Performance

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Performance

  • abnormal performance
  • academic performance
  • acceptable performance
  • accounting performance
  • actual performance
  • adsorption performance
  • adult performance
  • age-dependent reproductive performance
  • agronomic performance
  • algorithm performance
  • analytical performance
  • animal performance
  • antenna performance
  • artistic performance
  • athletic performance
  • attentional performance
  • auditory performance
  • average performance
  • bad performance
  • baking performance
  • bandwidth performance
  • bank performance
  • behavioral performance
  • behavioural performance
  • ber performance
  • best growth performance
  • best performance
  • better performance
  • biofilter performance
  • biological performance
  • bioreactor performance
  • bit error rate performance
  • bite performance
  • block performance
  • board performance
  • breeding performance
  • business performance
  • candidate performance
  • cardiac performance
  • catalyst performance
  • catalytic performance
  • cell performance
  • center performance
  • chain performance
  • children performance
  • chromatographic performance
  • circuit performance
  • classification performance
  • climbing performance
  • clinical performance
  • closed-loop performance
  • coating performance
  • cognitive performance
  • communication performance
  • communication system performance
  • company performance
  • comparable performance
  • comparative performance
  • comparing performance
  • competitive performance
  • composite performance
  • computational performance
  • consistent performance
  • contextual performance
  • contractile performance
  • control performance
  • control system performance
  • controller performance
  • convergence performance
  • corporate environmental performance
  • corporate financial performance
  • corporate performance
  • corporate social performance
  • correct performance
  • corrosion performance
  • cost performance
  • course performance
  • current performance
  • cycle performance
  • cycling performance
  • daily performance
  • de la performance
  • de performance
  • decision performance
  • decreased performance
  • delay performance
  • delivery performance
  • democratic performance
  • demographic performance
  • desired performance
  • detection performance
  • device performance
  • diagnostic performance
  • diastolic performance
  • different performance
  • differential performance
  • discrimination performance
  • diversity performance
  • driving performance
  • dual-task performance
  • dynamic performance
  • ecological performance
  • economic performance
  • educational performance
  • efficiency performance
  • efficient performance
  • electoral performance
  • electrical performance
  • electrochemical performance
  • empirical performance
  • employee performance
  • endurance performance
  • energy performance
  • engine performance
  • enhanced performance
  • environmental performance
  • error performance
  • error rate performance
  • escape performance
  • et la performance
  • examination performance
  • excellent electrochemical performance
  • excellent performance
  • executive performance
  • exercise performance
  • expert performance
  • export performance
  • fatigue performance
  • favorable performance
  • feeding performance
  • fermentation performance
  • field performance
  • filter performance
  • filtration performance
  • financial performance
  • finite sample performance
  • finite-sample performance
  • fire performance
  • firm financial performance
  • firm performance
  • fiscal performance
  • fish performance
  • flight performance
  • foraging performance
  • forecast performance
  • forecasting performance
  • fuel cell performance
  • functional performance
  • fund performance
  • future performance
  • gain performance
  • gender performance
  • general performance
  • global npd program performance
  • good device performance
  • good growth performance
  • good performance
  • government performance
  • group performance
  • growth performance
  • health system performance
  • heat transfer performance
  • heating performance
  • hedging performance
  • hemodynamic performance
  • herbivore performance
  • high performance
  • hospital performance
  • human performance
  • hybrid performance
  • hydrodynamic performance
  • identical performance
  • identification performance
  • impact performance
  • impaired performance
  • improved performance
  • improving performance
  • in-role performance
  • increased performance
  • individual performance
  • infant performance
  • inferior performance
  • innovation performance
  • innovative performance
  • insect performance
  • institutional performance
  • instrument performance
  • insulation performance
  • intellectual performance
  • investment performance
  • job performance
  • la performance
  • laboratory performance
  • labour market performance
  • language performance
  • larval performance
  • laser performance
  • leadership performance
  • learner performance
  • learning performance
  • level performance
  • linguistic performance
  • locomotor performance
  • long-run performance
  • long-term performance
  • low performance
  • lower cognitive performance
  • lower performance
  • macroeconomic performance
  • male performance
  • mammography performance
  • management performance
  • managerial performance
  • market performance
  • masticatory performance
  • material performance
  • maze performance
  • mean performance
  • mechanical performance
  • medical school performance
  • medical student performance
  • membrane performance
  • membrane reactor performance
  • memory performance
  • mental performance
  • method performance
  • mixing performance
  • model performance
  • module performance
  • monitoring performance
  • motor performance
  • muscle performance
  • myocardial performance
  • network performance
  • neurocognitive performance
  • neuropsychological performance
  • new product performance
  • new venture performance
  • noise performance
  • normal performance
  • numerical performance
  • observed performance
  • occupational performance
  • ofet performance
  • offspring performance
  • operating performance
  • operational performance
  • operator performance
  • optical performance
  • optimal performance
  • optimum performance
  • organisational performance
  • organization performance
  • organizational performance
  • out-of-sample forecasting performance
  • out-of-sample performance
  • outstanding performance
  • own performance
  • panel performance
  • parallel performance
  • participant performance
  • past performance
  • peak performance
  • perceived performance
  • perception performance
  • pervaporation performance
  • photocatalytic performance
  • photosynthetic performance
  • photovoltaic performance
  • physical performance
  • physician performance
  • physiological performance
  • plant performance
  • poor performance
  • poor school performance
  • poorer cognitive performance
  • poorer performance
  • population performance
  • portfolio performance
  • post-acquisition performance
  • power performance
  • practical performance
  • practice performance
  • predictive performance
  • price performance
  • process performance
  • product performance
  • production performance
  • productive performance
  • productivity performance
  • prognostic performance
  • program performance
  • project performance
  • provider performance
  • psychometric performance
  • psychomotor performance
  • public performance
  • pump performance
  • r&d performance
  • radiation performance
  • rate performance
  • reactor performance
  • reading performance
  • real-time performance
  • recall performance
  • recognition performance
  • reduced performance
  • regulatory performance
  • relative performance
  • removal performance
  • reproductive performance
  • required performance
  • resident performance
  • retrieval performance
  • revenue performance
  • rf performance
  • ritual performance
  • robust performance
  • role performance
  • run performance
  • safe performance
  • safety performance
  • sales performance
  • same performance
  • sample performance
  • satisfactory performance
  • school performance
  • screening performance
  • sector performance
  • seedling performance
  • sensing performance
  • sensor performance
  • separation performance
  • service performance
  • sexual performance
  • short-term performance
  • similar performance
  • skill performance
  • social performance
  • solar cell performance
  • species performance
  • stable performance
  • staff performance
  • statistical performance
  • steady-state performance
  • stock market performance
  • stock performance
  • stock price performance
  • strategic performance
  • strong performance
  • structural performance
  • student academic performance
  • student performance
  • subsequent performance
  • successful performance
  • superior catalytic performance
  • superior performance
  • supplier performance
  • supply chain performance
  • surgical performance
  • sustainability performance
  • swimming performance
  • system performance
  • systolic performance
  • task performance
  • team performance
  • technical performance
  • test performance
  • thermal performance
  • thermoelectric performance
  • throughput performance
  • time performance
  • tracking performance
  • trade performance
  • transfer performance
  • transient performance
  • transistor performance
  • transplant center performance
  • tribological performance
  • unprecedented performance
  • user performance
  • ventricular performance
  • venture performance
  • verbal performance
  • very good performance
  • visual performance
  • vitro performance
  • vivo performance
  • vocal performance
  • work performance
  • workplace performance
  • yield performance

  • Terms modified by Performance

  • performance ability
  • performance accuracy
  • performance advantage
  • performance analysis
  • performance anxiety
  • performance appraisal
  • performance appraisal system
  • performance assessment
  • performance audit
  • performance battery
  • performance benchmark
  • performance benefit
  • performance bottleneck
  • performance bound
  • performance capacity
  • performance category
  • performance change
  • performance characteristic
  • performance close
  • performance comparable
  • performance comparison
  • performance concrete
  • performance condition
  • performance consequence
  • performance construct
  • performance criterioN
  • performance criterion
  • performance data
  • performance decline
  • performance decreased
  • performance decrement
  • performance deficit
  • performance degradation
  • performance deterioration
  • performance difference
  • performance dimension
  • performance effects
  • performance enhancement
  • performance error
  • performance estimation
  • performance evaluation
  • performance expectation
  • performance factor
  • performance feedback
  • performance gain
  • performance gap
  • performance goal
  • performance guarantee
  • performance horse
  • performance impact
  • performance implication
  • performance improvement
  • performance improvement professional
  • performance increase
  • performance index
  • performance indicator
  • performance information
  • performance iq
  • performance issues
  • performance level
  • performance limit
  • performance limitation
  • performance liquid chromatographic
  • performance liquid chromatographic method
  • performance liquid chromatography
  • performance loss
  • performance management
  • performance management system
  • performance measure
  • performance measurement
  • performance measurement system
  • performance metric
  • performance model
  • performance models
  • performance monitoring
  • performance objective
  • performance only
  • performance optimization
  • performance outcome
  • performance parameter
  • performance persistence
  • performance prediction
  • performance problem
  • performance property
  • performance ranking
  • performance rating
  • performance ratio
  • performance relationship
  • performance reporting
  • performance requirement
  • performance result
  • performance review
  • performance satisfaction
  • performance scale
  • performance score
  • performance similar
  • performance specifications
  • performance standard
  • performance standards
  • performance status
  • performance status scale
  • performance studies
  • performance study
  • performance support system
  • performance system
  • performance target
  • performance task
  • performance technology
  • performance test
  • performance testing
  • performance thin-layer chromatography
  • performance time
  • performance trade-off
  • performance trait
  • performance variable

  • Selected Abstracts


    GAUGING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE UNDER CHANGING TERMS OF TRADE: REAL GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME OR REAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT?

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2008
    Dr WILLIAM COLEMAN
    The paper presents a simple theoretical case for the superiority of the notion of Real Gross Domestic Income to Gross Domestic Product. It is shown that, in a multi-period version of the familiar neoclassical model of a small, open economy, a temporary improvement in its terms of trade will increase welfare and RGDI, and produce a trade surplus in current prices; but will decrease real GDP, on account of it creating a trade deficit at constant prices. [source]


    TRADE REFORMS AND PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIAN MANUFACTURING BETWEEN 1989/90 AND 1996/97

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2002
    KANKESU JAYANTHAKUMARAN
    First page of article [source]


    HOT HANDS AND SUPERANNUATION FUND PERFORMANCE: A SECOND NOTE FOR TRUSTEES

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2001
    MICHAEL E. DREW
    First page of article [source]


    EVOLUTION OF INTRINSIC GROWTH RATE: METABOLIC COSTS DRIVE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN GROWTH AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN MENIDIA MENIDIA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2006
    Stephen A. Arnott
    Abstract There is strong evidence that genetic capacity for growth evolves toward an optimum rather than an absolute maximum. This implies that fast growth has a cost and that trade-offs occur between growth and other life-history traits, but the fundamental mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous work on the Atlantic silverside fish Menidia menidia has demonstrated a trade-off between growth and swimming performance. We hypothesize that the trade-off derives from the competing metabolic demands associated with growth and swimming activity. We tested this by measuring standard metabolic rate (MSTD), maximum sustainable metabolic rate (MACT) and metabolic scope of laboratory-reared silversides originating from two geographically distinct populations with well-documented differences in genetic capacity for growth. The fast-growth genotype had a significantly greater MSTD than the slow-growth genotype, but a similar MACT when swum to near exhaustion. The scope for activity of the fast-growth genotype was lower than that of the slow-growth genotype. Furthermore, the fast-growth genotype eats larger meals, thereby incurring a greater postprandial oxygen demand. We conclude that a metabolic trade-off occurs between growth and other metabolic demands and that this trade-off provides a general mechanism underlying the evolution of growth rate. [source]


    DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE AMONG LDH-B GENOTYPES IN RANA LESSONAE TADPOLES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Hansjrg Hotz
    Abstract The European pool frog, Rana lessonae, is widely polymorphic for two common alleles (b, e) at the lactate dehydrogenase-B (LDH-B) locus. We compared fitness-related larval life-history traits among LDH-B genotypes, which originated from segregation in heterozygous parents, in an artificial pond experiment where tadpoles of R. lessonae from a Swiss population were raised together with tadpoles of the hemiclonal hybrid R. esculenta at two densities. In R. lessonae, LDH-B e/e homozygotes at each density had a higher proportion of metamorphs among survivors, reached metamorphosis earlier, and were heavier at metamorphosis than b/b homozygotes; b/e heterozygotes had intermediate values. That e/e individuals were superior to b/b in both time to and mass at metamorphosis is surprising because these two life-history traits are thought to reflect a performance trade-off; e/e genotypes apparently compensated for shorter time to metamorphosis by a higher growth rate. The two alleles showed the same performance ranking when combined in hybrids with a R. ridibunda allele: When R. esculenta from Swiss populations reared in the same ponds had received the e allele rather than the b allele from their R. lessonae parent, they reached metamorphosis earlier, but did not differ in mass at metamorphosis. The degree of linkage disequilibrium in the source population of the eight R. lessonae used as parents of the R. lessonae tadpoles is unknown, so we cannot exclude the possibility that the performance differences are caused by some anonymous tightly linked gene, rather than the LDH-B locus, that constitutes the genomically localized target of natural selection. A causal involvement of LDH-B is plausible, nevertheless, because this enzyme takes part in the central energy-metabolizing processes and has been reported to underlie fitness differences in other animals; also, differential performance of LDH-B genotypes has been observed in R. lessonae larvae from another population. The present results suggest strong directional selection for allele e; the sum of available data, including an independent laboratory experiment, suggests that partial environment-dependent overdominance combined with balancing selection favoring e/e homozygotes under some and b/b homozygotes under other conditions may be partially responsible for the broad maintenance of the LDH-B polymorphism in R. lessonae. [source]


    REPRODUCTIVE BURDEN, LOCOMOTOR PERFORMANCE, AND THE COST OF REPRODUCTION IN FREE RANGING LIZARDS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
    Donald B. Miles
    Abstract. A reduction in the locomotor capacity of gravid females is considered to be a cost of reproduction if it leads to an increased risk of mortality. In this study, we measured the change in endurance between gravid and postgravid female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) as a test of the cost of reproduction. We also altered reproductive investment in some females by direct ovarian manipulation (yolkectomy), which decreased reproductive burden by 30%. Regardless of experimental treatment, all females had lower endurance when gravid. Endurance was 28% lower in gravid females from the yolkectomy treatment and 31% lower in the unmanipulated females relative to postoviposition females. The experimental reduction in clutch mass resulted in a 21% increase in endurance of gravid yolkectomy females relative to control females. Postovipositional endurance was significantly higher in the yolkectomized females than unmanipulated females, which suggests that the cost of reproduction carries over to postoviposition performance. Unmanipulated females exhibited a significant negative association between endurance and size-specific burden. Endurance was not correlated with clutch size or size-specific burden in the yolkectomy females. Survivorship to the second clutch was higher in the yolkectomy females. The results from a logistic regression showed the probability of survival to the second clutch was significantly and positively associated with endurance after controlling for the effects of treatment. Our analyses demonstrated that the decrement in performance associated with current reproductive investment represents a cost of reproduction expressed as diminished locomotor performance and lowered survivorship to the next clutch. [source]


    STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS IN NORTHERN IRELAND

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2009
    Roger Courtney
    Based on qualitative data this paper explores the resons for the non-profit housing sectors enthusiastic embrace of strategic planning practices. Evidence is presented on the use of specified techiniques by housing associations in Northeren Ireland and their impact on the performance of the assocaitions. Without dismissing rational goel seeking explanations for adoption, the study concludes the strategic planning is also a legimation seeking practice. Evidence suggest that the contested nature of performance in the non-profit sector makes it hard for chief executives to sustain a rational goal based argument for adopting strategic planing. [source]


    MUNICIPAL CONTRACTING OUT: GOVERNANCE CHOICES, MISALIGNMENT AND PERFORMANCE IN SWEDISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2008
    Tobias Johansson
    In this paper we apply a Transaction Cost Theory framework to analyse the use and effects of contracting out in Swedish local government. During the last decade Swedish local authorities, like in many other countries, have, to a larger extent, started to contract external subcontractors to fulfil their responsibilities towards its citizens. It is not only in the traditional subcontracting sectors such as housing, infrastructure, and technical services that this trend is evident, but also in policy areas like education, social care, and elderly care. In fact, very little is known about the overall effects of, and the mechanisms underlying, governance choices. The overall results corroborate transaction cost reasoning. Supplier competition and specificity have anticipated effects on municipal de-integration. Too little, but not too much, use of contracting out, in relation to theoretical predictions, worsens performance. The latter aspect is not fully in accordance with TCE-propositions. [source]


    IDENTIFYING THE MODERATOR FACTORS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN GREEK MUNICIPALITIES

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2008
    Sandra Cohen
    The use of financial ratios is a widespread method for assessing the financial performance of private sector companies. However, the application of an analogous exercise in the public sector is a less straightforward one. In the later case it is a multifaceted task that involves judgments about the interplay of complex social, organizational and financial factors. In this paper we use accrual end of the year financial statements data of Greek Municipalities for the period 2002,2004 to compute nine commonly used performance assessment financial ratios. We find corroborative evidence that factors, which are exogenous to the municipalities' control, such as their wealth and size, have statistically significant impact on ratio values. Thus, as financial ratios are significantly influenced by socio-economic factors like municipal wealth and size, cross sectional comparisons on the basis of these ratios should be made with caution and performed for municipalities that exhibit similarities in terms of size and wealth. [source]


    NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT: PERSPECTIVES ON PERFORMANCE AND THE USE OF PERFORMANCE INFORMATION

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2008
    E. Pieter Jansen
    Performance information is a key-element of NPM, but politicians and managers rarely use this information. On the basis of three case studies, this paper seeks to explain the use of the newly developed performance information. The paper argues that there is a distinction between the customer perspective and the citizen perspective on performance. NPM implies a customer and an internal perspective on performance. These perspectives may be relevant to managers, but politicians are primarily interested in a citizen perspective and a financial perspective. Two situations are identified in which governmental organizations more actively use performance information with a customer perspective and an internal perspective (as implied in NPM): (1) a crisis in the organization's internal processes with political and/or financial consequences and (2) loose coupling of the performance reports to politicians and to managers, which stimulates the information use by both politicians and managers. [source]


    AFTER QUANTIFICATION: QUALITY DIALOGUE AND PERFORMANCE

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2007
    Petra Adolfsson
    First page of article [source]


    MANAGEMENT PAY, GOVERNANCE AND PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF LARGE UK NONPROFITS

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2006
    Gregory O. Jobome
    First page of article [source]


    WOMEN AND RELIGION IN THE AFRICAN DIASPORA: KNOWLEDGE, POWER, AND PERFORMANCE edited by R. Marie Griffith and Barbara Dianne Savage

    JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION, Issue 1 2009
    STEPHEN D. GLAZIER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF VOLUNTARY ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 3 2009
    Esther Blanco
    Abstract New trends in studies on the governance of natural assets include substantial consideration of the role of voluntary initiatives. A traditional economic view states that there is a trade-off between being green and being competitive. According to that view, no voluntary environmental action is expected to occur. To undertake an in-depth analysis of the scope for voluntary action, this paper reviews empirical literature that analyzes the relationship between manufacturing firms' environmental initiatives or performance and economic results. This review moves beyond the general test of the ,pay to be green' hypothesis, preferring instead to systematize empirical results in more specific research questions. Empirical findings of the reviewed literature generally support that there is no penalty for being green. In addition, the typology of firms, the methods utilized for implementing environmental initiatives, the intensity of abatement efforts and stockholders' valuation of green firms have all been shown to have a sizeable influence on the actual economic results of environmental action or management. Consequently, the findings of this paper challenge the traditional strategic theory that predicts widespread free-riding; it holds major implications for environmental policy-making and environmental business decisions. [source]


    CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF LOW FUSING FRAMEWORK VENEERING CERAMIC MATERIALS

    JOURNAL OF ESTHETIC AND RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY, Issue 6 2008
    David Avery CDT Guest Expert
    [source]


    PALM OIL SHORTENING EFFECTS ON BAKING PERFORMANCE OF WHITE BREAD

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2010
    NYUK LING CHIN
    ABSTRACT The effect of the addition of palm oil shortening up to 10% on baking performance of white breads in terms of volume, oven spring, weight, density, color, crumb texture and shelf life using strong and weak flour was investigated. Shortening improved the volume and oven spring of bread at an optimum level of 4% for both strong and weak flour. The strong flour illustrated the effects of shortening more significantly than the weak flour as it produced loaves with higher volumes, oven spring and weight. Bread density decreased to its lowest at 4% of shortening before increasing but porosity decreased linearly with shortening level. These findings suggest that shortening has the optimum capability of reducing bread density at 4% and further addition resulted in dense and coarse bread. Addition of shortening also gave signs of whiter breads and mold reduction effect, although there is no particular trend with its usage levels. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This research presents the improvement in baking characteristics of white bread with addition of palm oil shortening at an optimum level of 4% for all three types of shortening with melting points ranging from 36,52C. The baking characteristics such as volume, oven spring, weight, density, color, crumb texture and shelf life were evaluated using newly developed research methods and also by adopting industrial practices. It was observed that addition of shortening gave signs of whiter breads and mold reduction effect. [source]


    EXPERIMENTAL AND NEURAL NETWORK PREDICTION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF A SOLAR TUNNEL DRIER FOR DRYING JACKFRUIT BULBS AND LEATHER

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2005
    B.K. BALA
    ABSTRACT This article presents the field performance of a solar tunnel drier for drying jackfruit bulbs and leather. The drier consists of a transparent plastic-covered flat-plate collector and a drying tunnel connected in series to supply hot air directly into the drying tunnel using two direct-current fans operated by a photovoltaic module. The drier has a loading capacity of 120,150 kg of fruits. Sixteen experimental runs were conducted for drying jackfruit bulbs and leather (eight runs each). The use of a solar tunnel drier led to a considerable reduction in drying time and dried products of better quality in comparison to products dried under the sun. A multilayered neural network approach was used to predict the performance of the solar tunnel drier. Using solar drying data of jackfruit bulbs and leather, the model has been trained using backpropagation algorithm. The prediction of the performance of the drier was found to be excellent after it was adequately trained. It can be used to predict the potential of the drier for different locations, and can also be used in a predictive optimal control algorithm. [source]


    BAKING PERFORMANCE AND CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY OF RAW AND EXTRUDED COWPEA FLOUR BREADS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 5 2004
    K.H. MCWATTERS
    ABSTRACT Cowpea flour was used to partially replace wheat flour in yeast bread, using automatic household-type bread machines for mixing, proofing and baking. Loaves containing 15 or 30% extruded cowpea flour weighed more (683.4 g) than loaves from other treatments (641.1,652.6 g). The 100% wheat had the highest loaf volume (2.58 L) and the 30% extruded cowpea the lowest (1.64 L). Cowpea flour breads contained more protein (13.9,15.4%) than the 100% wheat (4.1% fat, 12.5% protein). Bread made with 15% extruded cowpea flour was not different (P < 0.05) from the all-wheat control in sensory quality and acceptability. Hedonic ratings for the control and 15% extruded cowpea flour ranged from 6.6 (like slightly) to 7.4 (like moderately) for all sensory attributes. The least liked samples contained either 30% raw or 30% extruded cowpea flour, receiving ratings for all attributes ranging from 4.8 (disliked slightly) to 6.2 (liked slightly). Overall, 15% extruded cowpea flour demonstrated successful bread making performance without compromising sensory quality. [source]


    BAKING PERFORMANCE OF 1BL/1RS SOFT RED WINTER WHEATS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2001
    WILLIAM E. BARBEAU
    ABSTRACT Baking performance of nine 1BL/1RS soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines and six non-1BL/1RS lines was assessed during two crop years, 1995,96 and 1996,97, and at two locations, Blacksburg and Warsaw, Virginia. The 1BL/1RS flours produced cookies with significantly smaller diameters than non-1BL/1RS flours (p , 0.0026) across both growing years and locations. There was a highly significant negative correlation (r =,0.709) between cookie spread and alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) of SRWW flours. Overall, there was no significant difference (p = 0.2552) in biscuit volume of 1BL/1RS and non-1BL/1RS flours. There were no significant differences in cake volumes of 1BL/1RS and non-1BL/1RS flours when data from both years and locations were combined, p = 0.0710; or when Blacksburg and Warsaw locations were considered separately, p = 0.2009 and 0.1882, respectively. Finally, there were no significant differences in the texture of cakes made from 1BL/1RS and non-1BL/1RS flours regardless of growing year or location. These results suggest that the 1BL/1RS translocation significantly reduces the cookie spread of SRWW flours but has no significant impact on biscuit or cake quality. [source]


    PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE, LIGHT ABSORPTION, AND PIGMENT COMPOSITION OF MACROCYSTIS PYRIFERA (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) BLADES FROM DIFFERENT DEPTHS,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Mara Florencia Colombo-Pallotta
    Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh is a canopy-forming species that occupies the entire water column. The photosynthetic tissue of this alga is exposed to a broad range of environmental factors, particularly related to light quantity and quality. In the present work, photosynthetic performance, light absorption, pigment composition, and thermal dissipation were measured in blades collected from different depths to characterize the photoacclimation and photoprotection responses of M. pyrifera according to the position of its photosynthetic tissue in the water column. The most important response of M. pyrifera was the enhancement of photoprotection in surface and near-surface blades. The size of the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool (XC) was correlated to the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chl a fluorescence capacity of the blades. In surface blades, we detected the highest accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds, photoprotective carotenoids, ,XC, and NPQ. These characteristics were important responses that allowed surface blades to present the highest maximum photosynthetic rate and the highest PSII electron transport rate. Therefore, surface blades made the highest contribution to algae production. In contrast, basal blades presented the opposite trend. These blades do not to contribute significantly to photosynthetate production of the whole organism, but they might be important for other functions, like nutrient uptake. [source]


    EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DESICCATION ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE OF PORPHYRA PERFORATA

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    A. Cabello-Pasini
    Porphyra perforata is a common seaweed inhabiting the upper intertidal zone, and as a consequence it experiences great fluctuations in tissue temperature and desiccation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature and the tissue desiccation status on the photosynthetic performance of P. perforata. Photosynthetic performance was evaluated polarographically after the temperature or desiccation treatments. Maximum photosynthesis (Pmax) occurred between 25 and 30 C and decreased at higher and lower temperatures, however, no significant differences were observed in the initial slope of photosynthesis (,) from 10 to 30 C. This suggests that the photosynthetic efficiency of this species does not decrease as a result of fluctuating temperatures during tidal emergence/submergence. Pmax and , were relatively constant in tissue of P. perforata with 5 to 100% relative water content. This also suggests that natural desiccation rates during low tides do not decrease photosynthetic rates in this species. Variations in the synthesis of specific proteins as a result of fluctuations in temperature and relative water content in the tissue of P. perforata are being studied. [source]


    A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING OF ALCOHOL USE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN THE U.S. MILITARY: COMPLEXITIES AMONG STRESS, DRINKING MOTIVES, IMPULSIVITIY, ALCOHOL USE AND JOB PERFORMANCE

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
    Sunju Sohn
    Aims:, Young male adults in the U. S. military drink at much higher rates than civilians and females of the same age. Drinking has been shown to be associated with stress and individuals' ability to effectively cope with stressors. Despite numerous studies conducted on young adults' drinking behaviors such as college drinking, current literature is limited in fully understanding alcohol use patterns of the young military population. The aim of the present study was to develop and test the hypothesized Structural Equation Model (SEM) of alcohol use to determine if stress coping styles moderate the relationship between stress, drinking motives, impulsivity, alcohol consumption and job performance. Methods:, Structural equation models for multiple group comparisons were estimated based on a sample of 1,715 young (aged 18 to 25) male military personnel using the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Military Personnel. Coping style was used as the grouping factor in the multi-group analysis and this variable was developed through numerous steps to reflect positive and negative behaviors of coping. The equivalences of the structural relations between the study variables were then compared across two groups at a time, controlling for installation region, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and pay grade, resulting in two model comparisons with four coping groups. If the structural weight showed differences across groups, each parameter was constrained and tested one at a time to see where the models are different. Results:, The results showed that the hypothesized model applies across all groups. The structural weights revealed that a moderation effect exists between a group whose tendency is to mostly use positive coping strategies and a group whose tendency is to mostly use negative coping strategies (,,2(39)= 65.116, p<.05). More specifically, the models were different (with and without Bonferroni Type I error correction) in the paths between "motive and alcohol use" and "alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences (job performance)." Conclusions:, It seems plausible that coping style significantly factors into moderating alcohol use among young male military personnel who reportedly drink more excessively than civilians of the same age. The results indicate that it may be particularly important for the military to assess different stress coping styles ofyoung male military personnel so as to limit excessive drinking as well as to promote individual wellness and improve job performance. [source]


    TRAINING EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OF DESCRIPTIVE PANELISTS

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 6 2004
    DELORES H. CHAMBERS
    ABSTRACT The amount of training necessary to adequately "train" a descriptive panel is a matter of contention. The objectives of this research were to compare the performance of descriptive panelists after short-term (4 h), moderate (60 h) and extensive training (120 h). Seven screened panelists were chosen to evaluate three commercial tomato pasta sauces after each training period. Panelist performance improved with increased training. Sample differences were observed in all texture attributes and some flavor attributes, even after the shortest training time (4 h). However, more differences were found with at least 60 h of product training. After 120 h of training, product differences for all texture attributes and most of the flavor attributes studied could be ascertained by the trained panelists. These results suggested that only limited training may be necessary to find differences among products for many texture attributes and some flavor attributes. However, extensive training may be required to reduce variation among panelists and increase the discriminant abilities of panelists. [source]


    PANEL PERFORMANCE AND NUMBER OF EVALUATIONS IN A DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY STUDY

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 4 2004
    JRME PAGS
    ABSTRACT The assessor performance is a key point in a sensory evaluation. In particular, at the end of a session, a decrease of the performance can be feared. We propose to analyze this performance with various criteria: usual ones as the main product effect or the error variance; a new one measuring the perceived products variability. The performance can then be studied all along the session from two points of view: in taking into account the only products tested at a given instant (named instantaneous); in taking into account all the products tested up to a given instant (named cumulative). In the presented example, in spite of the large number of products successively tested by each assessor, the instantaneous performance of the panel shows no significant deterioration. Furthermore, when the number of products tested by each assessor increases, more significant product effects can be obtained thanks to the accumulation of the amount of data. This shows that the number of products that can be reasonably studied by one assessor during one session is generally underestimated. [source]


    A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF A TRAINED SENSORY PANEL,

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 6 2001
    MARJORIE C. KING
    ABSTRACT Cluster analysis, consonance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and the GRAPES program (Schlich 1994) were compared for the evaluation of panel performance. Ten judges evaluated 25 Merlot wines for 24 color, aroma and flavor attributes. Cluster analysis grouped similar judges. PCA identified judges according to their attribute use. Consonance analysis determined a numerical index for attribute agreement and the GRAPES program compared judges in their use of the scale, reliability, discrimination and disagreement. Three of the four techniques provided a graphical representation of similarities and differences between judges. Methodologies were best used in conjunction with one another. Ultimately the application of these tools will serve to improve the quality of sensory evaluations. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE, TEST FOOD, TEETH AND MUSCLE FORCE INTERACTIONS IN MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2007
    FLVIA RIQUETO GAMBARELI
    ABSTRACT The role of texture and flavors in mastication is evident, but it is difficult to understand the interactions among food properties, oral physiology and perception. Mastication results from rhythmic mandibular movements. The teeth and masticatory muscles together form the mechanism whereby the food particles are fragmented. Masticatory performance and efficiency are defined as the capacity to reduce natural or artificial test materials during mastication, or by counting the number of strokes required to reduce food, respectively. Foods eaten for nourishment are very different from the industrial test materials used to quantify masticatory performance, thus, divergences could arise if the chewable material can or cannot be swallowed. This study presents a synopsis of masticatory performance methods, which is also related to muscle force, number of teeth and test chewing substance diversity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The attributes of food, such as appearance, flavor and texture, as well as its interaction with saliva, number of teeth and conditions of the biomechanical system, influence the chewing process. In addition, reflex control and cognition can influence food perception and breakdown in the mouth. Food acceptability and choice depend on sensory properties of the food, which are perceived during chewing and swallowing. Masticatory performance and maximal occlusal force measurement may provide essential information that could lead to an appropriate diagnosis as regards masticatory function. Masticatory efficiency and performance can be measured to determine the individual's capacity to comminute a natural or a chewable test material. A material with uniform properties that can be reliably reproduced is essential to provide an ideal test bolus for the scientific study of masticatory effectiveness. [source]


    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED IN-LINE VISCOMETERS ON NEWTONIAN AND SHEAR-THINNING FLUIDS,

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 2 2001
    LAURA A. ZIMMER
    Three commercial instruments for in-line process measurement of fluid viscosity (an oscillating sphere viscometer, a tube viscometer and a coaxial cylinder viscometer) were evaluated using a Newtonian (60% sucrose) and two shear-thinning fluids (0.5% xanthan gum and 2% hydroxypropyl methylcellu-lose). The oscillating sphere viscometer required little or no calibration to measure the viscosity of Newtonian fluids. Otherwise, when compared to results given by analytical off-line rheometry, the in-line viscometers were found to be grossly inaccurate in predicting viscosity. A methodology is presented to correct the flow curves generated by each in-line instrument such that the output measurements are consistent with that given by off-line rheometry. Additional characteristics of each instrument that should be considered when choosing an instrument for in-line process application are presented. [source]


    MARINE PROTECTED AREA PERFORMANCE IN A MODEL OF THE FISHERY

    NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 4 2002
    USSIF RASHID SUMAILA
    ABSTRACT. What bio-economic benefits can be expected from the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) in a fishery facing a shock in the form of recruitment failure, and managed jointly compared to separately? What are the optimal sizes of MPAs under cooperation and non-cooperation? I explore these questions in the current paper by developing a computational two-agent model, which incorporates MPAs using the North East Atlantic codfishery as an example. Results from the study indicate that MPAs can protect the discounted economic rent from the fishery if the habitat is likely to face a shock, andfishers have a high discount rate. The total standing biomass increases with increasing MPA size but only up to a point. Basedon the specifics of the model, the study also shows that the economically optimal size of MPA for cod varies between 50 70% depending on (i) the exchange rate between the protectedandunprotectedareas of the habitat; (ii) whether fishers behalf cooperatively or non-cooperatively; and(iii) the severity of the shock that the ecosystem may face. [source]


    AN ANALYSIS OF HONG KONG EXPORT PERFORMANCE

    PACIFIC ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    Yin-Wong Cheung
    In general, Hong Kong exports display mean-reverting dynamics, are positively influenced by foreign income and are adversely affected by high value of its currency. The lagged export variable, foreign income, and real exchange rate provide most of the explanatory power. Other variables explain marginally the variability of Hong Kong exports. [source]


    SELF-ESTEEM AND JOB PERFORMANCE: THE MODERATING ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM CONTINGENCIES

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    D. LANCE FERRIS
    Although theoretical perspectives suggest self-esteem level (i.e., high/low) should have main and moderating effects on job performance, empirical and narrative reviews of the literature suggest such effects are either nonexistent or highly variable. To account for these mixed findings, we hypothesized that self-esteem level should only have main and moderating effects on job performance when one's self-esteem is not contingent upon workplace performance. Using multisource ratings across 2 samples of working adults, we found that the importance of performance to self-esteem (IPSE) moderated the effect of self-esteem level on job performance and moderated the buffering interaction between self-esteem level and role conflict in the prediction of job performance. Our results thus support IPSE as an important moderator of both main and moderating effects of self-esteem level. [source]