Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Pay

  • du pay
  • executive pay
  • incentive pay
  • merit pay
  • severance pay

  • Terms modified by Pay

  • pay attention
  • pay differential
  • pay dividend
  • pay gap
  • pay practice
  • pay satisfaction
  • pay structure
  • pay system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Not all roads lead to Rome,a review of quality of life measurement in adults with diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2009
    J. Speight
    Abstract Aims Quality of life (QoL) is recognized widely as an important health outcome in diabetes, where the burden of self-management places great demands on the individual. However, the concept of QoL remains ambiguous and poorly defined. The aim of our review is to clarify the measurement of QoL in terms of conceptualization, terminology and psychometric properties, to review the instruments that have been used most frequently to assess QoL in diabetes research and make recommendations for how to select measures appropriately. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the ten measures most frequently used to assess QoL in diabetes research (including clinical trials) from 1995 to March 2008. Results Six thousand and eight-five abstracts were identified and screened for instrument names. Of the ten instruments most frequently used to assess ,QoL', only three actually do so [i.e. the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) and the diabetes-specific Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) and Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL)]. Seven instruments more accurately measure health status [Short-Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D)], treatment satisfaction [Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)] and psychological well-being [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Well-Being Questionnaire (W-BQ), Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID)]. Conclusions No single measure can suit every purpose or application but, when measures are selected inappropriately and data misinterpreted, any conclusions drawn are fundamentally flawed. If we value QoL as a therapeutic goal, we must ensure that the instruments we use are both valid and reliable. QoL assessment has the proven potential to identify ways in which treatments can be tailored to reduce the burden of diabetes. With careful consideration, appropriate measures can be selected and truly robust assessments undertaken successfully. [source]

    Development and validation of the Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) to assess obstacles in living with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
    H. Hearnshaw
    Abstract Aims To develop and validate an easy-to-use questionnaire to identify obstacles to self management in Type 2 diabetes. Methods The Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) was developed from earlier research and the literature. It was completed by 180 people with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from 22 general practices in the UK. Responders also completed a quality-of-life questionnaire (ADDQoL) and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale. Results From analysis of the 176 usable questionnaires, 36 items of the original 113 items were deemed redundant. The remaining 77 items were assembled into eight sub-scales covering Medication, Self Monitoring, Knowledge and Beliefs, Diagnosis, Relationships with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes, Coping, and Advice and Support. Each sub-scale had a factor structure of no more than three factors, had Cronbach's alpha of more than 0.75, and a Kaiser,Meyer,Olkin of more than 0.75. Each sub-scale correlated significantly with the PAID scale (P < 0.01), demonstrating criterion validity. Construct validity was shown by significant correlation between HbA1c and the sub-scales which relate to managing blood glucose levels: Self Monitoring, Relationship with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Construct validity was further shown by significant correlation between QoL scores and Medication, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Discussion The DOQ, comprising eight sub-scales, is a usable, valid instrument for both clinical and research settings. It helps to identify in detail the obstacles which an individual finds in living with Type 2 diabetes. [source]


    Gregory O. Jobome
    First page of article [source]


    German post-unification in the 1990s is a period marked by substantial economic and political change, a crucial part of which was a largely politically motivated attempt to build East German wages towards the much higher West German wages. We study the development of the public,private sector pay gap in Germany in the 1990s. We show that throughout the 1990s the overall pay gap between the public and private sectors remained stable in the West and increased considerably in the East. Wage decompositions show a small and stable negative public sector premium in the West, and a large and increasing positive public sector pay premium in the East. Decompositions also show a considerable deterioration in the skill base of the private sector in the East which the paper attributes in part to the improved attractiveness of the public sector. The paper argues that the development in the size and composition of the public,private sector pay gap in the East is an indication of the public sector crowding out the private sector and raises concerns about the future competitiveness of the East. [source]

    Staying with People Who Slap Us Around: Gender, Juggling Responsibilities and Violence in Paid (and Unpaid) Care Work

    Donna BainesArticle first published online: 13 FEB 200
    Little is actually known about women's occupational health, let alone how men and women may experience similar jobs and health risks differently. Drawing on data from a larger study of social service workers, this article examines four areas where gender is pivotal to the new ways of organizing caring labour, including the expansion of unpaid work and the use of personal resources to subsidize agency resources; gender-neutral violence; gender-specific violence and the juggling of home and work responsibilities. Collective assumptions and expectations about how men and women should perform care work result in men's partial insulation from the more intense forms of exploitation, stress and violence. This article looks at health risks, not merely as compensable occupational health concerns, but as avoidable products of forms of work organization that draw on notions of the endlessly stretchable capacity of women to provide care work in any context, including a context of violence. Indeed, the logic of women's elastic caring appear crucial to the survival of some agencies and the gender order in these workplaces. [source]

    The Disclosure of UK Boardroom Pay: the March 2001 DTI proposals

    Martin J. Conyon
    In March 2001 the government announced that new disclosure rules relating to UK boardroom pay would be introduced. This paper critically evaluates these proposals. The new proposals emerged from the government's Directors Remuneration consultative document issued in July 1999. The current paper makes the following contributions to the governance literature. First, the new disclosure proposals are reviewed. I suggest that they are incomplete both in their detail and scope. I also suggest that the government has conceded that more US style executive compensation disclosure is required. Second, I describe US executive compensation disclosure practices. If convergence in disclosure practice is potentially desirable then a more systematic comparison and analysis of current disclosure policies in the two economies is warranted. [source]

    Education, Motivation and Pay of UK Graduates: are they different for women?

    Arnaud Chevalier
    First page of article [source]

    Entering the Twilight Zone: The Local Complexities of Pay and Employment Equity in New Zealand

    Deborah Jones
    This article introduces the recent pay and employment equity situation in the New Zealand state sector through a discussion of research carried out for a Pay and Employment Equity Taskforce. It investigates the twilight zone of pay and employment equity , the murky situations where pay and employment equity programmes already exist, but progress for senior women has stalled for no obvious reasons. Qualitative research is necessary to make sense of these complex situations and to complement labour-market level studies. The example used is a study of teachers in New Zealand schools, where a range of complex reasons, including lack of support, gendered job designs and intense workloads, creates a bottleneck for women at senior levels. The authors argue that highly decentralized human resources practices work against progress in equal employment opportunity in the state sector. [source]

    Does Work Always Pay in Germany?

    Christoph Scheicher
    Equity; redistribution; social insurance; taxes Abstract. Income redistribution in Germany is the result of a combination of several redistribution instruments: there is a complex income tax law, different obligatory social insurances and supplementary benefits. This paper estimates income redistribution by quantile regression, using German EVS data. Two results are obtained: income after redistribution does not always increase in line with income before redistribution, i.e. for people with a low income before redistribution, it does not make sense to increase their efforts, since more work means less earnings. Further, an increasing redistribution rate for higher incomes is not always observable from the data. [source]

    Managerial Pay and Governance in American Nonprofits

    Kevin F. Hallock
    This article examines the compensation of top managers of nonprofits in the United States using panel data from tax returns of the organizations from 1992 to 1996. Studying managers in nonprofits is particularly interesting given the difficulty in measuring performance. The article examines many areas commonly studied in the executive pay (within for-profit firms) literature. It explores pay differences between for-profit and nonprofit firms,pay variability within and across nonprofit industries, managerial pay and performance (including organization size and fund raising) in nonprofits, the effect of government grants on managerial pay, and the relationship between boards of directors and managerial pay in nonprofits. [source]

    What Makes an Entrepreneur and Does it Pay?

    Native Men, Other Migrants in Germany, Turks
    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the entrepreneurial endeavours of immigrants' and natives in Germany, concentrating on Turks, Germany's largest immigrant group and one under-studied in the literature. Self-employed Turks in Germany represent about 70 per cent of all Turkish entrepreneurs in the European Union. We use data from the German Socio-economic Panel to study patterns of self-employment. First, we identify the characteristics of the self-employed individuals and understand their underlying drive into self-employment. Next we investigate how immigrant entrepreneurs fare in the labour market and compare their earnings to those of the natives. It is important for decision makers to understand entrepreneurial patterns so that they can shape policy that better fosters entrepreneurial activities. This paper presents several findings that can inform better policymaking. First, our investigation indicates that education is not decisive in determining whether one will choose self-employment over salaried work nor in explaining earnings. The estimated age-earnings profiles are the same for natives and immigrants, while the proclivity to become self-employed is concave with respect to age for both groups. Immigrants' start with a higher probability to work than natives but have a slower increase in the self-employment probabilities thereafter. The earnings of self-employed immigrants' are higher initially, but their earnings path crosses eventually that of the natives. Second, we find some suggestion of ethnic entrepreneurial spirit. Turks are 70 per cent more likely to be self-employed than any other immigrant group, although they do not necessarily earn more. These patterns should be further explored. [source]

    PhD Graduates with Post-doctoral Qualification in the Private Sector: Does It Pay Off?

    LABOUR, Issue 3 2007
    Isabelle Recotillet
    Post-doctoral training was initially developed for PhD graduates wishing to embark on a career in the public sector. However, a large proportion of post-doctorate graduates turn to the private sector, and in particular to occupations that do not involve research. The question we raise is that of the wage premium on post-doctoral training. To control for selection bias arising in the case where unobservable elements are correlated between participation and wages, we first estimate a treatment effect model. The main finding is that when selection bias is not controlled for, post-doctoral participation increases earnings; however, when selection bias is controlled for, the participation in a post-doctoral programme has no positive effect. With regards to this finding we show that post-doctoral programmes play much more the role of a signal in the first stage of a career. This finding is also reinforced when we use a bivariate selection rule to control for the endogenous nature of having been recruited in the private sector. [source]

    Earnings-related Severance Pay

    LABOUR, Issue 4 2006
    Laszlo Goerke
    However, severance payments are usually related to wages. It is shown that earnings-related, mandated severance pay will have ambiguous employment effects if effort can be varied continuously. A substitution of the earnings-related for the lump-sum component reduces employment. Thus, the prevalent form of severance payments in OECD countries might have less advantageous employment effects than previously conjectured. [source]

    Measurement Error and Incentive Pay

    LABOUR, Issue 1 2005
    Eero Lauri Oskari Lehto
    Each agent produces an individual contribution which jointly form a total output. Agents' efforts are unobservable and the principal cannot observe individual outputs without an error. Neither the observed individual output of an agent nor the observed total output of the whole team are then sufficient statistics for the actual individual output in the sense of Blackwell. We show that the mixed contract of the pure piece-rate contract and of the pure team contract then dominates the pure contracts from the principal's point of view. [source]

    Strike Pay and Employers' Strike Insurance

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2000
    Laszlo Goerke
    The consequences of strike pay for employees and of an employers' strike insurance fund are analysed in a two-period screening model of labour disputes with private information of the firm. It is shown that the employers' strike fund reduces uncertainty and hence lowers strike activity. If the union's strike pay fund can incur a deficit during disputes, strike pay will raise strike activity. If strike pay and an employers' insurance are combined, strikes may become less probable. [source]

    Somebody Has to Pay: Products Liability for Spyware

    Jacob Kreutzer
    First page of article [source]

    The Effects of United Way Membership on Employee Pay in Nonprofit Organizations

    Steve Werner
    This research investigates the relationship between United Way membership and the compensation level of employees in nonprofit organizations. This study is based on questionnaires completed by 1,811 employees from sixty-nine nonprofit agencies in a large metropolitan area. Managerial capitalism, agency theory, and United Way funding and governance roles were used to develop the hypotheses. We found that employees of organizations belonging to the United Way receive pay premiums, suggesting that the United Way member agencies are higher-quality agencies that pay their employees higher wages. [source]

    Proof or Consequences: Who Shall Pay for the Evidence in Pain Medicine?

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
    FFPM(ANZCA), Nikolai Bogduk MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    When Changing from Merit Pay to Variable/Bonus Pay: What Do Employees Want?

    Jeremy B. Fox
    ABSTRACT This study examines potential responses to a change in an employee reward system from permanent merit pay increases to one-time bonus payments. Removing long term risks associated with escalating pay is an increasingly common compensation strategy. Often overlooked, however, are employee perceptions of reward fairness under such conditions of change. Receiving lump sum payments in lieu of permanent merit pay increase may de-motivate employees. There has been little or no research conducted on this topic. In this study, using samples of practicing HR managers and university students, an equity questionnaire gathered data on the perceived equivalence between a permanent merit pay increase and what might be demanded by employees as a single payment in its replacement. An analysis of the data collected indicate an approximate 1:2 ratio is needed, such that a proposed lump-sum payment of $2400 would be perceived as a fair replacement for a permanent merit pay allocation of $1200 per year. Our research indicates that this 1:2 ratio holds for both high and low job satisfaction levels. [source]

    Unequal Pay: The Role of Gender

    Mohamad G. Alkadry
    Pay disparities between men and women persist in the U.S. workforce despite comparable pay legislation, advocacy, and social change. This article discusses theories of gender pay disparities, such as the glass ceiling, position segregation, agency segregation, and human capital. Using an online national survey, 1,600 responses were collected for four groups of public procurement professionals. The gender wage gap ranged from $5,035 to $9,577. Multiple regression of the data show that gender continues to play a major role in predicting the salaries of public officials in similar positions. Gender and human capital variables predicted between 36.5 percent and 53.9 percent of the variance in pay. [source]

    Public Budget Choices and Private Willingness to Pay

    Efficient allocation of public funds depends upon good information about citizens' values. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how citizens' values can be obtained by eliciting marginal willingness to tradeoff (MWTTO) ratios for public spending categories and linking these ratios to individual, private willingness to pay. The link enables estimation of the willingness to pay for an expansion to any of the budget categories based on the elicited willingness to pay and the marginal willingness to tradeoff ratios. Tradeoff ratios and willingness to pay are estimated for public budget categories in Kentucky based on a representative sample surveyed by mail and the web in 2007. Estimates show that individuals are willing to pay the most for an expansion to educational services, followed by health care. [source]

    A generalization of Rubinstein's "Pay now, choose later"

    Jia-Hau Guo
    This article provides quasi-analytic pricing formulae for forward-start options under stochastic volatility, double jumps, and stochastic interest rates. Our methodology is a generalization of the Rubinstein approach and can be applied to several existing option models. Properties of a forward-start option may be very different from those of a plain vanilla option because the entire uncertainty of evolution of its price is cut off by the strike price at the time of determination. For instance, in contrast to the plain vanilla option, the value of a forward-start option may not always increase as the maturity increases. It depends on the current term structure of interest rates. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 28:488,515, 2008 [source]

    Transplant Data Collection: You Get What You Pay for

    R. B. Freeman
    Not surprisingly, separately funded, supported and incentivized transplant data collection systems are not completely concordant, as illustrated by comparing the SRTR to the A2ALL data. Please see article by Gillespie et al on page 1630. [source]

    Gender Earnings and Part-Time Pay in Australia, 1990,1998

    Alison Preston
    This paper studies the effects of enterprise bargaining on the pay position of women and other target equity groups. Contrary to a priori expectations the paper shows a convergence in full-time and part-time gross gender pay gaps following the adoption of decentralized wage bargaining. Convergence in the latter reflects compositional (human capital) effects: the entry of less qualified and less experienced males into part-time employment. Overall the results show a deterioration in the pay position of men employed full-time relative to women and part-timers (men and women) brought about by slower wage growth amongst men in full-time employment. [source]

    CÔTE D'IVOIRE: Trafigura Pays Out

    Article first published online: 2 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    NIGERIA: Pfizer Pays Up

    Article first published online: 1 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Who Pays to Publish in the Journal of Sexual Medicine?

    Ian Eardley MA, MChir

    Will Executive Pay Globalise Along American Lines?

    Brian R. Cheffins
    In the United States, the remuneration packages of top executives are characterised by a strong emphasis on pay,for,performance and by a highly lucrative "upside". There is much discussion of the possibility that executive pay practices will globalise in accordance with this pattern. This paper assesses whether such convergence is likely to occur. It does so by considering market,oriented dynamics that could constitute a "global compensation imperative". It also takes into account possible obstacles to the Americanisation of executive pay, such as legal regulation, "soft law" and "culture". The paper concludes with a brief series of normative observations. [source]

    The Disclosure of UK Boardroom Pay: the March 2001 DTI proposals

    Martin J. Conyon
    In March 2001 the government announced that new disclosure rules relating to UK boardroom pay would be introduced. This paper critically evaluates these proposals. The new proposals emerged from the government's Directors Remuneration consultative document issued in July 1999. The current paper makes the following contributions to the governance literature. First, the new disclosure proposals are reviewed. I suggest that they are incomplete both in their detail and scope. I also suggest that the government has conceded that more US style executive compensation disclosure is required. Second, I describe US executive compensation disclosure practices. If convergence in disclosure practice is potentially desirable then a more systematic comparison and analysis of current disclosure policies in the two economies is warranted. [source]

    Why the poor pay with their lives: oil pipeline vandalisation, fires and human security in Nigeria

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2009
    Freedom C. Onuoha
    Since its discovery in Nigeria in 1956 crude oil has been a source of mixed blessing to the country. It is believed to have generated enormous wealth, but it has also claimed a great many lives. Scholarly attention on the impact of oil on security in Nigeria has largely focused on internal conflicts rather than on how disasters associated with oil pipeline vandalisation have impacted on human security in terms of causing bodily injuries and death, destroying livelihoods and fracturing families. This paper examines how pipeline vandalisation affects human security in these ways. It identifies women and children as those who are hardest hit and questions why the poor are the most vulnerable in oil pipeline disasters in this country. It recommends the adoption of a comprehensive and integrated framework of disaster management that will ensure prompt response to key early warning signs, risk-reduction and appropriate mitigation and management strategies. [source]