Personal Care (personal + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Personal Care

  • personal care products

  • Selected Abstracts


    Meeting the Need for Personal Care among the Elderly: Does Medicaid Home Care Spending Matter?

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 1p2 2008
    Peter Kemper
    Objective. To determine whether Medicaid home care spending reduces the proportion of the disabled elderly population who do not get help with personal care. Data Sources. Data on Medicaid home care spending per poor elderly person in each state is merged with data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for 1992, 1996, and 2000. The sample (n=6,067) includes elderly persons living in the community who have at least one limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Study Design. Using a repeated cross-section analysis, the probability of not getting help with an ADL is estimated as a function of Medicaid home care spending, individual income, interactions between income and spending, and a set of individual characteristics. Because Medicaid home care spending is targeted at the low-income population, it is not expected to affect the population with higher incomes. We exploit this difference by using higher-income groups as comparison groups to assess whether unobserved state characteristics bias the estimates. Principal Findings. Among the low-income disabled elderly, the probability of not receiving help with an ADL limitation is about 10 percentage points lower in states in the top quartile of per capita Medicaid home care spending than in other states. No such association is observed in higher-income groups. These results are robust to a set of sensitivity analyses of the methods. Conclusion. These findings should reassure state and federal policymakers considering expanding Medicaid home care programs that they do deliver services to low-income people with long-term care needs and reduce the percent of those who are not getting help. [source]


    Ascertaining the prevalence of childhood disability

    CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2005
    T. Hutchison
    Abstract Objectives, To reapply 1985 Office of Population Census and Surveys (OPCS) disability survey methods, modified as necessary, to a sample of children to ascertain presence of disability. To compare OPCS-based prevalence with prevalence based on carer's views and medical records. Design, Analytical study. Setting, Community Child Health Department in UK. Participants, Principal carers of 100 children aged 5,15, selected from a district special needs register. Main outcome measures, Comparable information about disability from three sources and diagnosis from carers and medical records. Results, Medical records of 46% contained a diagnosis. Carers were always aware of this, although a single question did not always elicit their knowledge. OPCS-derived threshold disability criteria in categories of Hand function, Personal care, Consciousness and Continence gave prevalence results similar to medical records and carers. OPCS criteria yielded higher prevalence of disability in the areas of Locomotion (8%), Communication (14%) and Hearing (18%). Carers, OPCS and medical records disagreed markedly about prevalence of disabilities of Vision, probably because of the use of differing definitions. OPCS learning criteria were judged unsuitable and standard attainment targets (SATs) were substituted. These provided similar prevalence figures to carers and medical records. OPCS behaviour criteria were also unsuitable and were replaced by the General Health and Behaviour Questionnaire (GHBQ). This found an increased prevalence of problems compared with carers and doctors. Conclusions, Diagnostic labels have limited use when collecting data about disabled children. Doubt is cast on the validity of some of the 1985 OPCS threshold criteria, and reassessment is suggested before their future use. Further work is needed on the use of SATs and GHBQ in the benchmarking of disability. To collect population data it would be easier and at least equally effective (with caution in the case of Vision) to ask carers directly rather than applying descriptive thresholds and external judgements. Similar information could be obtained from medical records, however, they are likely to be out of date. [source]


    Health and social care costs for young adults with epilepsy in the UK

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 5 2010
    Jennifer Beecham PhD
    Abstract Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which young adults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42 000 young adults (18,25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets 715.3 million per annum, on average 17 000 per young adult with epilepsy. A further 61 million falls to the social security budget. Most young adults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these young adults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Young adults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for young adults. [source]


    Quality of private personal care for elderly people with a disability living at home: correlates and potential outcomes

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 4 2008
    Claudio Bilotta MD
    Abstract To investigate correlates of the quality of private personal care for community-dwelling elderly people, this cross-sectional study enrolled 100 elderly outpatients living at home, along with their private aides and 88 informal caregivers, from May 2005 to January 2007. Cases were stratified according to the quality of private care as was described by both elderly participants and informal caregivers. In cases where the elderly person was suffering from overt cognitive impairment, only the opinions of the informal caregivers were taken into account. A comparison was made between the ,poor or fair care' group (n = 16), the ,intermediate care' group (n = 39) and the ,optimal care' group (n = 45). Considering the characteristics of private aides, there was a significant trend across the three groups in terms of language skills (P = 0.002) and level of distress with life conditions (P = 0.020). A statistical analysis performed on elderly participants without an overt cognitive impairment (n = 59) and informal caregivers showed an increase in the European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale score in the elderly group [mean standard deviation (SD) were, respectively, 45 23.2, 63.7 19.7 and 68.8 21.6; P = 0.007], and a decrease in the Caregiver Burden Inventory score (mean SD were, respectively, 34.9 25.3, 26 17.7 and 17.6 14.6; P = 0.020) across the three groups. We found no significant difference between elderly people in the three groups in terms of social variables, functional and cognitive status, prevalence of depressive disorders and morbidity. Therefore, good language skills and non-distressing life conditions of private aides appeared to be correlates of an optimal quality of care for community-dwelling elderly people with a disability, and also a better quality of life for them and less distress for their informal caregivers appeared to be potential outcomes of the quality of personal care. [source]


    Informal care: the views of people receiving care

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 4 2002
    S. McCann BA MPsychSc
    Abstract Informal care is perceived to be the best option for people who require assistance to look after themselves. National and international studies of informal care have focused on the carer, not on the care provided, or the needs and experiences of the care recipients. In the present study, 55 people receiving informal care (21 males and 24 females, mean age = 67.6) were surveyed to determine the type of assistance that they receive, perceptions of the quality of their care, feelings about being looked after by a carer and their perceptions of the services which would be useful. A random sample of 531 households were selected as part of a larger study into informal care in the west of Ireland. A total of 98 carers were identified and 55 of the people they looked after were well enough to participate in the study. Over two-thirds of carers assisted with household chores (e.g. cleaning, preparing meals and shopping). Other activities which carers assisted with included keeping the person safe from household accidents (62%), personal care (42%), and dressing and undressing (31%). Whilst most were very satisfied with the quality of care, a minority reported dissatisfaction, and stated that their carer showed signs of anger and frustration. Common concerns related to the health of the carer, their safety when the carer is not available and the cost of being cared for. Financial support for the person receiving care and the carer were the main priorities for these individuals. The present study points to a need for greater involvement of care recipients in planning services relating to informal care, and support and access to health professionals for people receiving care. People receiving care are also concerned about the level of financial support for themselves and their carers. [source]


    Meeting the Need for Personal Care among the Elderly: Does Medicaid Home Care Spending Matter?

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 1p2 2008
    Peter Kemper
    Objective. To determine whether Medicaid home care spending reduces the proportion of the disabled elderly population who do not get help with personal care. Data Sources. Data on Medicaid home care spending per poor elderly person in each state is merged with data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for 1992, 1996, and 2000. The sample (n=6,067) includes elderly persons living in the community who have at least one limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Study Design. Using a repeated cross-section analysis, the probability of not getting help with an ADL is estimated as a function of Medicaid home care spending, individual income, interactions between income and spending, and a set of individual characteristics. Because Medicaid home care spending is targeted at the low-income population, it is not expected to affect the population with higher incomes. We exploit this difference by using higher-income groups as comparison groups to assess whether unobserved state characteristics bias the estimates. Principal Findings. Among the low-income disabled elderly, the probability of not receiving help with an ADL limitation is about 10 percentage points lower in states in the top quartile of per capita Medicaid home care spending than in other states. No such association is observed in higher-income groups. These results are robust to a set of sensitivity analyses of the methods. Conclusion. These findings should reassure state and federal policymakers considering expanding Medicaid home care programs that they do deliver services to low-income people with long-term care needs and reduce the percent of those who are not getting help. [source]


    Novel cosmetic delivery systems: an application update

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    V. B. Patravale
    Synopsis World consumers are nowadays more focused on their health and appearance. This trend is creating heightened demand for products formulated with natural and nutraceutical ingredients. Functional ingredients and innovative delivery systems are driving the new product development in the field of cosmetics. A significant number of innovative formulations are now being used in personal care with real consumer-perceivable benefits and optimized sensory attributes, resulting in an economic uplift of cosmetic industry. In fact, the U.S. market alone for novel cosmetic delivery systems has been projected to be more than $41 billion for the year 2007. Novel cosmetic delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems. [source]


    Identifying functional impairment with scores from the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS)

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 5 2010
    Valerie L. Hobson
    Abstract Objective To examine the link between RBANS scores and functional impairment. Functional status was evaluated through informant report using the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Methods Archival data were reviewed from records of 99 patients in a memory disorder clinic (MDC) research database. Consensus-based diagnoses were Alzheimer's disease (AD; n,=,48), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n,=,48), AD with vascular components; (n,=,2) and dementia due to psychiatric conditions (n,=,1). Results The RBANS language index score was significantly related to CDR domain scores of community affairs (p,<,.01), home and hobbies (p,<,.01), personal care (p,<,.05), memory (p,<,0.01), and judgment (p,<,0.01). RBANS immediate memory index scores were significantly related to (p,<,0.05) the CDR Memory and judgment and problem solving domains. Based on these findings, follow-up regressions were conducted. Semantic fluency was significantly related to CDR memory (p,<,0.01), judgment (p,<,0.05), community affairs (p,<,0.05), home/hobbies (p,<,0.05), and personal care (p,<,0.05) functional domains. Picture naming was significantly related to the CDR personal care domain (p,<,0.05). List learning was significantly related to CDR memory functional domain (p,<,0.01) and judgment (p,<,0.05). Lastly, story memory was significantly related to the CDR judgment domain (p,<,0.05). Conclusions The RBANS may be an indicator of functional impairment as well as a neuropsychological testing tool. The use of the RBANS could reduce the amount of testing that is administered to the patient, or can provide a way to compare other measurements of functional impairment to assess accuracy of findings. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Penile hygiene: puberty, paraphimosis and personal care for men and boys with an intellectual disability

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
    N. J. Wilson
    Abstract Background Supporting men and boys with an intellectual disability (ID) to meet their penile hygiene needs is perhaps one of the least acknowledged but most confronting issues facing care staff. The delivery of intimate hygiene can be a challenging topic particularly as it has been drawn into the emerging sexuality discourse and the ongoing abuse narrative. Compounding this challenge is the lack of guidance in intimate care for support staff. In addition, whereas the male with an ID outnumber the female, female care staff greatly outnumber male staff. Whether this situation affects outcomes for men and boys with an ID is unknown but it is an issue which should be examined. Method This paper reports data from two separate studies, one quantitative the other qualitative, which sought to explore penile hygiene as a male health issue. Results Results show the practice of care staff to be inconsistent, the views and values of care staff to be divergent. Some patterns and contextual differences were identified depending upon the gender of care staff. An emerging dialogue described some of the positive contributions that male staff make to men and boys with an ID. Conclusions The penile health needs of men and boys with an ID are being compromised by a lack of guidance, training, knowledge and limited gender-sensitive care. [source]


    Getting personal: an exploratory study of intimate and personal care provision for people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
    S. Carnaby
    Abstract Background Intimate and personal care is a major area of support and provision for people with intellectual disability (ID), particularly those with profound and multiple ID. However, its management and practice has largely been neglected outside the use of individual guidelines and same-gender intimate care policies, with little research evidence or theoretical literature to inform the planning, conduct and organization of associated care tasks. Results The present paper reports on the methodology and findings of an exploratory study designed to map the key management and practice issues, and suggest ways forward for the providers of services for people with ID in relation to the quality and outcomes of intimate and personal care. [source]


    Intergenerational Support and Depression Among Elders in Rural China: Do Daughters-In-Law Matter?

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2008
    Zhen Cong
    This study examined the influence of intergenerational assistance with household chores and personal care from sons, daughters, and daughters-in-law on the depressive symptoms of older adults in rural China. The sample derived from rural Anhui Province, a region with a strong hierarchy of support preferences that leads with sons and their families. We used data from a random sample of 1,281 adults aged 60 and over, who were interviewed in 2001 and 2003. Analyses indicated that depressive symptoms were usually reduced by assistance from daughters-in-law and increased sometimes when such support was from sons. These relationships held most strongly when mothers coresided with their daughters-in-law. This research suggests that the benefits of intergenerational support are conditional on culturally prescribed expectations. [source]


    Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 1 2008
    I-Fen Lin
    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample. Results indicate that adult children of divorced parents are just as likely as adult children of widowed parents to give care and money to their mothers, but the former are less likely than the latter to care for their fathers. The findings suggest that divorced fathers are prone to be the population most in need of formal support in old age. [source]


    Development of a robust hydrogel system based on agar and sodium alginate blend

    POLYMER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008
    Ramavatar Meena
    Abstract BACKGROUND: As part of an ongoing research and development programme of our laboratory on functional modification of seaweed polysaccharides for preparing hydrogels with improved properties, we report herein the preparation of a robust hydrogel system based on grafting of agar and sodium alginate blend (Agar/Na-Alg) with acrylamide (AAm) to obtain the copolymer Agar/Na-Alg- graft -PAAm. RESULTS: A robust hydrogel system with superior absorbency and pH resistance has been developed based on a PAAm-grafted seaweed polysaccharide blend of Agar/Na-Alg. The blend (Agar/Na-Alg) and grafted product (Agar/Na-Alg- graft -PAAm) were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, swelling capacity, rheology and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling capacity of the grafted copolymer exhibited an enhancement over that of the blend from 14 to 24 g g,1 in acidic medium. The blend and grafted copolymer produced hydrogels with lower gelling points of 31 and 29 C and gel strengths were 170 and 120 g cm,2, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study constitutes an example of value addition of seaweed polysaccharides targeting new applications. The copolymer hydrogel may be useful in health, personal care and agricultural applications. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Being a pretty good citizen: an analysis and monetary valuation of formal and informal voluntary work by gender and educational attainment1

    THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Muriel Egerton
    Abstract This paper is set in the context of macrosocial/macroeconomic theories of the organization of both paid and unpaid work. The specific topic investigated is engagement in unpaid voluntary work, an activity which is thought to be important for social cohesion, civil society and citizenship. Research on the sources of social cohesion has focused on organizational membership and voluntary organization activity. There has been little investigation of informal helping of non-resident kin, friends or acquaintances, an activity which is not measured in most social surveys but is measured in time use surveys. Previous research shows that the highly educated are more likely to engage in formal voluntary organizations and data from the UK 2000 HETUS survey confirm that the highly educated spend more time on formally organised voluntary work. However, the less qualified, particularly women, spend more time on extra-household unpaid helping activities. Since both types of voluntary work are partly dependent on available time, these findings are modelled adjusting for time allocated to paid work, study, family and personal care. The findings remain statistically significant. Drawing on work carried out by the Office for National Statistics, a monetary value is placed on both formally organized and informal voluntary work. Although the median wage rates for formal voluntary work are greater than those for informal helping, the latter is greater in frequency and duration and therefore more economically valuable from a population perspective. This finding is discussed in the light of recent debates on citizenship and gender. [source]


    Telephone Appointment Visits for Head and Neck Surgery Follow-up Care,,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2002
    Jeffrey Eaton MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that patients with a variety of otolaryngologic diagnoses using telephone appointment visits would be equally as satisfied as patients receiving physician office visits, the study compared telephone appointment visits with physician office visits for health maintenance organization patients who needed routine follow-up care in a head and neck surgery clinic. Study Design Randomized, nonblinded cross-sectional study. Methods After their initial visit to either of two head and neck surgery clinics, new otolaryngology patients were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group (n = 73) received follow-up care in the form of telephone appointment visits, and patients in the control group (n = 80) received physician office visits for follow-up care. Study data were collected using telephone interviews and physician trackingforms. Results Patients receiving telephone appointment visits were significantly less satisfied with their visits than patients receiving physician office visits (,2 = 25.4, P <.005). Patients who had physician office visits were significantly more likely than were patients in the treatment group to agree "somewhat" or "strongly" that 1) the physician addressed their questions and concerns (,2 = 24.0, P <.005); 2) the physician provided personal care and attention (,2 =29.9, P <.005); and 3) the physician provided high-quality care (,2 =34.5, P <.005). Conclusions Patients who received telephone appointment visits were statistically significantly less satisfied with all aspects of their follow-up appointment than were patients who had physician office visits. The study findings indicate that telephone appointment visits may not be an ideal type of follow-up visit for all patients. Despite these findings, one third of patients in the treatment group would consider receiving a telephone appointment visit for future routine follow-up care, and 21.9% had no preference, perhaps a factor indicating willingness to receive a telephone appointment for a follow-up visit. [source]


    Generation, Capture, and Utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide

    CHEMSUSCHEM CHEMISTRY AND SUSTAINABILITY, ENERGY & MATERIALS, Issue 3 2010
    Andrew
    Abstract As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1),dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2),rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3),transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO2, perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO2 so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90,megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3,gigatonne CO2 generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO2 generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO2 is to be utilized as a C1 building block. [source]