping and well-being. Two studies using structural equation modeling provided support for direct and indirect associations between NMR expectancies and symptoms of depression. In Study 1 NMR expectancies predicted situational avoidance coping responses and symptoms of depression and anxiety, independent of dispositional avoidance coping tendencies. In Study 2, NMR expectancies were associated with depressive symptoms, concurrently and prospectively, independent of dispositional optimism and pessimism. Both studies indicated that NMR expectancies are more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with symptoms of anxiety and physical illness. Results underscore the importance of distinguishing between expectancies and other personality variables related to coping. [source]


Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: with an emphasis on morningness,eveningness

JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 2 2000
Erin K. Baehr
We studied the relationship between the phase and the amplitude of the circadian temperature rhythm using questionnaires that measure individual differences in personality variables, variables that relate to circadian rhythms, age and sex. The ambulatory core body temperature of 101 young men and 71 young women was recorded continuously over 6 days. The temperature minimum (Tmin) and amplitude (Tamp) were derived by fitting a complex cosine curve to each day's data for each subject. Participants completed the Horne,Ostberg Morningness,Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Circadian Type Inventory (CTI) and the MMPI-2, scored for the Psychopathology-5 (PSY-5) personality variables. We found that the average Tmin occurred at 03.50,h for morning-types (M-types), 05.02,h for the neither-types and 06.01,h for evening-types (E-types). Figures were presented that could provide an estimate of Tmin given an individual's morningness,eveningness score or weekend wake time. The Tmin occurred at approximately the middle of the 8-h sleep period, but it occurred closer to wake in subjects with later Tmin values and increasing eveningness. In other words, E-types slept on an earlier part of their temperature cycle than M-types. This difference in the phase-relationship between temperature and sleep may explain why E-types are more alert at bedtime and sleepier after waking than M-types. The Tmin occurred about a half-hour later for men than women. Another interesting finding included an association between circadian rhythm temperature phase and amplitude, in that subjects with more delayed phases had larger amplitudes. The greater amplitude was due to lower nocturnal temperature. [source]


The relationship among personality variables, exposure to traumatic events, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms,

JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS, Issue 1 2001
Dean Lauterbach
Abstract In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and borderline traits were significant predictors of retraumatization, accounting for 12% of the variance. Personality variables and trauma intensity were significant predictors of PTSD severity, accounting for 43% of the variance. Neuroticism interacted with trauma intensity in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity. Among persons low in Neuroticism, there was a modest trauma intensity,PTSD relationship, whereas among persons high in neuroticism there was a strong relationship. [source]


THE RELATIONS OF DAILY COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR WITH EMOTIONS, SITUATIONAL ANTECEDENTS, AND PERSONALITY MODERATORS: A DIARY STUDY IN HONG KONG

PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
JIXIA YANG
In this diary study conducted in Hong Kong, we examined a theoretical model in which negative emotions serve as an explanatory mechanism through which daily stressors impact daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We further theorized that personality variables (negative affectivity, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness) would exert cross-level effects on the within-person relationships. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on a sample of 231 individuals and 5,583 observations across 25 days provide partial support for the mediating role of negative emotions in the within-person stressor,CWB relationships. Specifically, we found that negative emotions (a) partially mediated the within-person relation of perceived ambiguity with CWB directed at the organization, (b) fully mediated the relation of supervisor interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at individuals, and (c) fully mediated the relation of customer interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at the organization. High levels of trait negative affectivity were found to strengthen the within-person relation between daily supervisor interpersonal injustice and daily negative emotions. As expected, high levels of trait Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were found to weaken the within-person relations of daily negative emotions with daily CWB directed at the organization and individuals. [source]


Integrative Complexity of 41 U.S. Presidents

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
Felix J. Thoemmes
Although U.S. presidents are one of the most studied groups of political figures and integrative complexity is one of the most widely used constructs in political psychology, no study to date has fully examined the integrative complexity of all U.S. presidents. The present study helps fill in that gap by scoring 41 U.S. presidents' first four State of the Union speeches for integrative complexity and then comparing these scores with a large range of available situational and personality variables. Results suggest a tendency for presidents' integrative complexity to be higher at the beginning of their first term and drop at the end. This pattern was pronounced for presidents who eventually won reelection to a second term and was markedly different for presidents who tried to gain reelection but lost. Additional analyses suggested that presidents' overall integrative complexity scores were in part accounted for by chronic differences between presidents' complexity levels. Further analyses revealed that this overall integrative complexity score was positively correlated to a set of interpersonal traits (friendliness, affiliation motive, extraversion, and wittiness) and negatively correlated with inflexibility. Discussion centers upon the causes and consequences of presidential complexity. [source]


Transition of Adolescent Political Action Orientations to Voting Behavior in Early Adulthood in View of a Social-Cognitive Action Theory Model of Personality

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
GŁnter Krampen
The political activity and voting behavior of 136 young German adults in 1994 were predicted by their political action orientations measured 7 years before. Respondents belonging to cohorts born in 1971, 1972, and 1973 were surveyed in 1987, 1988, and 1994. The questionnaires measured variables relevant to the social-cognitive action theory model of personality: self-concept of political competence, beliefs about political locus of control, political knowledge, trust in politics, satisfaction with politics, and political activity in everyday life. The results are interpreted with respect to the correlative and absolute stability versus plasticity of the variables from 1987 to 1994, as well as the predictive value of the action theory personality variables for political activities and for voting behavior measured 7 years later. Longitudinal results indicate a high predictive value of self-concept of political competence and political knowledge for political activity and voting in early adulthood. Because only these two personality variables showed relatively high positional stability coefficients from adolescence to early adulthood, the discussion refers to the necessity of early developmental interventions to prevent extreme types of politically uninterested and passive adults. Therefore, the social-cognitive action theory personality model of political participation is extended to a social-cognitive action theory personality model of political socialization in the life span. [source]