Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Terms modified by PEO

  • peo chain
  • peo segment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Platelet-derived growth factor is involved in the differentiation of second heart field-derived cardiac structures in chicken embryos

    Noortje A.M. Bax
    Abstract For the establishment of a fully functional septated heart, addition of myocardium from second heart field-derived structures is important. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are known for their role in cardiovascular development. In this study, we aim to elucidate this role of PDGF-A, PDGF-C, and their receptor PDGFR-,. We analyzed the expression patterns of PDGF-A, -C, and their receptor PDGFR-, during avian heart development. A spatiotemporal pattern of ligands was seen with colocalization of the PDGFR-,. This was found in second heart field-derived myocardium as well as the proepicardial organ (PEO) and epicardium. Mechanical inhibition of epicardial outgrowth as well as chemical disturbance of PDGFR-, support a functional role of the ligands and the receptor in cardiac development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2658,2669, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Synthesis of poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) and its application for separation of proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2010
    Jing Xu
    Abstract A series of well-defined triblock copolymers, poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization, were used as physical coatings for protein separation. A comparative study of EOF showed that the triblock copolymer presented good capillary coating ability and EOF efficient suppression. The effects of the Mr of PDMA block in PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer and buffer pH on the separation of basic protein for CE were investigated. Moreover, the influence of the copolymer structure on separation of basic protein was studied by comparing the performance of PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer with PEO- b -PDMA diblock copolymer. Furthermore, the triblock copolymer coating showed higher separation efficiency and better migration time repeatability than fused-silica capillary when used in protein mixture separation and milk powder samples separation, respectively. The results demonstrated that the triblock copolymer coatings would have a wide application in the field of protein separation. [source]

    Critical aspects of analysis of Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria cinerea, and Pseudomonas fluorescens by means of capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18-19 2004
    Verena Hoerr
    Abstract Within the frame of our study we investigated Microccocus luteus, Neisseria cinerea, and Pseudomonas fluorescens by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). They form chains and clusters on a different scale, which can be reflected in the electropherograms. A low buffer concentration of Tris-borate and Na2 EDTA containing a polymeric matrix of 0.0125% poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) was used. Key factors were the standardization and optimization of CE conditions, buffer solution, and pretreatment of bacterial samples, which are not transferable to different bacterial strains, in general. The different compositions of the cell wall of on the one hand Gram-positive (M. luteus) and Gram-negative (N. cinerea) cocci and on the other hand Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria (P.fluorescens), are probably responsible for the different pretreatment conditions. [source]

    Professional Employer Organizations and Their Role in Small and Medium Enterprises: The Impact of HR Outsourcing

    Brian S. Klaas
    While effective HR services and programs can help firms gain competitive advantage, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) often lack the internal resources required to develop and deliver these services and programs. As a result, SMEs increasingly are outsourcing HR activities to professional employer organizations (PEOs). Questions remain, however, about the conditions under which SMEs will benefit from outsourcing HR to a PEO, as well as about the type of benefits that are potentially available. The very nature of many HR activities raises questions about the risks associated with market governance and a PEO's ability to ensure service quality for SMEs. In order for these questions to be addressed, it is necessary to understand the process by which PEO utilization affects SME outcomes. In this article, we use transaction cost economics, social exchange theory, and the strategic HR literature to develop a framework for understanding the factors and conditions likely to affect whether and how an SME will benefit from using a PEO. [source]

    Influence of stability on the acute toxicity of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals to Daphnia magna

    Heather E. Pace
    Abstract The acute toxicity of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to Daphnia magna was investigated using 48-h exposure studies. The principal objective was to relate the toxicity of QDs to specific physical and chemical aspects of the QD. As such, two different CdSe core diameters, 2,nm QDs (green-emitting) and 5,nm QDs (red-emitting), and two different surface coatings, polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were studied. The QDs were characterized before and after the 48-h exposure using fluorescence, ultrafiltrations (3 kDa), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) metal analysis. In addition, flow field flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Fl FFF-ICP-MS) was used as a more extensive characterization technique to determine particle size and composition as well as identify other potential constituents in the QD solutions. The more stable QDs (PEO) were found to be less acutely toxic than the QDs with accelerated dissolution (MUA), suggesting QD stability has significant impact on the nanoparticles' short-term toxicity. The emergence of dissolved Cd2+ in solution indicates that the toxicity of the MUA QDs is likely due to Cd poisoning, and a mass-based dose response occurred as a consequence of this mode of action. Alternatively, the PEO QDs caused acute toxicity without observed particle dissolution (i.e., no detectable metals were solubilized), suggesting an alternative mode of toxic action for these nanoparticles. Results of the present study suggest that using particle number, instead of mass, as a dose metric for the PEO QDs, produces markedly different conclusions, in that smaller core size does not equate to greater toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1338,1344. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    An X-ray Spectromicroscopy Study of Albumin Adsorption to Crosslinked Polyethylene Oxide Films,

    Bonnie O. Leung
    Abstract Synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) is used to characterize the near surface composition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) combined with 1.5, 5, and 10,wt.-% pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) crosslinker. It is found that as the concentration of PETA increases, it becomes the dominant component in the top 10,nm of the film surface. The same surfaces are also exposed to human serum albumin (HSA) and the distributions of the protein relative to PEO and PETA measured with X-PEEM. A positive correlation is found between levels of PETA and HSA at the surface. Above PETA concentrations of 5,wt.-%, HSA adsorption is significant, which suggests high levels of PETA (often used to immobilize PEO by crosslinking) can significantly reduce the non-fouling properties of PEO. [source]

    Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

    Pablo Docampo
    Abstract Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO2 is synthesized in a well-defined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer,poly(isoprene- b -ethylene oxide) (PI- b -PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. [source]

    Fabrication and Drug Delivery of Ultrathin Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Hollow Fibers

    Youliang Hong
    Abstract Ultrathin mesoporous bioactive glass hollow fibers (MBGHFs) fabricated using an electrospinning technique and combined with a phase-separation-induced agent, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), are described. The rapid solvent evaporation during electrospinning and the PEO-induced phase separation process demonstrated play vital roles in the formation of ultrathin bioactive glass fibers with hollow cores and mesoporous walls. Immersing the MBGHFs in simulated body fluid rapidly results in the development of a layer of enamel-like apatite mesocrystals at the fiber surfaces and apatite nanocrystals inside the hollow cores. Drug loading and release experiments indicate that the drug loading capacity and drug release behavior of the MBGHFs strongly depends on the fiber length. MBGHFs with fiber length >50,µm can become excellent carriers for drug delivery. The shortening of the fiber length reduces drug loading amounts and accelerates drug release. The MBGHFs reported here with sophisticated structure, high bioactivity, and good drug delivery capability can be a promising scaffold for hard tissue repair and wound healing when organized into 3D macroporous membranes. [source]

    Synthesis of PEOlated Fe3O4@SiO2 Nanoparticles via Bioinspired Silification for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Happy Tan
    Abstract Inspired by the biosilification process, a highly benign synthesis strategy is successfully developed to synthesize PEOlated Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (PEOFSN) at room temperature and near-neutral pH. The success of such a strategy lies in the simultaneous encapsulation of Fe3O4 nanocrystals and silica precursors into the core of PEO-based polymeric micelles. The encapsulation results in the formation of a silica shell being confined to the interface between the core and corona of the Fe3O4 -nanocrystal-loaded polymeric micelles. Consequently, the surface of the Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticle is intrinsically covered by a layer of free PEO chains, which enable the PEOFSN to be colloidally stable not only at room temperature, but also upon incubation in the presence of proteins under physiological conditions. In addition, the silica shell formation does not cause any detrimental effects to the encapsulated Fe3O4 nanocrystals with respect to their size, morphology, crystallinity, and magnetic properties, as shown by their physicochemical behavior. The PEOFSN are shown to be good candidates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents as demonstrated by the high r2/r1 ratio with long-term stability under high magnetic field, as well as the lack of cytotoxicity. [source]

    Highly Extensible Bio-Nanocomposite Films with Direction-Dependent Properties

    Akhilesh K. Gaharwar
    Abstract The structure and mechanical properties of bio-nanocomposite films made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) that is physically cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles, Laponite, are investigated. Direction-dependent mechanical properties of the films are presented, and the effect of shear orientation during sample preparation on tensile strength and elongation is assessed. Repeated mechanical deformation results in highly extensible materials with preferred orientation and structuring at the nano- and micrometer scales. Additionally, in vitro biocompatibility data are reported, and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts are observed to readily adhere and proliferate on silicate cross-linked PEO while maintaining high cell viability. [source]

    pH-Responsive Flower-Type Micelles Formed by a Biotinylated Poly(2-vinylpyridine)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(, -caprolactone) Triblock Copolymer

    Kathy Van Butsele
    Abstract In the present work, a method is proposed to assemble pH-responsive, flower-like micelles that can expose a targeting unit at their periphery upon a decrease in pH. The micelles are composed of a novel biotinylated triblock copolymer of poly(,, -caprolactone)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PCL- b -PEO- b -P2VP) and the non-biotinylated analogue. The block copolymers are synthesized by sequential anionic and ring-opening polymerization. The pH-dependent micellization behaviour in aqueous solution of the triblock copolymers developed is studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorimetric measurements. The shielding of the biotin at neutral pH and their availability at the micelle surface upon protonation is established by TEM and surface plasmon resonance with avidin and streptavidin-coated gold surfaces. The preliminary stealthy behavior of these pH-responsive micelles is examined using the complement activation (CH50) test. [source]

    Phase Segregation in Thin Films of Conjugated Polyrotaxane, Poly(ethylene oxide) Blends: A Scanning Force Microscopy Study,

    L. Sardone
    Abstract Scanning force microscopy (SFM) is used to study the surface morphology of spin-coated thin films of the ion-transport polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blended with either cyclodextrin (CD)-threaded conjugated polyrotaxanes based on poly(4,4,-diphenylene-vinylene) (PDV), ,-CD,PDV, or their uninsulated PDV analogues. Both the polyrotaxanes and their blends with PEO are of interest as active materials in light-emitting devices. The SFM analysis of the blended films supported on mica and on indium tin oxide (ITO) reveals in both cases a morphology that reflects the substrate topography on the (sub-)micrometer scale and is characterized by an absence of the surface structure that is usually associated with phase segregation. This observation confirms a good miscibility of the two hydrophilic components, when deposited by using spin-coating, as suggested by the luminescence data on devices and thin films. Clear evidence of phase segregation is instead found when blending PEO with a new organic-soluble conjugated polymer such as a silylated poly(fluorene)- alt -poly(para -phenylene) based polyrotaxane (THS,,-CD,PF,PPP). The results obtained are relevant to the understanding of the factors influencing the interfacial and the intermolecular interactions with a view to optimizing the performance of light-emitting diodes, and light-emitting electrochemical cells based on supramolecularly engineered organic polymers. [source]

    Generation of Compositional-Gradient Structures in Biodegradable, Immiscible, Polymer Blends by Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions,

    B. Hexig
    Abstract A biodegradable, immiscible poly(butylenes adipate- co -butylenes terephthalate) [P(BA- co -BT)]/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer blend film with compositional gradient in the film-thickness direction has been successfully prepared in the presence of a low-molecular-weight compound 4,4,-thiodiphenal (TDP), which is used as a miscibility-enhancing agent. The miscibilities of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP ternary blend films and the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP gradient film were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The compositional gradient structure of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP (46/46/8 w/w/w) film has been confirmed by microscopic mapping measurement of Fourier-transform infrared spectra and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. We have developed a new strategy for generating gradient-phase structures in immiscible polymer-blend systems by homogenization, i.e., adding a third agent that can enhance the miscibility of the two immiscible polymers through simultaneous formation of hydrogen bonds with two component polymers. [source]

    Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers on Two-Dimensional Chemical Patterns Fabricated by Electro-Oxidation Nanolithography

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2010
    Ji Xu
    A hexagonal web of carboxylic-terminated nanostripes (left image, bright areas) is patterned onto a methyl-terminated surface of an octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer. A thermally annealed polystyrene- block -poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b -PEO) thin-film, spin-cast on the chemical pattern (right image), exhibits surface normal oriented cylindrical PEO microdomains on the methyl-terminated regions only. These chemical patterns effectively template the order and spatial orientation of diblock-copolymer microdomains. [source]

    Highly Ordered Nanoporous Thin Films from Cleavable Polystyrene- block -poly(ethylene oxide),

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 12 2007
    M. Zhang
    A cleavable trityl ether juncture is introduced between polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and thus highly ordered nanoporous thin films have been prepared from self-assembled PS- b -PEO diblock copolymers, via the removal of PEO from solvent-annealed PS- b -PEO thin films in a simple two or one-step process. When patterned substrates are used, addressable nanopore arrays with a high degree of lateral order and a well-defined lattice orientation can be readily produced (see figure). [source]

    Anomalous conformational properties of PEO in H2O and D2O by SANS, PCS and Raman scattering

    C. Branca
    PEO solutions in water and heavy water have been investigated using SANS, PCS and Raman spectroscopy. The employement of these techniques allows to carry out a comparison between the diffusive properties of PEO/H2O and PEO/D2O systems, in order to study the coil conformation dependence on temperature and concentration. The data reveal the different conformational properties of PEO in the two solvents which have been attributed to a different solvent quality of H2O and D2O. These results provide evidence to the fact that the properties of macromolecules, even of simple structure, can be influenced by the isotopic composition of the solvent. [source]

    Fabrication of aragonite rosette superstructure through the weak interaction between nonionic polymers and Ca2+

    Shuxian Shi
    Abstract The controlled formation of aragonite by simple method under ambient condition is a big challenge for biomaterial scientists. In this article, we took poly (N -vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as an example to investigate the influence of water-soluble nonionic polymers on the polymorphs of CaCO3 via CO2 diffusion method under ambient pressure and temperature, and found that the existence of PVP molecules favors the formation of aragonite with rosette superstructure. A possible mechanism is proposed that nonionic polymers can be doped into amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles and further participate in the transformation process from ACC to aragonite and then promotes the formation of rosette superstructure through parallel aggregation by crosslinking the aragonite nuclei. The experiments of CaCO3 crystallization in presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) confirmed the mechanism. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Joo Wan Kim
    Abstract We developed an ionic conductivity model of solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on the Nernst,Einstein equation in which the diffusion coefficient is derived from the molecular thermodynamic model. We introduced concentration-dependence of the diffusion coefficient into the model, and the diffusion coefficient was expressed by differentiating the chemical potential by concentration. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolytes (PEO/LiI/I2 system) were investigated at various temperatures and compositions. We prepared a set of PEO in which an EO : LiI mole ratio of 10 : 1 was kept constant for PEO·LiI·(I2)n compositions with n = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and 0.3 (mole ratio of LiI : I2). The ionic conductivities of the electrolytes were measured using a stainless steel/polymer-electrolyte/stainless steel sandwich-type electrode structure using alternating current impedance analysis. The values calculated using the proposed model agree well with experimental data. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    The influence of electrospinning parameters on the structural morphology and diameter of electrospun nanofibers

    Valencia Jacobs
    Abstract Electrospinning is a simple method of producing nanofibers by introducing electric field into the polymer solutions. We report an experimental investigation on the influence of processing parameters and solution properties on the structural morphology and average fiber diameter of electrospun poly ethylene oxide (PEO) polymer solution. Experimental trials have been conducted to investigate the effect of solution parameters, such as concentration, molecular weight, addition of polyelectrolyte in PEO solution, solvent effect, as well as governing parameter, such as applied voltage. The concentration of the aqueous PEO solution has shown noteworthy influence on the fiber diameter and structural morphology of electrospun nanofibers. At lower concentrations of PEO polymer solution, the fibers showed irregular morphology with large variations in fiber diameter, whereas at higher concentrations, the nanofibers with regular morphology and on average uniform fiber diameter were obtained. We find that the addition of polyelectrolytes, such as sodium salt of Poly acrylic acid (PAA) and Poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH), increases the conductivity of PEO solutions and thereby decreases the bead formation in electrospun nanofibers. The increase in applied voltage has been found to affect the structural morphology of nanofiber while the addition of ethanol in PEO solution diminishes the bead defects. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Surface properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-based segmented block copolymers with monodisperse hard segments

    D. Husken
    Abstract The surface properties of segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments and monodisperse crystallizable tetra-amide segments were studied. The monodisperse crystallizable segments (T6T6T) were based on terephthalate (T) and hexamethylenediamine (6). Due to the crystallinity of T6T6T being high (, 85%), the amount of amorphous T6T6T dissolved in the polyether phase was limited. The length of the PEO segments was varied (between 600 and 4600 g/mol) and effect of extending the PEO segments with terephthalic groups was investigated. Studied was the hydrophilicity of the surface by contact angle measurements and of the bulk copolymers by water absorption measurements The results were compared with data of PEO-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO-PBT) copolymers. For a given hydrophilicity of the bulk copolymer, the surface hydrophilicity decreased in the order PEO-PBT, PEO-T6T6T, and (PEO-T)-T6T6T. The use of short monodisperse hard segments resulted in low contact angles, with a lowest observed value of , 29°. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Rheological and thermal properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/multiwall carbon nanotube composites

    T. N. Abraham
    Abstract Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based nanocomposites were prepared by the dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in aqueous solution. MWCNTs were added up to 4 wt % of the PEO matrix. The dynamic viscoelastic behavior of the PEO/MWCNT nanocomposites was assessed with a strain-controlled parallel-plate rheometer. Prominent increases in the shear viscosity and storage modulus of the nanocomposites were found with increasing MWCNT content. Dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated a significant decrease in the crystallization temperature as a result of the incorporation of MWCNTs; these composites can find applications as crystallizable switching components for shape-memory polymer systems with adjustable switching temperatures. The solid-state, direct-current conductivity was also enhanced by the incorporation of MWCNTs. The dispersion level of the MWCNTs was investigated with scanning electron microscopy. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Properties of solid solutions of poly(ethylene oxide)/epoxidized natural rubber blends and LiClO4

    C. H. Chan
    Abstract Solid solutions of blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) comprising 12 wt % of LiClO4 were studied. Two glass transition temperatures, corresponding to the Tgs of the constituents, confirm immiscibility of the polymers over the entire composition range. It turns out that the Tgs of both polymers slightly increase after addition of salt to the blends. This shift is approximately constant over the whole range of blend composition. Accordingly, Tg measurements reveal that the salt dissolves to approximately equal relative amounts in the two phases. The degree of crystallinity of PEO in blends with ENR descends only to a minor extent with ENR content. However, addition of salt leads first to decreasing crystallinity and second this decrease becomes more pronounced with the addition of ENR. It shows that under these experimental conditions the salt content in PEO increases as compared to ENR. As one expects, the rate of isothermal crystallization does not change in blends as long as PEO is in excess. The situation changes again when salt is added. The rate decreases in a certain range of crystallization temperatures when ENR is added, demonstrating that salt is favorably dissolved in PEO. Conductivity was measured in polymers comprising different salt concentrations. A power-law dependence of conductivity on salt concentration was found. It results that the mobility of charge carriers in PEO exceeds that of ENR by five orders of magnitude. Therefore, the conductivity in blends is primarily governed by PEO as long as PEO is in excess. Conductivity measurements reveal again that salt is preferably dissolved in PEO. The distribution coefficient is estimated. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Electrospinning of cellulose-based nanofibers

    Audrey Frenot
    Abstract Cellulose derivatives of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and enzymatically treated cellulose have been electrospun, and the microstructure of the resulting nanofibers has been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before electrospinning, the solutions were characterized by viscometry and surface tension measurements, and the results were correlated with spinnability. Four different CMC derivatives, varying in molecular weight (Mw), degree of substitution (DS), and substitution pattern, have been electrospun in mixtures with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and nanofibers of various characteristics have formed. The CMC-based nanostructures, i.e., the nonwoven sheet and individual nanofibers, proved to be independent of Mw and DS but largely dependent on the substitution pattern. The nonwoven sheets varied in homogeneity, and beads appeared on the individual fibers. Depending on the chemical nature of the CMC, the extraction of PEO resulted in pure CMC nanostructures of varying appearance, indicating that the distribution of PEO and CMC in the nanofibers also varied. Two different HPMC derivatives, varying in DS, were electrospun into nanofibers. Homogeneous nonwoven sheets based on nanofibers of similar appearance are formed, independent of the substitution content of the HPMC sample. Preliminary fibers were obtained from enzymatically treated cellulose in a solvent system based on lithium chloride dissolved in dimethyl acetamide (LiCl: DMAc). © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 1473,1482, 2007 [source]

    Avecor Trillium Oxygenator Versus Noncoated Monolyth Oxygenator: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    Frédéric Vanden Eynden M.D.
    This study was designed to study the effects of the surface coating of a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator on coagulation, inflammation markers, and clinical outcomes. The biomaterials used to coat the membrane include heparin, polyethylene oxide chains (PEO), and sulfate/sulfonate groups. The coated membrane was compared to an uncoated oxygenator made of polypropylene. Methods: Two hundred patients who were scheduled to undergo valve repair and/or replacement surgery with or without coronary surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to undergo CPB with either the Avecor oxygenator with TrilliumÔ (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA), a biopassive surface, or the Monolyth (Sorin, Irvine, CA, USA) oxygenator without coating. The primary and secondary endpoints were the differences between these oxygenators in regard to patients' biochemistry, coagulation profiles, inflammatory mediators, and clinical outcomes, including blood loss and neurological events. Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of biochemistry, coagulation profile, inflammatory mediator release, and blood loss. Five patients in the Avecor group showed clinical evidence of a stroke confirmed with computerized tomography (CT) scan imaging, and none in the noncoated oxygenator group. Conclusion: The oxygenator Avecor offers similar results in terms of inflammation and coagulation profiles and blood loss during valvular surgery compared to a standard uncoated control oxygenator. The rate of neurological events was unusually elevated in the former group of patients, with only speculative explanation at this point. Further studies are warranted to clarify this aspect. [source]

    Determination of primary bond scissions by mass spectrometric analysis of ultrasonic degradation products of poly(ethylene oxide- block -propylene oxide) copolymers

    Takehiro Watanabe
    Abstract Ultrasonic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide- block -propylene oxide) copolymers consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic portion was studied with the aim to determine the location of bonds involved in the initial scission of the copolymers. LC,APCI-IT-MS and LC,APCI-orbitrap-MS were used for the detailed structural analysis of degradation products. The results indicated that initial bond scissions occurred principally at the boundary regions between backbones of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO) chains. Further structural analysis revealed the presence of oxygen adducts in the degradation products. Comparison with a thermal degradation carried out in helium atmosphere, one can conclude that the oxygen adducts are formed by radical reaction with water or dissolving oxygen molecules. The study demonstrated that chemical reactions as well as physical bond stress scissions are involved in the ultrasonic degradation of the copolymers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-range and short-range mechanisms of hydrophobic attraction and hydrophilic repulsion in specific and aspecific interactions

    Carel Jan van Oss
    Abstract Among the three different non-covalent forces acting in aqueous media, i.e. Lifshitz,van der Waals (LW), Lewis acid,base (AB) and electrical double layer (EL) forces, the AB forces or electron,acceptor/electron,donor interactions are quantitatively by far the predominant ones. A subset of the AB forces acting in water causes the hydrophobic effect, which is the attraction caused by the hydrogen-bonding (AB) free energy of cohesion between the water molecules which surround all apolar as well as polar molecules and particles when they are immersed in water. As the polar energy of cohesion among water molecules is an innate property of water, the hydrophobic attraction (due to the hydrophobic effect) is unavoidably always present in aqueous media and has a value of ,Ghydrophobic,=,,102,mJ/m2, at 20,°C, being equal to the AB free energy of cohesion between the water molecules at that temperature. The strong underlying hydrophobic attraction due to this effect can, however, be surmounted by very hydrophilic molecules and particles that attract water molecules more strongly than the free energy of attraction of these molecules or particles for one another, plus the hydrogen-bonding free energy of cohesion between the water molecules, thus resulting in a net non-electrical double layer repulsion. Each of the three non-covalent forces, LW, AB or EL, any of which can be independently attractive or repulsive, decays, dependent on the circumstances, as a function of distance according to different rules. These rules, following an extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach, are given, as well as the measurement methods for the LW, AB and EL surface thermodynamic properties, determined at ,contact'. The implications of the resulting hydrophobic attractive and hydrophilic repulsive free energies, as a function of distance, are discussed with respect to specific and aspecific interactions in biological systems. The discussion furnishes a description of the manner by which shorter-range specific attractions can surmount the usually much stronger long-range aspecific repulsion, and ends with examples of in vitro and in vivo effects of hydrophilization of biopolymers, particles or surfaces by linkage with polyethylene oxide (PEO; also called polyethylene glycol, PEG). Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Swelling and polymer erosion for poly(ethylene oxide) tablets of different molecular weights polydispersities

    Anna Körner
    Abstract The aim of the study was to determine and compare the degree of swelling and the swelling kinetics of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrophilic matrix tablets without any additives for matrixes with different molecular weight polydispersities. A wide range of "mixed" polydisperse PEO tablets were obtained by mixing two PEO batches with average molecular weights of 105 and 2,×,106, respectively. These were compared with "single-batch" tablets with narrower mono-modal molecular weight distributions. A texture analyzer (TA) was used to determine, during the entire dissolution process, the thickness of the "gel" layer, the height of the dry tablet core and the total height of the tablet. The release of polymer from the tablet was also measured using a chromatographic method. Both the swelling histories and the polymer release rates varied strongly with molecular weight and agitation rate, whereas the rate of dissolution of the solid core varied much less with molecular weight. For single-batch and mixed tablets, tuned to give the same release rate, the swelling process was found to be very similar, regardless of the molecular polydispersity (between 1.2 and 8.8). These results support a previously proposed dissolution model with the key assumption of a constant critical viscosity, independent of time or polymer molecular weight, at the surface of the gel layer of a dissolving tablet. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 1225,1238, 2010 [source]

    Binding and release studies of a cationic drug from a star-shaped four-arm poly(ethylene oxide)- b -poly(methacrylic acid)

    E. He
    Abstract Star-shape polymers possess higher densities of terminal functional groups and three-dimensional tetrahedron structure that induce significantly different association and interactions with drug compared to linear structure of identical molecular weights. Four-arm poly(ethylene oxide)- b -poly(methacrylic acid) block copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization technique, and it self-assembled into core-shell micelles and extended unimers at low and high pH respectively. The negatively charged carboxylate groups on the polymer chains interacted with a cationic drug through electrostatic interaction forming polymer/drug complexes stabilized by biocompatible hydrophilic PEO segments. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the polymeric aggregates and polymer/drug complexes ranged from 46 to 84,nm and 32 to 55,nm at pH of 4.6 and 8.0 respectively, making them suitable for drug delivery applications. The thermodynamic parameters and interactions between polymer and drug were determined by isothermal titration calorimetric technique. The electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions controlled the characteristics of polymer/drug formation and complexes when the molar ratios of drug and polymer were varied. Drug selective electrode system was used to measure the dynamic release of imipramine hydrochloride (IPH) from multi-arm PEO- b -PMAA star polymer. The release exponent n was greater than 0.5 indicating a non-Fickian type diffusion behavior, where the release behavior was dominated by chain relaxation induced by ion exchange that was dependent on pH. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:782,793, 2010 [source]

    A cremophor-free formulation for tanespimycin (17-AAG) using PEO- b -PDLLA micelles: Characterization and pharmacokinetics in rats

    May P. Xiong
    Abstract Tanespimycin (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin or 17-AAG) is a promising heat shock protein 90 inhibitor currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Despite its selective mechanism of action on cancer cells, 17-AAG faces challenging issues due to its poor aqueous solubility, requiring formulation with Cremophor EL (CrEL) or ethanol (EtOH). Therefore, a CrEL-free formulation of 17-AAG was prepared using amphiphilic diblock micelles of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(D,L -lactide) (PEO- b -PDLLA). Dynamic light scattering revealed PEO- b -PDLLA (12:6 kDa) micelles with average sizes of 257 nm and critical micelle concentrations of 350 nM, solubilizing up to 1.5 mg/mL of 17-AAG. The area under the curve (AUC) of PEO- b -PDLLA micelles was 1.3-fold that of the standard formulation. The renal clearance (CLrenal) increased and the hepatic clearance (CLhepatic) decreased with the micelle formulation, as compared to the standard vehicle. The micellar formulation showed a 1.3-fold increase in the half-life (t1/2) of the drug in serum and 1.2-fold increase in t1/2 of urine. As expected, because it circulated longer in the blood, we also observed a 1.7-fold increase in the volume of distribution (Vd) with this micelle formulation compared to the standard formulation. Overall, the new formulation of 17-AAG in PEO- b -PDLLA (12:6 kDa) micelles resulted in a favorable 150-fold increase in solubility over 17-AAG alone, while retaining similar properties to the standard formulation. Our data indicates that the nanocarrier system can retain the pharmacokinetic disposition of 17-AAG without the need for toxic agents such as CrEL and EtOH. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:1577,1586, 2009 [source]

    Structure and drug release in a crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel

    Boris Y. Shekunov
    Abstract Hydrogels are a continuously expanding class of pharmaceutical polymers designed for sustained or controlled drug release. The structure and intermolecular interactions in such systems define their macroscopic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of swelling, drug impregnation, and drug release from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) gel crosslinked by urethane bonds. A combination of SAXS/WAXS/SANS techniques enabled us to determine the phase transition between lamellar and extended gel network, and to apply different descriptions of crystallinity, based on lamellar and crystal lattice structures. It is shown that even low (1,7% w/w) loading of model drugs acetaminophen and caffeine, produced significant disorder in the polymer matrix. This effect was particularly pronounced for acetaminophen due to its specific ability to form complexes with PEO. The drug-release profiles were analyzed using a general cubic equation, proposed for this work, which allowed us to determine the gel hydration velocity. The results indicate that the release profiles correlate inversely with the polymer crystallinity. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96: 1320,1330, 2007 [source]