Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Parasitoids

  • adult parasitoid
  • aphid parasitoid
  • egg parasitoid
  • emerging parasitoid
  • female parasitoid
  • hymenopteran parasitoid
  • koinobiont parasitoid
  • larval parasitoid
  • primary parasitoid
  • specialist parasitoid

  • Terms modified by Parasitoids

  • parasitoid complex
  • parasitoid egg
  • parasitoid female
  • parasitoid interaction
  • parasitoid larva
  • parasitoid origin
  • parasitoid population
  • parasitoid species
  • parasitoid system
  • parasitoid wasp

  • Selected Abstracts

    Parasitoids of Paratachardina lobata (Hem., Kerriidae): surveys for biological control of the invasive lobate lac scale

    S. Schroer
    Abstract Paratachardina lobata is an invasive pest in southern Florida, threatening a great number of economically important and native plants. The lobate lac scale does not cause problems in its area of origin, India and Sri Lanka, presumably due to various parasitoid wasps. In an attempt to discover promising parasitoids for biological control against the invasive pest in Florida, P. lobata infesting Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae) was collected bimonthly from August 2005 to June 2006 at 14 sites in southern India. Four parasitoids were demonstrably associated with P. lobata: a eulophid Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran, an encyrtid Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat and two aphelinids, Marietta leopardina Motschulsky and an undescribed Coccophagus Westwood sp. These chalcidoid wasps were found regularly at all heavily infested sites with an average emergence number per collection period of 62.8, 31.7, 11.9 and 90.5 respectively. The mean number emerged 20,28 days after the collection date, excluding the Coccophagus sp., which occurred significantly later, on average 41 days after collection. Species emergence was examined and parasitized scales dissected. Parasitoid remains were interpreted to understand the mode of parasitism. The Coccophagus sp. was found to be a secondary parasitoid. Marietta leopardina occurred as a primary parasitoid, but only in low number and this species is also known to be hyperparasitic on chalcidoid wasps. Aprostocetus bangaloricus and O. kerriae are promising candidates for the lobate lac scale control in Florida. They are primary parasitoids of P. lobata and occurred at almost every collection site, especially where P. lobata was very abundant. [source]

    Parasitoide , halb Parasit, halb Räuber

    Article first published online: 15 OCT 200
    Parasitoide töten im Gegensatz zu den echten Parasiten in der Regel ihren Wirt und stehen damit zwischen typischen Räubern (Prädatoren) und Parasiten. Die Brackwespe Glyptapanteles liparidis auf unserem Titelbild (rechts: Männchen, links: Weibchen) ist so ein Parasitoid. Mehr über die komplizierte Wechselwirkung zwischen der kleinen Brackwespe und ihrer Wirtsraupe lesen Sie in dem Artikel, der auf Seite 290 beginnt. [source]

    The effect of host developmental stage at parasitism on sex-related size differentiation in a larval endoparasitoid

    Abstract. 1For their larval development, parasitoids depend on the quality and quantity of resources provided by a single host. Therefore, a close relationship is predicted between the size of the host at parasitism and the size of the emerging adult wasp. This relationship is less clear for koinobiont than for idiobiont parasitoids. 2As size differentiation in host species exhibiting sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is likely to occur already during larval development, in koinobiont larval endoparasitoids the size of the emerging adult may also be constrained based on the sex of the host caterpillar. 3Sex-specific growth trajectories were compared in unparasitised Plutella xylostella caterpillars and in second and fourth instar hosts that were parasitised by the solitary larval koinobiont endoparasitoid Diadegma semiclausum. Both species exhibit SSD, where females are significantly larger than males. 4Healthy female P. xylostella caterpillars developed significantly faster than their male conspecifics. Host regulation induced by D. semiclausum parasitism depended on the instar attacked. Parasitism in second-instar caterpillars reduced growth compared to healthy unparasitised caterpillars, whereas parasitism in fourth-instar caterpillars arrested development. The reduction in growth was most pronounced in hosts producing male D. semiclausum. 5Parasitism itself had the largest impact on host growth. SSD in the parasitoid is mainly the result of differences in growth rate of the parasitoid,host complex producing male and female wasps and differences in exploitation of the host resources. Female wasps converted host biomass more efficiently into adult biomass than males. [source]

    Consequences for a host,parasitoid interaction of host-plant aggregation, isolation, and phenology

    Abstract 1.,Spatial habitat structure can influence the likelihood of patch colonisation by dispersing individuals, and this likelihood may differ according to trophic position, potentially leading to a refuge from parasitism for hosts. 2.,Whether habitat patch size, isolation, and host-plant heterogeneity differentially affected host and parasitoid abundance, and parasitism rates was tested using a tri-trophic thistle,herbivore,parasitoid system. 3.,Cirsium palustre thistles (n= 240) were transplanted in 24 blocks replicated in two sites, creating a range of habitat patch sizes at increasing distance from a pre-existing source population. Plant architecture and phenological stage were measured for each plant and the numbers of the herbivore Tephritis conura and parasitoid Pteromalus elevatus recorded. 4.,Mean herbivore numbers per plant increased with host-plant density per patch, but parasitoid numbers and parasitism rates were unaffected. Patch distance from the source population did not influence insect abundance or parasitism rates. Parasitoid abundance was positively correlated with host insect number, and parasitism rates were negatively density dependent. Host-plant phenological stage was positively correlated with herbivore and parasitoid abundance, and parasitism rates at both patch and host-plant scales. 5.,The differential response between herbivore and parasitoid to host-plant density did not lead to a spatial refuge but may have contributed to the observed parasitism rates being negatively density dependent. Heterogeneity in patch quality, mediated by variation in host-plant phenology, was more important than spatial habitat structure for both the herbivore and parasitoid populations, and for parasitism rates. [source]

    Non-random distribution among a guild of parasitoids: implications for community structure and host survival

    Abstract 1.,Immature stages of the gall midge, Asphondylia borrichiae, are attacked by four species of parasitoids, which vary in size and relative abundance within patches of the gall midge's primary host plant, sea oxeye daisy (Borrichia frutescens). 2.,In the current study, a bagging experiment found that the smallest wasp, Galeopsomyia haemon, was most abundant in galls exposed to natural enemies early in the experiment, when gall diameter is smallest, while the wasp with the longest ovipositor, Torymus umbilicatus, dominated the parasitoid community in galls that were not exposed until the 5th and 6th weeks when gall diameter is maximal. 3.,Moreover, the mean number of parasitoids captured using large artificial galls were 70% and 150% higher compared with medium and small galls respectively, while stem height of artificial galls significantly affected parasitoid distribution. Galls that were level with the top of the sea oxeye canopy captured 60% more parasitoids compared with those below the canopy and 50% more than galls higher than the plant canopy. 4.,These non-random patterns were driven primarily by the differential distribution of the largest parasitoid, T. umbilicatus, which was found significantly more often than expected on large galls and the smallest parasitoid of the guild, G. haemon, which tended to be more common on stems level with the top of the plant canopy. 5.,Large Asphondylia galls, especially those located near the top of the Borrichia canopy, were more likely to be discovered by searching parasitoids. Results using artificial galls were consistent with rates of parasitism of Asphondylia galls in native patches of sea oxeye daisy. Gall diameter was 19% greater and the rate of parasitism was reduced by almost 50% on short stems; as a result, gall abundance was 24% higher on short stems compared with ones located near the top of the plant canopy. 6.,These results suggest that parasitoid community composition within galls is regulated by both interspecific differences in ovipositor length and preferences for specific gall size and/or stem length classes. [source]

    Profitable self-superparasitism in an infanticidal parasitoid when conspecifics are present: self-superparasitism deters later attackers from probing for infanticide

    Emi Ito
    Abstract., 1.,To reveal the profitability of self-superparasitism when conspecifics are present, the total combined fitness returns from the first and second ovipositions under triple parasitism were compared with fitness returns from the first oviposition under double parasitism, using the small brown hopper Laodelphax striatellus and its semi-solitary infanticidal parasitoid Echthrodelphax fairchildii. 2.,The total combined survival rate of the first and second comers under triple parasitism with oviposition intervals of 1/24 h (where 1 and 24 h represent the first-to-second and second-to-third oviposition intervals respectively) was nearly double the survival rate of the first comer under double parasitism with a 25-h oviposition interval, although there was no difference between these triple and double parasitisms in terms of head width and developmental time. Under the conditions of other oviposition intervals, self-superparasitism produced null (1/1- and 24/24-h intervals) or negative fitness returns (24/1-h intervals). This suggests that self-superparasitism on hosts that were self-parasitised 1 h previously is profitable when conspecifics are present. 3.,When the female parasitoid laid an egg on a host harbouring the earlier comer(s) on the non-oviposition side, she often probed the non-oviposition side for infanticide, i.e. killing the first offspring. When the first and second comers were on different sides, the probing frequency at the third oviposition in triple parasitism with 1/24-h oviposition intervals was lower than that at the second oviposition in double parasitism with a 25-h oviposition interval. This difference was responsible for the above difference in survival rate between the triple and double parasitisms. [source]

    Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    Hans-Paul Velema
    Abstract., 1.,Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid females, adult males, pre-reproductive adult females, and nymphal males and females produce specialised, usually spherically shaped brochosomes. Brochosomes are also used to cover the external surfaces of nymphs and newly moulted adult males and females. 2.,The function of the brochosome covering the egg masses is unknown but various hypotheses have been suggested, including protecting the eggs against pathogens, predators, and parasitoids. Based on preliminary observations of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) parasitising the eggs of the cicadellid, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), it is speculated here that brochosomes covering an egg mass hinder parasitisation of eggs by G. ashmeadi. This hypothesis was tested by observing G. ashmeadi females foraging on leaves with H. coagulata egg masses heavily covered with rod-shaped brochosomes vs. those lacking brochosomes. 3.,Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the probability, per unit time, that a female G. ashmeadi displayed the sequence of behaviours that ended in successful oviposition as influenced by five variables: (a) presence or absence of brochosomes on an egg mass, (b) the leaf surface, upper or lower, being searched by the parasitoid (the egg masses are laid in the parenchyma on the lower leaf surface), (c) the parasitoid's previous ovipositional experience, (d) egg mass size, and (e) the parasitoid's age. 4.,Brochosomes significantly decreased oviposition efficacy of G. ashmeadi females. Scanning electron microscopy showed that females exposed to brochosome-covered egg masses had brochosomes adhering to their tarsi, legs, antennae, and eyes, all of which prompted extensive bouts of grooming. [source]

    Host age and fitness-related traits in a koinobiont aphid parasitoid

    H. Colinet
    Abstract., 1.,Trade-offs play a key role in species evolution and should be found in host,parasitoid interactions where the host quality may differ between host age categories. 2.,The braconid wasp, Aphidius ervi, is a solitary endoparasitoid that allows its aphid hosts to continue to feed and grow after parasitisation. The hypotheses that host age influences their quality and that female parasitoids exploit their hosts based on that quality were tested under laboratory conditions using no-choice tests. 3.,Aphidius ervi females accepted the aphid Myzus persicae for oviposition and their progeny developed successfully in all host ages. The fitness-related traits of parasitoids did not increase linearly with the host age in which they developed. Host quality was found to be optimal at intermediate host ages and the females preferred to parasitise these hosts. The shortest progeny development time and a more female-biased sex ratio were observed in hosts of intermediate age. 4.,This study suggests the existence of multiple interactive trade-offs occurring during host,parasitoid interactions according to host age related quality. [source]

    Age-dependent clutch size in a koinobiont parasitoid

    Jelmer A. Elzinga
    Abstract., 1. The Lack clutch size theory predicts how many eggs a female should lay to maximise her fitness gain per clutch. However, for parasitoids that lay multiple clutches it can overestimate optimal clutch size because it does not take into account the future reproductive success of the parasitoid. 2. From egg-limitation and time-limitation models, it is theoretically expected that (i) clutch size decreases with age if host encounter rate is constant, and (ii) clutch size should increase with host deprivation and hence with age in host-deprived individuals. 3. Clutch sizes produced by ageing females of the koinobiont gregarious parasitoid Microplitis tristis Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that were provided daily with hosts, and of females ageing with different periods of host deprivation were measured. 4. Contrary to expectations, during the first 2 weeks, clutch size did not change with the age of the female parasitoid, neither with nor without increasing host-deprivation time. 5. After the age of 2 weeks, clutch size decreased for parasitoids that parasitised hosts daily. The decrease was accompanied by a strong decrease in available eggs. However, a similar decrease occurred in host-deprived parasitoids that did not experience egg depletion, suggesting that egg limitation was not the only factor causing the decrease in clutch size. 6. For koinobiont parasitoids like M. tristis that have low natural host encounter rates and short oviposition times, the costs of reproduction due to egg limitation, time limitation, or other factors are relatively small, if the natural lifespan is relatively short. 7. Koinobiont parasitoid species that in natural situations experience little variation in host density and host quality might not have strongly evolved the ability to adjust clutch size. [source]

    Coexistence of natural enemies in a multitrophic host,parasitoid system

    Michael B. Bonsall
    Abstract., 1. This study explored the temporal and spatial aspects of coexistence over many generations in a multispecies host,parasitoid assemblage. 2. The long-term interaction between the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), and two of its natural enemies, Trybliographa rapae (Hymenoptera: Fitigidae) and Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), in a cultivated field at Silwood Park over 19 years was explored. 3. Although time series showed that the populations were regulated, the impact of the natural enemies was highly variable. Within-year determinants showed that the spatial response of the specialist parasitoid, T. rapae, was predominantly independent of host density while A. bilineata acted simply as a randomly foraging generalist parasitoid. 4. These findings are compared and contrasted with an earlier investigation of the same system when only the first 9 years of the time series were available. This study demonstrated the potential of long-term field studies for exploring hypotheses on population regulation, persistence, and coexistence. [source]

    Dispersal between host populations in field conditions: navigation rules in the parasitoid Venturia canescens

    E. Desouhant
    Abstract. 1. Dispersal is a life-history trait that can have great ecological and evolutionary consequences, however understanding of how insects disperse is limited. 2. Navigation rules of the solitary koinobiont parasitoid of the pyralid moth larvae Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) were studied in conditions that it is likely to meet when dispersing between host populations and in the absence of cues related directly to the presence of hosts. 3. Mark,release,recapture experiments were conducted in a natural host-free habitat, and letting the animals disperse for different periods. 4. In the presence of vegetation, wasps seemed to disperse rapidly (1 h for an area of ,,1 ha) and capture rates were independent of both dispersal time and distance from the release point. 5. The navigation rules of V. canescens during dispersal between tree stands can be summarised as: move up- or down-wind, avoid or pass through open, sunny areas, and go for shady and dense vegetation. 6. The consequences of the navigation rules for host,parasitoid dynamics are discussed in relation to different spatial scales. [source]

    Species richness and parasitism in an assemblage of parasitoids attacking maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    Guofa Zhou
    Abstract. 1. Parasitoids were reared from four species of lepidopteran stem borer collected in maize in southern coastal Kenya from 1992 to 1999. The stem borers included three native species, Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Busseola fusca Fuller, and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand), and one exotic borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). A total of 174 663 caterpillars was collected, of which 12 645 were parasitised. 2. Twenty-six primary parasitoid species were reared from the exotic borer, C. partellus, indicating a rapid accumulation of native parasitoids on the alien borer. 3. The three most abundant parasitoids were the larval parasitoids Cotesia sesamiae Cameron, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius furvus Gahan. The pupal parasitoid Dentichasmias busseolae Heinrich and the larval parasitoid Goniozus indicus Ashmead were also common. All used an ingress-and-sting method of attack. 4. Cotesia flavipes, introduced into Kenya in 1993, was found in all seasons from 1997 onwards, and has become the most abundant stem borer larval parasitoid in the area. A native congener, Cotesia sesamiae, appeared in all seasons from 1992 to 1999. Together, these two parasitoids accounted for 83.3% of the parasitised borers. 5. Thirty parasitoid species were recovered in Kilifi district, 27 in Kwale, and 15 in Taita Taveta. Parasitism was much greater in Taita Taveta district than in Kilifi or Kwale districts. [source]

    A comparison of the host-searching efficiency of two larval parasitoids of Plutella xylostella

    Xin-Geng Wang
    Summary 1. A host specialist parasitoid is thought to have greater efficiency in locating hosts or greater ability to overcome host defence than a generalist species. This leads to the prediction that a specialist should locate and parasitise more hosts than a generalist in a given arena. The work reported here tested these predictions by comparing the host-searching behaviour of Diadegma semiclausum (a specialist) and Cotesia plutellae (an oligophagous species), two parasitoids of larval Plutella xylostella. 2. Both parasitoids employed antennal search and ovipositor search when seeking hosts but D. semiclausum also seemed to use visual perception in the immediate vicinity of hosts. 3. Larvae of P. xylostella avoided detection by parasitoids by moving away from damaged plant parts after short feeding bouts. When they encountered parasitoids, the larvae wriggled vigorously as they retreated and often hung from silk threads after dropping from a plant. 4. These two parasitoids differed in their responses to host defences. Diadegma semiclausum displayed a wide-area search around feeding damage and waited near the silk thread for a suspended host to climb up to the leaf, then attacked it again. Cotesia plutellae displayed an area-restricted search and usually pursued the host down the silk thread onto the ground. 5. Diadegma semiclausum showed a relatively fixed behavioural pattern leading to oviposition but C. plutellae exhibited a more plastic behavioural pattern. 6. The time spent by the two parasitoids on different plants increased with increasing host density, but the time spent either on all plants or a single plant by D. semiclausum was longer than that of C. plutellae. Diadegma semiclausum visited individual plants more frequently than C. plutellae before it left the patch, and stung hosts at more than twice the rate of C. plutellae. 7. The results indicated that the host-location strategies employed by D. semiclausum were adapted better to the host's defensive behaviour, and thus it was more effective at detecting and parasitising the host than was C. plutellae. [source]

    Parental care in the whitefly Aleyrodes singularis

    Moshe Guershon
    Summary 1. Patches of Aleyrodes singularis nymphs are characterised by a distinctive phenotype composed of the nymphs' exuviae, which are piled on the nymph, and by a covering layer of wax secreted by the adults; these characteristics have been found to confer defensive properties against natural enemies. 2. In contrast to the behaviour typical for ovipositing females of other aleyrodids, A. singularis females tend to remain near the patch of their progeny throughout their development. These mothers were therefore tested to show whether they exhibited active defensive behaviour towards natural enemies, beyond their contribution to passive defence achieved through the secretion of wax on the immatures. 3. The behaviour of whitefly adults differed significantly when performed in the presence of conspecific adults from their behaviour in the presence of natural enemies (either a parasitoid or a predator). The differences were expressed in the mean time devoted to some behavioural events, the frequency at which events were performed, and the number of transitions between pairs of events. 4. Most of the recorded behavioural differences were associated with departure of the natural enemies, facilitating immature survival. 5. This is the first report of active behavioural changes that convey defence of immature offspring for the family Aleyrodidae. Conditions characterising these findings and their relationship with those in which parental care is expected are discussed. [source]

    Holly leaf-miners on two continents: what makes an outbreak species?

    Sabine Eber
    Summary 1. Some herbivore species periodically undergo damaging, high-density outbreak phases followed by less damaging low-density phases. Others maintain steady, low to moderate density levels that do little damage to their hosts. 2. Two closely related holly leaf-miner species were compared that share many ecological traits and have very similar life cycles, but only one of which exhibits outbreaks. Phytomyza ilicicola in the eastern U.S.A. varied widely in mortality and infestation levels, reaching local densities of over 10 mines per leaf. In contrast, Phytomyza ilicis in the U.K. showed low infestation and high mortality at all sites. Using data from the literature and from field studies, the factors responsible for these contrasting dynamics were sought. 3. Phytomyza ilicicola oviposits into the leaf lamina, and experiences weak larval competition only at high densities. Phytomyza ilicis oviposits into the leaf midrib, which leads to high mortality of young larvae before mine formation. Multiply mined leaves were therefore very common in P. ilicicola but rare in P. ilicis. 4. Differences in the parasitoid complexes of the two systems accounted for further differences in survival to adulthood. The main (larval) parasitoid, which was found to impose high, density-dependent mortality on P. ilicis, is missing on P. ilicicola. It is replaced by an egg,pupal parasitoid, which varies in its impact at differe,t sites. Multiple emergence of adults from multiply mined leaves is therefore widespread in P. ilicicola but does not occur in P. ilicis. 5. The differences in oviposition behaviour and in the parasitoid complexes are likely to allow P. ilicicola to outbreak when habitat conditions are favourable, while P. ilicis is always tightly regulated. [source]

    The relationship between host selection behaviour and offspring fitness in a koinobiont parasitoid

    Ana Rivero
    Summary 1. When host quality varies, optimal foraging theory assumes that parasitic wasps select hosts in a manner that increases their individual fitness. In koinobiont parasitoids, where the hosts continue developing for a certain period of time after parasitisation, host selection may not reflect current host quality but may be based on an assessment of future growth rates and resources available for the developing larvae. 2. When presented with hosts of uniform quality, the koinobiont parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii exhibits a characteristic host-selection behaviour: some hosts are accepted for oviposition on first encounter, while others are rejected several times before an egg is laid in them, a behaviour that is commonly associated with a changing host acceptance threshold during the course of a foraging bout. 3. The fitness of the offspring that emerged from hosts accepted immediately upon encounter was compared with the fitness of offspring emerged from hosts rejected several times before being accepted for oviposition. 4. The pattern of host acceptance and rejection was not related to any of the measured fitness parameters of the offspring emerging from these hosts (development time, size at emergence, sex ratio at emergence, and female offspring egg load). 5. While complex post facto adaptive explanations can be devised to explain the nature of such a time and energy consuming host selection process, it is suggested that physiological constraints on egg production or oviposition may provide an alternative, purely mechanistic, explanation for the results obtained. [source]

    Biodiversity and biocontrol: emergent impacts of a multi-enemy assemblage on pest suppression and crop yield in an agroecosystem

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2003
    Bradley J. Cardinale
    Abstract The suppression of agricultural pests has often been proposed as an important service of natural enemy diversity, but few experiments have tested this assertion. In this study we present empirical evidence that increasing the richness of a particular guild of natural enemies can reduce the density of a widespread group of herbivorous pests and, in turn, increase the yield of an economically important crop. We performed an experiment in large field enclosures where we manipulated the presence/absence of three of the most important natural enemies (the coccinellid beetle Harmonia axyridis, the damsel bug Nabis sp., and the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi) of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) that feed on alfalfa (Medicago sativa). When all three enemy species were together, the population density of the pea aphid was suppressed more than could be predicted from the summed impact of each enemy species alone. As crop yield was negatively related to pea aphid density, there was a concomitant non-additive increase in the production of alfalfa in enclosures containing the more diverse enemy guild. This trophic cascade appeared to be influenced by an indirect interaction involving a second herbivore inhabiting the system , the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. Data suggest that high relative densities of cowpea aphids inhibited parasitism of pea aphids by the specialist parasitoid, A. ervi. Therefore, when natural enemies were together and densities of cowpea aphids were reduced by generalist predators, parasitism of pea aphids increased. This interaction modification is similar to other types of indirect interactions among enemy species (e.g. predator,predator facilitation) that can enhance the suppression of agricultural pests. Results of our study, and those of others performed in agroecosystems, complement the broader debate over how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning by specifically focusing on systems that produce goods of immediate relevance to human society. [source]

    Effects of parasitoid fecundity and host resistance on indirect interactions among hosts sharing a parasitoid

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2003
    George E. Heimpel
    Abstract We examine the effects of fecundity-limited attack rates and resistance of hosts to parasitism on the dynamics of two-host,one-parasitoid systems. We focus primarily on the situation where one parasitoid species attacks two host species that differ in their suitability for parasitism. While all eggs allocated to suitable hosts develop into adult parasitoids, some of the eggs allocated to marginal host do not develop. Marginal hosts can therefore act as a sink for parasitoid eggs. Three-species coexistence is favoured by low levels of parasitoid fecundity and by low levels of suitability of the marginal host. Our model also produces an indirect (+, ,) interaction in which the suitable host can benefit from the presence of the marginal host, but the marginal host suffers from the presence of the suitable host. The mechanism driving the indirect (+, ,) interaction is egg limitation of parasitoids incurred by allocating eggs to marginal hosts. [source]

    Impact of spinosad on ichneumonid-parasitized Choristoneura rosaceana larvae and subsequent parasitoid emergence

    J.E. Cossentine
    Abstract The impact of low levels of spinosad on the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the koinobiont endoparasitoid, Apophua simplicipes Cresson (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), was assessed when the parasitoid was in the larval stage within second- and fourth-instar hosts. These are developmental stages that would be exposed to spring orchard treatments of the insecticide. Oral spinosad LC50 levels for unparasitized obliquebanded leafroller hosts were <1% of the recommended orchard treatment levels. Apophua simplicipes survival was significantly reduced within parasitized spinosad-treated second- and fourth-instar larval hosts. Both the leafroller host and parasitoid were much more susceptible (ca. 65-fold) to spinosad when larval hosts fed on spinosad-treated leaf material as opposed to being treated topically. When hosts were exposed to extremely low doses of spinosad, a small percentage of parasitoids was able to survive to emerge as adults. These laboratory trials predict that applications of spinosad may reduce biological control of C. rosaceana populations by ichneumonid endoparasitoids developing within treated hosts. [source]

    Odor-mediated patch choice in the parasitoid Venturia canescens: temporal decision dynamics

    Yin-Quan Liu
    Abstract Parasitoids foraging for hosts in a heterogeneous environment would greatly benefit if they could decide already from a distance in which areas search for resources would be most profitable and to avoid areas of low fitness returns. Interestingly, the temporal dynamics of the decision process in parasitoid patch choice have rarely been investigated. In a Y-tube olfactometer, we tested whether thelytokous and arrhenotokous females of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) respond to differences in cues indicating the quality of a host-containing patch and choose more profitable patches. Special attention was given to the time it took females to make their choices (patch choice time) when differences in patch quality were either qualitative (absence vs. presence of hosts and kairomone) or quantitative (various concentrations of hosts and kairomone, and presence of competitors). We found that both thelytokous and arrhenotokous wasps only chose the higher-quality patch based on odor cues when the difference was qualitative. When patches differed only with respect to the number of hosts, or the presence or absence of competing female parasitoids, no significant preference could be found in females of either strain of the parasitoid. In contrast, both the time until females reached the junction of the Y-tube olfactometer (response time) and the time until females decided for either patch (decision time) varied with parasitoid strain and odor treatment. Thelytokous wasps were faster than arrhenotokous wasps in their response time and in their decision time. However, females of both strains responded faster with increasing number of total hosts releasing kairomone. Yet, decision time for patches did not significantly vary as a function of patch quality offered to Venturia wasps. [source]

    Maternal size and age affect offspring sex ratio in the solitary egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens

    Serena Santolamazza-Carbone
    Abstract In this study, the effects of maternal age, diet, and size on offspring sex ratio were investigated for the solitary egg parasitoid, Anaphes nitens Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), both outdoors, during the winter, and inside a climatic chamber under favourable constant conditions. During the winter of 2005,2006, each of seven groups containing 40 1-day-old females was mated and randomly distributed among two treatments: (treatment 1) a droplet of undiluted honey ad libitum + one fresh egg capsule of the snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as host; (treatment 2) drops of water + one fresh egg capsule of G. scutellatus. We recorded the lifetime fecundity, the daily sex allocation, and the lifetime offspring sex ratio to study the existence of a relationship with maternal characteristics. Moreover, we assessed the effect of location (outdoors vs. indoors) and group (groups are representative of early, mid, and late winter) on sex ratio. The most important factor that biased the sex ratio was maternal body size: larger females of both treatments produced more female offspring. As females of A. nitens could gain more advantage than males from body size, larger mothers have a higher fitness return if they produce more daughters. The effect of the treatment was significant: starved females produced more females. Location and group were not significant. Fecundity and sex ratio were age dependent. Old mothers that received honey (treatment 1) had fewer offspring and a more male-biased offspring sex ratio, probably due to reproductive senescence and sperm depletion. Starved females (treatment 2) experienced reproductive decline earlier, perhaps because they invested more energy in maintenance rather than in reproduction. [source]

    Does mother really know best?

    Oviposition preference reduces reproductive performance in the generalist parasitoid Aphidius ervi
    Abstract The reproductive success of female parasitoids is dependent on their ability to accurately assess the suitability of a host for larval development. For generalist parasitoids, which utilize a broad range of species and instars as hosts, a set of assessment criteria determines whether a host is accepted or rejected. The suitability of a host, however, can only be imperfectly assessed by the female parasitoid, which can result in the selection of lesser quality hosts for oviposition. In this study we explored the disparity between host quality and host preference using the generalist koinobiotic parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and the host Aulacorthum solani (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), the foxglove aphid. The second instar hosts produced the highest level of reproductive success, while third and fourth instars resulted in a substantially reduced reproductive performance. When given a choice of host instars, parasitoids preferred the older hosts for oviposition disregarding their reduced suitability for larval development. Results are discussed in context of mechanisms involved in A. ervi host selection and biases in the criteria used to assess hosts that may arise when parasitoids transfer host species between generations. [source]

    Impact of a parasitoid on the bacterial symbiosis of its aphid host

    Conrad Cloutier
    Abstract Embryo production in aphids is absolutely dependent on the function of symbiotic bacteria, mainly Buchnera, and the growth and development of koinobiont parasitoids in aphids requires the diversion of nutrients from aphid embryo production to the parasitoid. The implication that the bacterial symbiosis may be promoted in parasitized aphids to support the growing parasitoid was explored by analysis of the number and biomass of mycetocytes, and the aphid cells bearing Buchnera, in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) parasitized by the wasp Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids hosting a young larval parasitoid bore more mycetocytes of greater total biomass, and embryos of lower biomass than unparasitized aphids. Furthermore, one of the three aphid clones tested, which limited teratocyte growth (giant cells of parasitoid origin having a trophic role), bore smaller mycetocytes and larger embryos, than one or both of the two aphid clones with greater susceptibility to the parasitoid. These data suggest that susceptibility of the aphid- Buchnera symbiosis to parasitoid-mediated manipulation may, directly or indirectly, contribute to aphid susceptibility to parasitoid exploitation. [source]

    Searching and oviposition behavior of a mymarid egg parasitoid, Anagrus nigriventris, on five host plant species of its leafhopper host, Circulifer tenellus

    A.K. Al-Wahaibi
    Abstract Searching and oviposition behavior and parasitization ability of Anagrus nigriventris Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), were examined on five host plant species of beet leafhopper: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), red stem filaree (Erodium cicutarium[L.]), peppergrass (Lepidium nitidum Nuttall), desert plantain (Plantago ovata Forsskal), and London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Beet leafhopper embeds its eggs in the tissues of these plant species. For each plant species, A. nigriventris behavior was examined on plants with and without beet leafhopper eggs. Experimental design was a 5 (plant species) by 2 (host eggs present/absent) factorial. Additionally within each treatment, parasitoid behavior was observed over a 22-h period at five different observation periods: t=0, 3, 6, 9, and 22 h where t=0 h represents initial exposure of the insect with the plant. The behavioral events observed were: ,fast walking' (general searching), ,slow walking' (intensive searching), ovipositor probing, grooming, feeding, and resting. Significant differences (,=0.05) among plant species in time spent on the plant, percentage of host eggs parasitized, and behavioral variables associated with intensive searching and oviposition all indicated that the plant species fell into two groups: ,preferred' plants (sugar beet, London rocket, and peppergrass), and ,unpreferred' plants (filaree and plantago). These variables also indicated that the parasitoids spent more time on, searched more, probed more, and oviposited more in plants with host eggs than plants without host eggs. Consistent effects of time (over the observation periods from t=0 to t=22 h) generally were detected only in the preferred plant species that had host eggs present. In these cases, intensive searching and probing decreased as time advanced, while variables related to general searching (,fast walking') and abandoning host egg patches (leaving the plant) tended to increase over time. [source]

    Interaction of Acronicta rumicis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its larval parasitoid, Glyptapanteles liparidis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    Young-Ho CHO
    Abstract As a result of parasitism by Glyptapanteles liparidis in the first, second, third and fourth instar larvae of Acronicta rumicis, the mortality of each larval stage was found to be 46.67, 90, 71 and 16.67%, respectively. The mortality was highest when G. liparidis parasitized the second and third instar larvae. The difference in mortality between the parasitized group and the control group was 72.14% in the second instar larvae. With regards to the food consumption of the parasitized larvae, the first and second instar larvae consumed 6495.58 ± 646.52 mm2 (leaf surface) and 7951.12 ± 4167.36 mm2, respectively, while the third and fourth larvae consumed 13 826.77 ± 3396.66 mm2 and 18 599.85 mm2, respectively, showing that food consumption increased with instar stages of the host larvae. The clutch size of G. liparidis increased in relation to the instar stages of the host: it was 25.25 ± 7.89, 48.65 ± 53.75, 91.09 ± 44.52 and 114 individuals when they were fed with the first, second, third and the fourth instar larvae of the host, respectively. [source]

    Weak parasitoid-mediated apparent competition between two Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) leaf miner species on a deciduous oak Quercus dentata

    Takashi NAKAMURA
    Abstract Parasitoid assemblages and the rates of parasitism on tissue-feeding larvae of two Phyllonorycter leaf miner species, P. persimilis and P. leucocorona, were studied from the autumn generation in 2002 to the summer generation in 2005 to understand whether parasitoids mediate interactions between the two leaf miner species. Fourteen species of parasitoids emerged from P. persimilis and 11 emerged from P. leucocorona. The parasitism rate was high: 24.1,92.6% in P. persimilis and 58.9,81.7% in P. leucocorona. Thus, parasitism was a major mortality factor in the present Phyllonorycter species. The parasitoid composition was distinctly different between the two host species, although most parasitoids were able to parasitize both leaf miner species. The analysis based on the quantitative parasitoid overlap revealed that the present parasitoids could mediate interactions between the present leaf miner species, but their effects would be weak. This is attributable to parasitoid's preferential uses of either of the leaf miners as a host. [source]

    Low level of cuticular hydrocarbons in a parasitoid of a solitary digger wasp and its potential for concealment

    Johannes KROISS
    Abstract Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) play a role as semiochemicals in many host,parasite systems and chemical mimicry or camouflage is a well-known mechanism of parasites to evade detection by the host. The cuckoo wasp Hedychrum rutilans (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) is a parasitoid of larvae of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae). Females chemically mimic the cuticular hydrocarbons of their hosts to avoid detection and countermeasures when entering the host nest for oviposition. Here we report on a possible second mechanism of the chrysidid wasp H. rutilans to evade detection: the amount of CHC/mm2 of cuticle is only approximately one-fifth compared to its beewolf host. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly large amounts of CHC of beewolf females can be found on the walls of the underground nest. Potentially, these hydrocarbons might constitute a background odor against which the cuckoo wasps or their chemical traces have to be perceived by the beewolf. The reduction in the amount of CHC of the cuckoo wasps might be equivalent to a dilution of recognition cues, especially against the background odor of the nest walls, and might provide a means to escape detection within the nest due to "chemical insignificance". [source]

    Description of a new Dendrocerus species (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae) hyperparasitic on Stomaphis aphids and additional notes on their primary parasitoid, Protaphidius nawaii (Braconidae), and another hyperparasitoid, Euneura stomaphidis (Pteromalidae)

    Hajimu TAKADA
    Abstract A food chain through three trophic levels on certain trees, Stomaphis aphids , a primary parasitoid, Protaphidius nawaii, a hyperparasitoid, Euneura stomaphidis, has been known in Japan. In the course of my survey on the seasonal prevalence of three Stomaphis species and their parasitoids from 1981,2007 in Kyoto, Japan, I found another hyperparasitoid, which I describe here as a new species, Dendrocerus stomaphis. From fragmentary observations, I inferred the life cycles of P. nawaii, E. stomaphidis and D. stomaphis. These three species have different strategies to escape ant aggression: P. nawaii by specific morphological and behavioral adaptation, E. stomaphidis by general anti-predator behavior like quick movement and D. stomaphis by a unique univoltine life cycle with the active phase from late autumn to early winter when the ants are less active. [source]

    Female reproductive biology of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Aprostocetus procerae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), two parasitoids associated with the African Rice Gall Midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Souleymane NACRO
    Abstract We investigated the female reproductive system of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Aprostocetus procerae (= Tetrastichus pachydiplosisae) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Both optical and electron microscopy were used. The female reproductive system of P. diplosisae includes two large ovaries of the meristic polytrophic-type, each composed of several tens of ovarioles. The system includes also a venomous gland that extends to a common oviduct. This gland had a filiform secretory portion, in which the epithelium was thin and surrounded a common evacuation canal. The secretory cells secrete into a large reservoir. Parasitism due to P. diplosisae is gregarious. The female reproductive system of A. procerae includes two ovaries of the meristic polytrophic-type, and each ovary has a few ovarioles. Each ovariole includes one or two oocytes, which can be seen in the vitellarium. Two accessory glands, which extend to the oviduct, are also visible. The secretory epithelium of the accessory gland is made up of a dense network of secretory cells surrounded by muscle fibers. Females of A. procerae pierce the tissues of the gall and probably deposit one egg on or close to the pupa of the midge. Aprostocetus procerae is a solitary parasitoid of the midge. The two parasitoids exploit the same host at different developmental stages. These findings improve our knowledge of the reproductive biology of these two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge, an important pest in Africa. [source]

    Host range of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies

    Shinsuke IDEO
    Abstract We studied the host range of Asobara japonica, a larval-pupal parasitoid of drosophilid flies. Habitat selection was found to be an important determinant of host range in this parasitoid; it attacked drosophilid larvae breeding on banana and mushrooms, but seldom attacked those breeding on decayed leaves. This parasitoid was able to use diverse drosophilid taxa as hosts. Attack by A. japonica sometimes killed hosts at the larval stage, and therefore parasitoid larvae also died. Drosophila elegans and D. busckii suffered particularly high larval mortality due to the attack by A. japonica (in the latter species only when young larvae were attacked). Many individuals of D. subpulchrella also died at the pupal stage without producing parasitoids when they were parasitized at the late larval stage. In contrast, D. bipectinata, D. ficusphila, D. immigrans, D. formosana and D. albomicans were resistant to attack: large proportions of the larvae of these drosophilid species grew to adulthood, even in the presence of parasitoids. On the basis of phylogenetic information, we concluded that phylogenetic position has only limited importance as a factor determining whether a species is suitable as a host for A. japonica, at least within the genus Drosophila. [source]