Pediatric Emergency Care (pediatric + emergency_care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A New Diagnosis Grouping System for Child Emergency Department Visits

Evaline A. Alessandrini MD
Abstract Objectives:, A clinically sensible system of grouping diseases is needed for describing pediatric emergency diagnoses for research and reporting. This project aimed to create an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based diagnosis grouping system (DGS) for child emergency department (ED) visits that is 1) clinically sensible with regard to how diagnoses are grouped and 2) comprehensive in accounting for nearly all diagnoses (>95%). The second objective was to assess the construct validity of the DGS by examining variation in the frequency of targeted groups of diagnoses within the concepts of season, age, sex, and hospital type. Methods:, A panel of general and pediatric emergency physicians used the nominal group technique and Delphi surveys to create the DGS. The primary data source used to develop the DGS was the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Core Data Project (PCDP). Results:, A total of 3,041 ICD-9 codes, accounting for 98.9% of all diagnoses in the PCDP, served as the basis for creation of the DGS. The expert panel developed a DGS framework representing a clinical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric emergency patients. The resulting DGS has 21 major groups and 77 subgroups and accounts for 96.5% to 99% of diagnoses when applied to three external data sets. Variations in the frequency of targeted groups of diagnoses related to seasonality, age, sex, and site of care confirm construct validity. Conclusions:, The DGS offers a clinically sensible method for describing pediatric ED visits by grouping ICD-9 codes in a consensus-derived classification scheme. This system may be used for research, reporting, needs assessment, and resource planning. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:204,213 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Interobserver Agreement in Assessment of Clinical Variables in Children with Blunt Head Trauma

Marc H. Gorelick MD
Abstract Objectives:, To be useful in development of clinical decision rules, clinical variables must demonstrate acceptable agreement when assessed by different observers. The objective was to determine the interobserver agreement in the assessment of historical and physical examination findings of children undergoing emergency department (ED) evaluation for blunt head trauma. Methods:, This was a prospective cohort study of children younger than 18 years evaluated for blunt head trauma at one of 25 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Patients were excluded if injury occurred more than 24 hours prior to evaluation, if neuroimaging was obtained at another hospital prior to evaluation, or if the patient had a clinically trivial mechanism of injury. Two clinicians independently completed a standardized clinical assessment on a templated data form. Assessments were performed within 60 minutes of each other and prior to clinician review of any neuroimaging (if obtained). Agreement between the two observers beyond that expected by chance was calculated for each clinical variable, using the kappa (,) statistic for categorical variables and weighted kappa for ordinal variables. Variables with a lower 95% confidence limit (LCL) of , > 0.4 were considered to have acceptable agreement. Results:, Fifteen-hundred pairs of observations were obtained. Acceptable agreement was achieved in 27 of the 32 variables studied (84%). Mechanism of injury (low, medium, or high risk) had , = 0.83. For subjective symptoms, kappa ranged from 0.47 (dizziness) to 0.93 (frequency of vomiting); all had 95% LCL > 0.4. Of the physical examination findings, kappa ranged from 0.22 (agitated) to 0.89 (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score). The 95% LCL for kappa was <0.4 for four individual signs of altered mental status and for quality (i.e., boggy or firm) of scalp hematoma if present. Conclusions:, Both subjective and objective clinical variables in children with blunt head trauma can be assessed by different observers with acceptable agreement, making these variables suitable candidates for clinical decision rules. [source]

Revisiting the Emergency Medicine Services for Children Research Agenda: Priorities for Multicenter Research in Pediatric Emergency Care

Steven Zane Miller MD
Abstract Objectives:, To describe the creation of an Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) research agenda specific to multicenter research. Given the need for multicenter research in EMSC and the unique opportunity afforded by the creation of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), the authors revisited existing EMSC research agendas to develop a PECARN-specific research agenda. They sought to prioritize PECARN research efforts, to guide investigators planning to conduct research in PECARN, and to describe the creation of a prioritized EMSC research agenda specific for multicenter research. Methods:, The authors used the Nominal Group Process and Hanlon Process of Prioritization (HPP), which are recognized research prioritization methods incorporating both quantitative and qualitative data collection in group settings. The formula used to generate the final priority list heavily weighted practicality of conduct in a multicenter research network. By using size, seriousness, and practicality measures of each health priority, PECARN was able to identify factors that could be scored individually and were weighted relative to each other. Results:, The prioritization processes resulted in a ranked list of 16 multicenter EMSC research topics. Top among these priorities were 1) respiratory illnesses/asthma, 2) prediction rules for high-stakes/low-likelihood diseases, 3) medication error reduction, 4) injury prevention, and 5) urgency and acuity scaling. Conclusions:, The PECARN prioritization process identified high-priority EMSC research topics specific to multicenter research. PECARN has the capacity to answer long-standing, important clinical controversies in EMSC, largely due to its ability to conduct randomized controlled trials and observational studies on a large scale. [source]

Variation in Ancillary Testing among Pediatric Asthma Patients Seen in Emergency Departments

MHSA, Rachel M. Stanley MD
Background:Variation in the management of acute pediatric asthma within emergency departments is largely unexplored. Objectives:To investigate whether ancillary testing for patients with asthma would be associated with patient, physician, and hospital characteristics. Methods:The authors performed an analysis of a subset of patients from an extensive retrospective chart review of randomly selected charts at all 25 member emergency departments of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Patients with a diagnosis of asthma were selected for supplemental review and included in this study. Ancillary tests analyzed were chest radiographs and selected blood tests. Hierarchical analyses were performed to describe the associations between ancillary testing and the variables of interest. Results:A total of 12,744 chart abstractions were completed, of which 734 (6%) were patients with acute exacerbations of asthma. Overall, 302 patients with asthma (41%) had ancillary testing. Of the 734 patients with asthma, 198 (27%) had chest radiographs and 104 (14%) had blood tests. Chest radiographs were more likely to be ordered in patients with fever. Less blood testing was associated with physician subspecialty training in pediatric emergency medicine, patients treated at children's hospitals, higher patient oxygen saturation, and patient disposition to home. Conclusions:Ancillary testing occurred in more than one third of children with asthma, with chest radiographs ordered most frequently. Efforts to reduce the use of chest radiographs should target the management of febrile patients with asthma, whereas efforts to reduce blood testing should target providers without subspecialty training in pediatric emergency medicine and patients treated in nonchildren's hospitals who are more ill. [source]

Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT): A Severity Index for Pediatric Emergency Care

MSCE, Marc H. Gorelick MD
Abstract Objectives: To develop and validate a multivariable model, using information available at the time of patient triage, to predict the level of care provided to pediatric emergency patients for use as a severity of illness measure. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 5,521 children 18 years of age or younger treated at four emergency departments (EDs) over a 12-month period. Data were obtained from abstraction of patient records. Logistic regression was used to develop (75% of sample) and validate (25% of sample) models to predict any nonroutine diagnostic or therapeutic intervention in the ED and admission to the hospital. Data on ED length of stay and hospital costs were also obtained. Results: Eight predictor variables were included in the final models: presenting complaint, age, triage acuity category, arrival by emergency medical services, current use of prescription medications, and three triage vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature). The resulting models had adequate goodness of fit in both derivation and validation samples. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 for the ED intervention model and 0.85 for the admission model. The Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT) score was then calculated as the sum of the predicted probability of receiving intervention and twice the predicted probability of admission. The RePEAT score had a significant univariate association with ED costs (r= 0.44) and with ED length of stay (r= 0.27) and contributed significantly to the fit of multivariable models comparing these outcomes across sites. Conclusions: The RePEAT score accurately predicts level of care provided for pediatric emergency patients and may provide a useful means of risk adjustment when benchmarking outcomes. [source]

Detection of Maternal Alcohol Use Problems in the Pediatric Emergency Department

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2006
Heather A. Flynn
Background: Maternal alcohol use problems may impact the health and well-being of children, but often remain unrecognized. Mothers of young children seldom seek outpatient care for themselves; thus, pediatric settings may present an opportunity for the detection of maternal alcohol use problems. This study examines the feasibility of screening for and prevalence of alcohol use problems in mothers of young children in the context of seeking pediatric emergency care. We also examined the relationship of maternal alcohol use problems with use of pediatric emergency care. Methods: A total of 361 English-speaking mothers of children aged 7 and younger completed screening measures during their child's emergency care visit. TWEAK was used to screen for alcohol use problems. The screening survey also included information on children's health status and health care use, demographics, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results: Of the women approached, 90% agreed to complete the screening measure. On the basis of cutoff score of 2 or more, 7% of women had elevated TWEAK scores. Those women with a TWEAK score >2 reported greater use of the pediatric emergency department (PED) than women scoring below the cutoff. On the basis of multivariate analyses, significant predictors of recent PED use included the presence of child chronic illness, younger maternal age, and TWEAK score. Conclusions: Screening for alcohol use problems among mothers of young children using the TWEAK appears to be feasible in a busy PED setting. The PED setting is promising for identifying risk drinking among women who may be less likely to be otherwise detected and for whom alcohol use may be impacting child outcomes. [source]

Effect of Trainees on Length of Stay in the Pediatric Emergency Department

Catherine James MD
Abstract Background:, Emergency departments (EDs) in teaching hospitals have competing goals of timely patient care and supervised trainee education. Previous investigations have indicated that trainees add time to the length of ED patient encounters. However, no studies have quantified the effect of trainees on pediatric ED length of stay (LOS). Objectives:, The objectives were to measure the effect of trainees on pediatric ED LOS by comparing LOS for patients managed by a pediatric emergency physician (PEP) alone to LOS for patients seen by a trainee and a precepting PEP (Trainee+PEP). A secondary objective was to identify factors other than provider type associated with LOS differences observed in teaching hospital pediatric EDs. Methods:, Data were extracted from a computerized ED tracking system in an urban tertiary care children's hospital with approximately 52,000 visits annually. All patients were seen by a PEP alone, an urgent care physician, or a trainee (a pediatric emergency medicine fellow; a pediatric, emergency medicine, or combined internal medicine/pediatrics resident; or a medical student) plus a precepting PEP. The primary comparison was the ratio of median LOS for the PEP group versus the Trainee+PEP group. Results:, There were 92,193 visits eligible for inclusion over a 2-year period. Median patient age was 5.75 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 21 months to 12.9 years). The PEP group managed 9,141 patients (10%), while the Trainee+PEP group treated 72,135 patients (78%). Overall LOS for an ED visit was 221 minutes. The median LOS was 192 minutes for PEP patients and 225 minutes for Trainee+PEP patients (difference of means = 17%, p < 0.001). Laboratory and imaging studies were associated with LOS increases of 111 and 74 minutes, respectively; both were performed more frequently in Trainee+PEP patients (44% vs. 33% for laboratory studies and 41% vs. 39% for imaging studies, both comparisons p < 0.001). When LOS was analyzed after adjusting for confounding factors including patient acuity, laboratory or radiologic testing, and trainee year, LOS for Trainee+PEP was higher by 17 minutes, or 9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6% to 12%, p < 0.001). When LOS was examined for four specific diagnoses (asthma, gastroenteritis, appendicitis, foot/ankle sprain), there were no significant differences in LOS between the PEP and Trainee+PEP groups. Conclusions:, In the pediatric ED of a teaching hospital, ED LOS is on average 9% higher in patients seen by trainees. In an era of increasing efforts to accelerate throughput while training future providers, these findings provide an important metric for the delivery of pediatric emergency care. [source]

Lack of Agreement in Pediatric Emergency Department Discharge Diagnoses from Clinical and Administrative Data Sources

MSCE, Marc H. Gorelick MD
Background:Diagnosis information from existing data sources is used commonly for epidemiologic, administrative, and research purposes. The quality of such data for emergency department (ED) visits is unknown. Objectives:To determine the agreement on final diagnoses between two sources, electronic administrative sources and manually abstracted medical records, for pediatric ED visits, in a multicenter network. Methods:This was a cross sectional study at 19 EDs nationwide. The authors obtained data from two sources at each ED during a three-month period in 2003: administrative sources for all visits and abstracted records for randomly selected visits during ten days over the study period. Records were matched using unique identifiers and probabilistic linkage. The authors recorded up to three diagnoses from each abstracted medical record and up to ten for the administrative data source. Diagnoses were grouped into 104 groups using a modification of the Clinical Classification System. Results:A total of 8,860 abstracted records had at least one valid diagnosis code (with a total of 12,895 diagnoses) and were successfully matched to records in the administrative source. Overall, 67% (95% confidence interval = 66% to 68%) of diagnoses from the administrative and abstracted sources were within the same diagnosis group. Agreement varied by site, ranging from 54% to 77%. Agreement varied substantially by diagnosis group; there was no difference by method of linkage. Clustering clinically similar diagnosis groups improved agreement between administrative and abstracted data sources. Conclusions:ED diagnoses retrieved from electronic administrative sources and manual chart review frequently disagree, even if similar diagnosis codes are grouped. Agreement varies by institution and by diagnosis. Further work is needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis coding; development of a grouping system specific to pediatric emergency care may be beneficial. [source]