Periodontal Care (periodontal + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cessation of periodontal care during pregnancy: effect on infant birthweight

Philippe P. Hujoel
The goal of this study was to assess whether interruption of care for chronic periodontitis during pregnancy increased the risk of low-birthweight infants. A population-based case-control study was designed with 793 cases (infants <,2,500 g) and a random sample of 3,172 controls (infants ,,2,500 g). Generalized estimating equation models were used to relate periodontal treatment history to low birthweight risk and to common risk factors. The results indicate that periodontal care utilization was associated with a 2.35-fold increased odds of self-reported smoking during pregnancy (95% confidence interval: 1.48,3.71), a 2.19-fold increased odds for diabetes (95% confidence interval: 1.21,3.98), a 3.90-fold increased odds for black race (95% confidence interval: 2.31,6.61), and higher maternal age. After adjustment for these factors, interruption of periodontal care during pregnancy did not lead to an increased risk for a low-birthweight infant when compared to women with no history of periodontal care (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.60,1.52). In conclusion, women receiving periodontal care had genetic and environmental characteristics, such as smoking, diabetes and race, that were associated with an increased risk for low-birthweight infants. Periodontal care patterns, in and of themselves, were unrelated to low-birthweight risk. [source]

Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services

Kavita P. Ahluwalia
doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00311.x Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services Objective:, The objective of this investigation was to describe the dental disease (dental caries and alveolar bone loss) experience in a sample of community-dwelling older adults who regularly utilize dental services in New York City. Background:, Public financing for dental care directed at older adults in the United States is minimal. Improved preventive methods, primarily the use of fluorides, have resulted in declines in tooth loss, and concomitant increase in risk for dental diseases among older adults. While the oral disease burden in institutionalized elderly and those unable to access services is well-documented, the dental care needs of older adults who access dental services are not well documented. Materials and Methods:, Radiographic and record review were used to determine prevalence of dental caries, alveolar bone loss, frequency of service utilization, and medical status in this cross-sectional investigation of a sample of older adults (N = 200) using dental services at Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Results:, Only 9% of the sample was completely edentulous, the mean DMFT was 19.9 and mean alveolar bone loss was 3.6 mm. Missing and Decayed Teeth accounted for 57.8% and 6.5% of the total caries burden respectively. Missing Teeth and alveolar bone loss increased with increasing age, but there was no increase in Decayed Teeth. Conclusions:, While access to and utilization of dental services may result in improved tooth retention, older adults who use dental services continue to have dental care needs, especially periodontal care needs. [source]

Gingival involvement of oral lichen planus in a series of 700 patients

Michele D. Mignogna
Abstract Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosa disorders. OLP gingival involvement is very frequently observed, and it is characterized by wide variations in clinical appearance and symptoms, leading, in many cases, to misdiagnosis or undiagnosis. This can be potentially harmful since OLP patients require appropriate management in oral and periodontal care, together with an adequate systemic evaluation. Objective: In this paper, we have analysed the prevalence and clinical aspects of gingival lesions in our series of 700 patients affected by OLP. Furthermore, we have discussed the possible periodontal implications on the basis of the available literature. Patients and Methods: Data from 700 patients affected by OLP, clinically and histologically assessed, have been studied; the location and morphology of lesions, the symptoms and the progression of the disease have been considered, with particular attention given to gingival involvement. Results: Gingival lesions have been diagnosed in 48% of cases, usually associated with diffuse oral involvement. Only 7.4% of patients had OLP lesions confined to the gingiva. The morphology of lesions included all the forms originally described for OLP (reticular, papular, plaque, atrophic, erosive and bullous). The symptoms, if present, varied from mild discomfort to severe oral pain, with the general trend increasing from the keratotic to the erosive forms. The gingiva was involved in four out of 21 of our oral cancer cases, which developed from pre-existing OLP lesions. Conclusion: OLP is a very proteiform disorder; considering the high frequency of gingival involvement and its influence on oral health, it is our opinion that periodontologists should be involved in OLP management and should become familiar with its clinical aspects and related themes. [source]

Five-year maintenance follow-up of early-onset periodontitis patients

Joanna J. Kamma
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological status of patients with early-onset or aggressive periodontitis (EOP) who had received supportive periodontal care (SPC) every 3,6 months for a period of 5 years, following active periodontal treatment. Material & Methods: The study population consisted of 25 individuals with early-onset periodontitis. Clinical examination and recordings of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were performed at baseline prior to treatment (T0), 3 months following the termination of active periodontal treatment (T1) and annually at the SPC appointments (T2,T3,T4,T5). Microbiological samples were obtained at the 5-year SPC (T5). Subgingival plaque samples for each individual were collected from one deep pocket (>5 mm), based on pretreatment measurements, randomly selected in each quadrant. The levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola were determined using oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Results: During the 5-year period, the mean of SPC/patient was 12.7 sessions. A significant improvement was observed in PPD, CAL, gingival bleeding index and suppuration following treatment. However, between T1 and T5, 134 sites in 20 patients deteriorated with a CAL loss of,2 mm. Out of these 134 sites showing disease progression, microbial samples were randomly obtained in 13 sites (9.7%) from 8 patients. Among other factors, smoking and stress were found to have significant predictive value on the future attachment loss. P. gingivalis, T. denticola and total bacterial load were statistically significantly higher in patients who experienced disease progression during the 5-year maintenance period. Conclusions: For most EOP patients, regular SPC was effective in maintaining clinical and microbiological improvements attained after active periodontal therapy. However, a small percentage of sites was identified as progressive in 20 patients. Variables found to be related to periodontal progression were the presence of as well as the high bacterial counts of P. gingivalis, T. denticola and total bacterial load, number of acute episodes, number of teeth lost, smoking and stress. Zusammenfassung Erhaltungstherapie über fünf Jahre bei Patienten mit früh einsetzender Parodontitis (EOP) Ziele: Der Zweck dieser Studie war es, 5 Jahre nach aktiver Parodontalbehandlung den klinischen und mikrobiologischen Zustand von Patienten mit früh einsetzender oder aggressiver Parodontitis (EOP), bei welchen alle 3-6 Monate eine parodontale Erhaltungstherapie (SPC) erfolgte, zu evaluieren. Material & Methoden: Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 25 Individuen mit früh einsetzender Parodontitis. Die klinische Untersuchung und Aufzeichnung der Sondierungstiefe (PPD) sowie des klinischen Attachmentniveaus (CAL) erfolgten bei der Eingangsuntersuchung vor der Behandlung (T0), drei Monate nach Beendigung der aktiven Parodontalbehandlung (T1) und jährlich bei den SPC-Terminen (T2,T3,T4,T5). Die mikrobiologischen Proben wurden bei der 5-Jahres-SPC gewonnen (T5). Für jedes Individuum wurden die subgingivalen Plaqueproben in jedem Quadranten aus einer tiefen Tasche (>5mm) entnommen. Dies geschah randomisiert und auf der Grundlage der Messungen vor der Behandlung. Das Niveau von Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis und Treponema denticola wurden unter Verwendung der Hybridisierung mit Oligonukleotid-Sonden bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Während der 5-jährigen Periode betrug die mittlere Anzahl der SPC-Sitzungen pro Patient 12,7. Nach der Behandlung wurden bei PPD, CAL, Gingiva-Blutungs-Index und der Pusentleerung signifikante Verbesserungen beobachtet. Jedoch haben sich zwischen T1 und T5 bei 20 Patienten 134 Taschen mit einem CAL-Verlust von=2mm verschlechtert. Bei 8 Patienten wurden aus diesen 134 Taschen, mit Progression der Erkrankung, von 13 Taschen (9,7%) randomisiert mikrobiologische Proben entnommen. Innerhalb anderer Faktoren wurde bei Rauchen und Stress ein signifikanter Vorhersagewert für zukünftigen Attachmentverlust vorgefunden. Bei den Patienten, die in der 5-jährigen Erhaltungsperiode eine Progression der Erkrankung erfuhren lagen P. gingivalis, T. denticola und die bakterielle Gesamtbelastung höher. Schlussfolgerungen: Für die meisten EOP-Patienten die regelmäßig an der parodontalen Erhaltungstherapie teilnahmen war diese hinsichtlich der Aufrechterhaltung der nach der aktiven Parodontaltherapie erzielten klinischen und mikrobiologischen Verbesserungen erfolgreich. Jedoch wurde bei 20 Patienten ein geringer Prozentsatz von Taschen als fortschreitend identifiziert. Die Variablen, von denen gefunden wurde, dass sie eine Beziehung zur Progression haben waren: sowohl Vorhandensein von P. gingivalis, T. denticola als auch hohe Bakterienzahl von P. gingivalis, T. denticola und die bakterielle Gesamtbelastung, Anzahl der akuten Episoden, Anzahl verlorener Zähne, Rauchen und Stress. Résumé Suivi en maintenance sur 5 ans de patients atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce. Objectifs: Cette étude se propose d'évaluer l'état clinique et microbiologique de patients atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce ou agressive (EOP) qui furent suivis en maintenance (SPC) tous les 3-6 mois pendant une période de 5 ans après un traitement parodontal actif. Matériel & Méthodes: La population étudiée consistait en 25 individus atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce. L'examen clinique et l'enregistrement des profondeurs de poche (PPD) et du niveau d'attache (CAL) furent réalisés avant le traitement (T0), 3 mois après la fin du traitement actif (T1) et chaque année aux rendez vous de maintenance (T2,T3,T4,T5). Des échantillons microbiologiques furent prélevés lors de la maintenance à 5 ans (T5). La plaque sous-gingivale de chaque patient fut prélevée d'une poche profonde (>5mm), sur la base des examens initiaux, choisis au hasard dans chaque quadrant. Les niveaux d' Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis et Treponema denticola furent déterminés par hybridation par sonde d'oligonucleotides. Résultats: pendant la période d'examination de 5 ans, la moyenne des SPC par patient fut de 12.7 sessions. Une amélioration significative fut observée pour PPD, CAL, l'indice de saignement gingival et la suppuration suite au traitement. Cependant, entre T1 et T5, 134 sites chez 20 patients connurent une détérioration avec une perte d'attache de 2 mm. De ces 134 sites qui présentaient une progression de la maladie, des échantillons microbiologiques furent obtenus aléatoirement dans 13 sites (9.7%) chez 8 patients. Parmi d'autres facteurs, le tabagisme et le stress furent reconnus comme ayant une significative valeur prédictive pour de futures pertes d'attache. P. gingivalis, T. denticola et la charge bactérienne totale étaient de façon statistiquement significatif plus importants chez les patients chez qui la maladie progressait au cours des 5 ans de maintenance. Conclusions: pour la plupart des patients atteints d' EOP, des soins parodontaux de soutien réguliers sont efficaces pour maintenir les améliorations cliniques et microbiologiques obtenus par le traitement actif. Cependant, un petit pourcentage de sites progressait chez 20 patients. Les variables en ralation avec cette progression étaient la présence et aussi un comptage important de P. gingivalis, T. denticola et la charge bactérienne totale, le nombre d'épisodes aigus le nombre de dents perdues le tabagisme et le stress. [source]

A hidden periodontitis epidemic during the 20th century?

P. P. Hujoel
Abstract , Objectives: Increasing evidence suggests a strong causal link between smoking and periodontitis. The goal of this study was to impute how the secular changes in smoking prevalence during the 20th century impacted the advanced periodontitis incidence in the US. Methods: Epidemiological analyses based on US prevalence data of advanced periodontitis and smoking, and predictions of future smoking prevalence. Results: Assuming other risk factors for periodontitis remained constant, we estimated that the incidence of advanced periodontitis decreased by 31% between 1955 and 2000. The changes in smoking habits, and consequently the changes in periodontitis incidence, depended strongly on education and gender. Between 1966 and 1998, we estimated a 43% decreased periodontitis incidence among college-educated individuals versus only an 8% decrease among individuals with less than a high school education. Between 1955 and 1999, we estimated a 41% decrease among males versus a 14% decrease among females. By the year 2020, the incidence of advanced periodontitis may decrease 43% from its level in 1955. Conclusions: A periodontitis epidemic fueled by smoking remained hidden for most of the 20th century. Because this epidemic was hidden, it distorted our understanding of the treatment and etiology of periodontitis. The socioeconomic polarization of this epidemic will dictate alterations in patterns of periodontal care. [source]