Periodontitis Group (periodontitis + group)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A study to evaluate the relationship between periodontitis, cardiovascular disease and serum lipid levels

R Sridhar
Abstract:, Background:, The search for cellular mechanisms linking periodontitis to changes in systemic health has resulted in the evolution of a new area of lipid research. So far the causality and possible pathways of the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease is obscure. Method:, A total of 120 subjects were included in the study with 30 subjects in each of the following groups: healthy group (A), chronic periodontitis group (B), coronary heart disease (CHD + periodontitis group) (C) and CHD , periodontitis group (D). All subjects underwent oral examination and their Gingival Index, Oral Hygiene Index, Periodontal Disease Index scores and attachment loss were recorded. Two millilitres of fasting venous blood sample was drawn and tested for the level of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride level. Results and Conclusion:, The results revealed no significant difference with respect to the lipid profile levels between the four groups. Interpreting the results of the study, periodontal disease did not cause an increase in total CHL, LDL or triglyceride levels or a decrease in the HDL levels in an otherwise systemically healthy individual or in a CHD patient. Periodontitis in a CHD patient did not seem to exacerbate the destruction of periodontal tissue. Higher triglyceride levels did not have any correlation with the severity of attachment loss in a periodontitis subject. [source]

Serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor- , in chronic periodontitis

Anna Passoja
Passoja A, Puijola I, Knuuttila M, Niemelä O, Karttunen R, Raunio T, Tervonen T. Serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor- , in chronic periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 881,887. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01602.x Abstract Aims: To investigate, using a cross-sectional study design, whether the extent of periodontal inflammation associates with the serum levels of cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- , and their ratio. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 61 subjects with chronic periodontitis and 30 control subjects with minimally inflamed periodontal tissues. Probing pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and periodontal attachment level (AL) were measured. The serum IL-10 (pg/ml) and TNF- , (U/l) levels were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. After categorization of the subjects, associations between serum IL-10 and TNF- , levels and the extent of periodontal inflammation were studied using linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, body mass index and smoking. Results: A negative, partly dose-dependent association existed between the extent of BOP, PD4 mm and AL4 mm and serum IL-10 level. The subjects in the periodontitis group presented significantly higher serum TNF- , levels and their TNF- ,/IL-10 ratio was approximately threefold when compared with the ratio in the control group. Conclusions: The significantly higher serum TNF- ,/IL-10 ratio in the subjects with chronic periodontitis when compared with the ratio in the controls is indicative of a stronger systemic pro-inflammatory state in chronic periodontitis. [source]

Salivary interleukin-1, concentration and the presence of multiple pathogens in periodontitis

Ulvi Kahraman Gursoy
Abstract Aim: This study aimed to find salivary enzymes and/or cytokines that would reflect periodontitis, alone or in combination with salivary microbial markers. Material and Methods: The salivary concentrations of elastase, lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-1, (IL-1,), interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor- ,, and the presence of five periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, were analysed from salivary specimens of 165 subjects, a subpopulation of Health 2000 Health Examination Survey in Finland; 84 of the subjects had probing pocket depth (PPD) of 4 mm at 14 or more teeth (the advanced periodontitis group), while 81 subjects had no teeth with PPD of 4 mm (the control group). All subjects had at least 20 teeth and no systemic diseases. Results: Among the salivary cytokines and enzymes tested, IL-1, was the only biomarker associated with periodontitis. An association was also found with the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens. Salivary IL-1, and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens were associated with periodontitis at the same magnitude, when they were in the logistic regression model individually or together. Conclusion: We suggest that salivary IL-1, and the presence of multiple periodontal pathogens in saliva should be studied more thoroughly as markers of periodontitis. [source]

Gingival crevicular fluid levels of RANKL and OPG in periodontal diseases: implications of their relative ratio

Nagihan Bostanci
Abstract Aim: Receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are a system of molecules that regulate bone resorption. This study aims to compare the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of healthy and periodontal disease subjects. Material and Methods: GCF was obtained from healthy (n=21), gingivitis (n=22), chronic periodontitis (n=28), generalized aggressive periodontitis (n=25) and chronic periodontitis subjects under immunosuppressant therapy (n=11). RANKL and OPG concentrations in GCF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: RANKL levels were low in health and gingivitis groups, but increased in all three forms of periodontitis. OPG levels were higher in health than all three periodontitis, or gingivitis groups. There were no differences in RANKL and OPG levels between chronic and generalized aggressive periodontitis groups, whereas these were lower in the immunosuppressed chronic periodontitis group. The RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly elevated in all three periodontitis forms, compared with health or gingivitis, and positively correlated to probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: GCF RANKL and OPG levels were oppositely regulated in periodontitis, but not gingivitis, resulting in an enhanced RANKL/OPG ratio. This ratio was similar in all three periodontitis groups and may therefore predict disease occurrence. [source]

Genetic polymorphisms in the MMP-1 and MMP-3 gene may contribute to chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population

Claudia Maria Astolfi
Abstract Objectives: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 (MMP-1, MMP-3) represent proteinases that degrade macromolecules of the extracellular matrix. These enzymes play a fundamental role during destruction of periodontal tissues. Genetic polymorphisms were characterized in the promoter region of the MMP-1 and MMP-3 genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these genetic variations with chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population. Material and Methods: Non-smoking subjects (n=114) exhibiting sites 5 mm clinical attachment loss were recruited for study. Control subjects (n=109) should not exhibit clinical signals of periodontitis. MMP-1 (,1607 1G/2G, ,519 A/G) and MMP-3 (,1612 5A/6A) gene promoter polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP methods. Results: Analysis of polymorphisms showed no differences in distribution of the ,1607 1G/2G and ,519 A/G variants in the MMP-1 gene between the healthy and periodontitis group (p>0.05). However, the distribution of genotype frequencies of the ,1612 5A/6A polymorphism in the MMP-3 gene showed that the 5A/5A genotype was significantly more frequent in the periodontitis group (p=0.008). The same was not observed in the 5A/6A genotype once only one 5A allele is carried. We also observed a trend to increase the frequency of the MMP-1/MMP-3 haplotype (2G/5A) in the periodontitis group (p=0.08). Conclusion: On the basis of the results, no significant association is found for the MMP-1 polymorphisms with susceptibility of periodontitis, while the MMP-3 gene polymorphism may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction during periodontitis in Brazilian subjects. [source]

Tongue coating and salivary bacterial counts in healthy/gingivitis subjects and periodontitis patients

S. Mantilla Gómez
Abstract Background: The papillary structure of the dorsum of the tongue forms a unique ecological site that provides a large surface area favoring the accumulation of oral debris and microorganisms. These micro-organisms of the tongue may be of influence on the flora of the entire oral cavity. The normal appearance of the dorsum of the tongue is either pinkish or has a thin white coating. For the present study a scoring method was developed to describe the appearance of the dorsum of the tongue in relation to the extent of color and thickness of tongue coating. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the discoloration and coating of the tongue in healthy/gingivitis subjects and periodontitis patients. Furthermore, to determine the relationship between the appearance of the tongue and the bacterial load in salivary samples. Material and Methods: 2 groups of patients were studied, 70 healthy/gingivitis subjects and 56 periodontitis patients. After scoring of the tongue a salivary sample of each patient was taken and analyzed using a phase-contrast microscope. Results: This investigation showed that most discoloration was found on the distal part of the tongue. The mean number of bacteria per ml sample in relation to a pink, white and yellow appearance of the tongue was 948, 855 and 900 (×106) respectively. The mean number of bacteria per ml sample in relation to no, thin and thick coating was 948, 863, and 895 (×106), respectively. Analysis did not reveal a relationship between discoloration, coating thickness and total bacterial load. The mean number of bacteria per ml in healthy/gingivitis subjects was 860 and in periodontitis patients 918 (×106). Conclusion: No relationship between the appearance of the tongue and salivary bacterial load could be detected. There was no difference in bacterial load between the healthy/gingivitis and the periodontitis group within the present study population. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Die papilläre Struktur des Zungenrückens bildet eine einheitliche ökologische Oberfläche, die eine große Oberfläche vermittelt, was die Akkumulation von oralem Belag und Mikroorganismen favorisiert. Diese Mikroorganismen der Zunge können die Flora der gesamten Mundhöhle beeinflussen. Die normale Erscheinung des Zungenrückens ist eher pinkfarben oder hat einen dünnen, weißen Belag. Für die vorliegende Studie wurde eine Meßmethode entwickelt, um die Erscheinung des Zungenrückens in Beziehung zum Ausmaß der Farbe und der Dicke des Zungenbelags zu beschrieben. Ziel: Der Zweck der Studie war die Untersuchung der Verfärbung und der Belagbildung auf der Zunge bei gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen und Parodontitis-Patienten. Weiterhin sollte die Beziehung zwischen der Erscheinung der Zunge und dem bakteirellen Gehalt in Speichelproben bestimmt werden. Material und Methoden: 2 Gruppen von Patienten wurden untersucht, 70 gesunde bzw. Gingivitis-personen und 56 Parodontitis-Patienten. Nach der Beurteilung der Zunge wurde von jedem Patienten eine Speichelprobe genommen und mit einem Phasenkontrastmikroskop untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse zeigten, daß die meiste Verfärbung der Zunge am distalen Teil gefunden wurde. Die mittlere Anzahl der Bakterien pro ml Speichel in Beziehung zu einer pinkfarbigen, weißen und gelben Erscheinung der Zunge was 948, 855 oder 900 (×106). Die mittlere Anzahl der Bakterien pro ml Speichel in Beziehung zu keinem, zu dünnem oder zu dickem Belag war 948, 863 oder 895 (×106). Die Analyse zeigte keine Beziehung zwischen Verfärbung, Belagsdicke und totalem Bakteriengehalt. Die mittlere Anzahl von Bakterien pro ml bei gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen war 860 und bei Parodontitis-Patienten 918 (×106). Zusammenfassung: Es konnte kein Beziehung zwischen der Erscheinung der Zunge und dem bakteriellen Gehalt entdeckt werden. Es gab keine Differenzen im bakteriellen Gehalt zwischen den gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen und den Parodontitis-Patienten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studienpopulation. Résumé Origine: La structure papillaire du dos de la langue forme un site écologique unique qui comporte une large surface favorisant l'accumulation de débris buccaux et de micro-organismes. Ces derniers peuvent avoir une influence sur la flore de l'ensemble de la cavité buccale. L'apparence normale du dos de la langue est rosée ou possède un très fin recouvrement blanc. Une méthode d'échellonnage a été développée afin de décrire l'apparence du dos de la langue en relation avec l'ampleur de la couleur et l'épaisseur du recouvrement de la langue. But: Le but de cette étude a été d'étudier la décoloration et le recouvrement de la langue chez des sujets sains/avec gingivite et parodontite. De plus la relation entre l'apparence de la langue et la charge bactérienne dans les échantillons salivaires a été déterminée. Matériaux et méthodes: 2 groupes de patients ont étéétudiés, 70 sujets sains ou avec gingivite et 56 patients avec parodontite. Après avoir évalué la langue, un échantillon salivaire de chaque patient a été prélevé et analysé en utilisant un microscope à contraste de phase. Résultats: Les résultats ont montré que la plupart de la décoloration était trouvée dans la partie distale de la langue. Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml d'échantillon en relation avec la couleur rose, blanche ou jaune était respectivement de 948, 855 et 900 (×106). Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml d'échantillon en relation avec un recouvrement inexistant, fin ou épais était respectivement de 948, 863 et 895 (×106). L'analyse n'a pas mis en évidence une relation entre la décoloration, l'épaisseur de recouvrement et la charge bactérienne totale. Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml chez des sujets sains/gingivite était de 860 et chez les patients avec parodontite de 918 (×106). Conclusion: Aucune relation entre l'apparence de la langue et la charge bactérienne salivaire n'a donc pûêtre détectée. Il n'y avait aucune différence dans la charge bactérienne entre le groupe sain/gingivite et le groupe parodontite dans la population étudiée. [source]

Salivary microbial levels in relation to periodontal status and caries development

Y. Iwano
Iwano Y, Sugano N, Matsumoto K, Nishihara R, Iizuka T, Yoshinuma N, Ito K. Salivary microbial levels in relation to periodontal status and caries development. J Periodont Res 2010; 45: 165,169. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective:, Although an inverse relationship between caries and periodontal disease has been suggested, some studies have reported a positive correlation between periodontal disease and the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF) index. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between caries and periodontal disease. Material and Methods:, We assessed the clinical parameters and salivary levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans using real-time polymerase chain reaction in 40 subjects with varying degrees of caries and periodontal disease. Results:, The salivary levels of S. mutans were significantly higher in the periodontally healthy group than in the periodontitis group. The salivary levels of P. gingivalis were significantly higher in the caries-free group than in the periodontally healthy group with caries. The salivary levels of S. mutans were significantly increased after the initial periodontal treatment. Conclusions:, This study showed that an inverse relationship exists between periodontitis and caries in terms of the clinical and bacteriological findings. [source]

Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma levels of neuropeptide Substance-P in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical therapy

A. R. Pradeep
Background and Objective:, The level of Substance-P in gingival crevicular fluid has been found to correlate with clinical measures of periodontal disease. The present study was designed to assess the relationship between clinical parameters and levels of Substance-P in the gingival crevicular fluid from inflamed gingiva, periodontitis sites and after treatment of periodontitis sites, and to correlate them to the Substance-P levels of plasma. Material and Methods:, Thirty, age- and gender-matched subjects were divided into three groups (healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis) based on modified gingival index scores and clinical attachment loss. A fourth group consisted of 10 subjects from the periodontitis group, 6,8 wk after initial therapy. Plasma and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected and quantified for Substance-P using an enzyme immunoassay. Results:, The mean concentration of Substance-P, both in gingival crevicular fluid and plasma, was observed to be highest in the periodontitis group (45.13 pg/mL in gingival crevicular fluid and 67.8 pg/mL in plasma) and lowest in the healthy group (6.07 pg/mL in gingival crevicular fluid and below the detection level in plasma). The mean Substance-P concentration in the gingivitis group (11.42 pg/mL in gingival crevicular fluid and 38.8 pg/mL in plasma) and in the after-treatment group (7.58 pg/mL in gingival crevicular fluid and 39.7 pg/mL in plasma) lay between the highest and lowest values. In all groups the gingival crevicular fluid levels showed a statistically significant positive correlation with that of plasma and clinical attachment loss. Conclusion:, Substance-P levels were highest in the gingival crevicular fluid from sites with periodontal destruction; however, periodontal treatment resulted in the reduction of Substance-P levels. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma Substance-P levels showed a positive correlation in all of the groups. [source]

Expression of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in inflamed gingival biopsies

L. D. R. Gonçalves
Objectives:, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are known to be involved in the periodontal disease process. Results of in vivo MMPs and TIMPs gene expressions in the gingiva, though, are still controversial. In the present study, we compared the gene expression of MMP-1, -2, -9, -13 and TIMP-1, -2 in healthy and inflamed gingiva. Methods:, 38 gingival samples were collected from gingivitis (n = 10), advanced chronic periodontitis (n = 10), generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 8) and periodontally healthy individuals (n = 10). Total RNA isolated from those samples was subjected to reverse transcription followed by amplification by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Products were visualized in agarose gels and quantified by optical densitometry. Samples were also processed for gelatin zymography and Western blotting for MMP-2 and MMP-9 in order to assess for post-transcriptional MMP regulation at the protein level. Results:, The frequencies and levels of transcripts encoding MMPs and TIMPs were found to be not significantly different among groups (p > 0.05, Fisher's Exact and Kruskall-Wallis tests). There is a trend towards higher MMP-2 and -9 gelatinase activities in the inflamed samples, although not statistically significant. In contrast, zymography and Western blotting studies show that MMP-2 is virtually absent in the chronic periodontitis group. Conclusion:, These results could reflect a complex regulation of MMPs and TIMPs' gene expression in the course of gingival inflammation. They also reveal a great biological diversity even among individuals with similar periodontal status. [source]

Smoking modulates interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios in the periodontal tissues

J. B. César-Neto
Background and Objective:, This study evaluated the effect of smoking on the gene expression of interleukin-1,, -1ra, -6, -8 and -10, tumor necrosis factor-,, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -8, receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin, in sites with periodontitis. Material and Methods:, Gingival biopsies were divided into three groups: the healthy group (periodontally healthy subjects; n = 10); the periodontitis group [subjects with severe chronic periodontitis who never smoked (probing depth ,,7 mm) (n = 25)]; and the smoking group (subjects diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis who smoked ,,1 pack per day for at least 10 years; n = 25). Gene and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results:, Data analysis demonstrated that, except for MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, the levels of all factors were increased by inflammation (p < 0.001). The levels of interleukin-1,, -1ra, -6 and -8, and RANKL, were higher in smokers with periodontitis compared with controls, whereas the levels of interleukin-10, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin were lower (p < 0.001). Smoking lowered the levels of interleukin-1,, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor-,, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, and increased the levels of interleukin-6 and -1ra in sites with a comparable type of periodontitis (p < 0.001). Conclusion:, In conclusion, smoking modulates gene expression in the periodontium, and the influence of smoking on periodontal disease may involve effects of interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios. [source]

Bone response to different strength orthodontic forces in animals with periodontitis

J. A. Garat
Background:, Occlusal alterations resulting from tooth movements caused by periodontitis-related bone loss are often corrected with orthodontic treatments. Although the outcome is usually satisfactory, a quantitative histomorphometric study of bone response would contribute to improving treatment planning and optimizing results. Methods and Results:, This study is a histomorphometric analysis of alveolar bone response to 51 and 75-g orthodontic forces applied to rat molars subjected to experimental periodontitis by placing a ligature around the neck of the molar during 48 h. The orthodontic device consisted of two bands with a tube welded to their palatine aspect, through which the arms of a helicoidal spring were threaded so as to exert force toward palatine. The device was placed immediately and 48 h after removing the ligatures. When applied 48 h post-removal of the ligature, both orthodontic forces caused an increase in bone volume in the periodontitis group. Conclusions:, Our study shows that application of orthodontic forces once periodontal infection has been controlled contributes to increasing alveolar bone volume, consequently improving bone quality. [source]

Immunohistochemical analysis of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and androgen receptor expression in the pathogenesis of nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth

W-T. Huang
Background:, Numerous studies have demonstrated that gingival overgrowth may be associated with androgen and cytokine expression in tissues. Objectives:, The aim of this study was to compare the expression of androgen receptor-presenting cells (AR+ cells) and Th1/Th2 cytokine [Th1: interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-, (IFN-,); Th2: IL-4, IL-10, IL-13] expression cells in tissue sections of patients with gingival overgrowth. Materials and methods:, Tissue samples were collected from patients with healthy periodontium (H group), adult periodontitis (P group), surgically extracted teeth (S group), and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth (NIGO group). The clinical periodontal parameters of pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque control record (PCR) were measured around selected sample teeth. Gingival biopsies were further processed by immunohistochemical staining method. The expressions of cells positive for AR, IL-2, IFN-,, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were counted by predetermined semiquantitative methods. Results:, Our results indicated that AR, IL-2, IFN-,, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were intensively expressed in the nuclei of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts of gingival connective tissue. Stronger expressions of AR, IL-2, and IFN-, were found in the NIGO group. The AR+ cells/0.01 mm2 in gingival fibroblasts were significantly higher in the NIGO group (80.2 ± 10.7) than those of the periodontitis group (52.5 ± 11.8) and control group (37.4 ± 11.3) (P < 0.05). The cytokine expression of the NIGO group showed a trend towards Th1-type expression (IL-2; P = 0.0001). In the surgically extracted tooth group, a stronger expression of Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, Il-10, IL-13; P < 0.05) was found in inflammatory cells. In a comparison of the IL-2/IL-4-labeled cell ratio of the four groups, a descending sequence was discovered as NIGO group (0.92 ± 0.97) > H group (0.81 ± 0.61) > P group (0.77 ± 0.82) > S group (0.58 ± 1.77). Conclusions:, Our data support the following: (i) taking nifedipine may elevate the expression of AR in susceptible oral tissue, e.g. gingiva; (ii) the cytokine profile of T-cells in NIGO tissue indicates a trend preferentially towards Th1 activity; and (iii) elevation of AR expression cells and prominent Th1 cytokine-labeled cells are two significant factors in the pathogenesis of NIGO. [source]

Salivary IgA subclasses and bacteria-reactive IgA in patients with aggressive periodontitis

S. Hägewald
The local salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) response in patients with aggressive periodontitis to oral microorganisms and its role for the pathogenesis has not been determined. This study investigated the hypothesis that aggressive periodontitis patients have impaired oral secretory immunity. Our test group was made-up of 19 aggressive periodontitis patients and 19 age- and gender-matched periodontally healthy controls. Total IgA, IgA subclass 1, IgA subclass 2 and IgA reactive to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Treponema denticola ATCC 35404 and Candida albicans DSM 3454 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in whole unstimulated and stimulated saliva. A statistically significantly lower concentration and secretion rate of total salivary IgA (P < 0.01) and IgA1 (P < 0.001) was found in the aggressive periodontitis group in resting and stimulated saliva. A decrease of IgA2 (P < 0.05) was seen in resting saliva. Although only minor differences were detected in the concentration and secretion of bacteria-reactive IgA in both groups, the proportion of bacteria-reactive IgA from the total IgA was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the aggressive periodontitis group in all three microorganisms tested. Our results indicate an inhibition of total secretory IgA. In particular an IgA subclass 1-specific decrease in aggressive periodontitis was noted, while the bacteria-reactive humoral immune system in saliva was activated. The role of the decrease of IgA1 immunoglobulins in aggressive periodontitis with respect to susceptibility for periodontal diseases has to be elucidated. [source]