Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Panel

  • advisory panel
  • analysis panel
  • antibody panel
  • biomarker panel
  • broad panel
  • community household panel
  • composite panel
  • comprehensive panel
  • concrete panel
  • consensus panel
  • consumer panel
  • descriptive analysis panel
  • descriptive panel
  • different panel
  • display panel
  • european community household panel
  • expert panel
  • german socio-economic panel
  • household panel
  • immunohistochemical panel
  • intergovernmental panel
  • international panel
  • large panel
  • marker panel
  • multidisciplinary panel
  • online panel
  • plasma display panel
  • pv panel
  • representative panel
  • review panel
  • sandwich panel
  • screening panel
  • sensory panel
  • snp panel
  • socio-economic panel
  • standard panel
  • taste panel
  • test panel
  • trained panel
  • trained sensory panel
  • wall panel

  • Terms modified by Panel

  • panel analysis
  • panel consisting
  • panel data
  • panel data analysis
  • panel data approach
  • panel data methodology
  • panel data model
  • panel data models
  • panel data set
  • panel data techniques
  • panel data unit root test
  • panel dataset
  • panel design
  • panel discussion
  • panel expert
  • panel iii
  • panel iii criterioN
  • panel member
  • panel method
  • panel model
  • panel performance
  • panel reactive antibody
  • panel report
  • panel sample
  • panel size
  • panel study
  • panel survey
  • panel test
  • panel unit root
  • panel unit root test

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT The inclusion of dry beans in diets has clear health benefits. However, consumers in developed countries mainly choose beans for their sensory qualities, especially for their texture. This article describes the constitution, training and validation of a panel of judges to evaluate the texture of dry beans. The judges were trained in the perception of different textures, analyzed a wide range of beans and selected seed-coat roughness, seed-coat perceptibility and creaminess/mealiness of the cotyledon as the main attributes to be scored. After training, the panel was capable of discriminating between different varieties of beans and even between beans of the same variety grown at different locations. The analysis of the behavior of the panel in a standard tasting session 2 years after its formation showed that periodic inclusion of samples from the extremes of the scales for the attributes during tasting sessions was sufficient to keep the panel trained. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This article could serve as a guide for the training of sensory panels to evaluate the texture of dry beans. It describes the selection of the attributes on which the analysis is based, references for the extreme values of the attributes and how to train the panel. It also provides a practical example of the analysis of the behavior of the panel some time after training. [source]


    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to compare a panel of blind assessors with one of sighted assessors in the discrimination of food products. Each panel had 20 screened and trained assessors. Five commercial food products were used: crackers, liver paste, powdered orange juice mix, Reggiano cheese and yogurt. Slight flavor and/or texture modifications were introduced for adequate discrimination difficulty. Each pair of products was tested by both panels using the triangle test and a scaled difference from control test. Numbers of correct answers for the triangle test were similar for both panels. There were minor differences between the panels in the difference from control test, due to the sighted panel having more training in the use of the scale. Overall the panels of trained blind and sighted assessors were equivalent in their performance. [source]


    ABSTRACT Cluster analysis, consonance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and the GRAPES program (Schlich 1994) were compared for the evaluation of panel performance. Ten judges evaluated 25 Merlot wines for 24 color, aroma and flavor attributes. Cluster analysis grouped similar judges. PCA identified judges according to their attribute use. Consonance analysis determined a numerical index for attribute agreement and the GRAPES program compared judges in their use of the scale, reliability, discrimination and disagreement. Three of the four techniques provided a graphical representation of similarities and differences between judges. Methodologies were best used in conjunction with one another. Ultimately the application of these tools will serve to improve the quality of sensory evaluations. [source]


    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine cherry firmness and the ability of a trained and consumer panel to differentiate between cherries of different firmness values. For the trained panel (n = 12) and consumer panel (n = 100) evaluations, two late-maturing, commercially important cherry cultivars were evaluated, "Selah" and "Skeena." For trained panel evaluations, the analytical firmness value of each cherry was determined, although for the consumer panel, cherries were characterized into different firmness categories (low, intermediate and high), after which, a series of paired comparisons were made. "Selah" was the less-firm cultivar by approximately 20 g/mm and consumers could distinguish the more-firm cherry in all comparisons (P < 0.05). For "Skeena," consumers could only distinguish soft versus firm. Trained panelists were able to distinguish between cherries of a minimum analytical firmness value of ,40 g/mm. A model was developed to predict sensory firmness from analytical determinations of firmness (r = 0.63). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Developing prediction models to estimate sensory response from analytical data will benefit the fruit industry by potentially allowing the use of analytical measurements as a proxy for sensory evaluation. In addition, understanding the importance of firmness on cherry acceptance and knowing the specific firmness values at which individuals can perceive a difference in sensory firmness is useful for cherry growers to produce a cherry with acceptable texture. [source]


    Article first published online: 9 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The time course of orthography and phonology: ERP correlates of masked priming effects in Spanish

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Manuel Carreiras
    Abstract One key issue for computational models of visual-word recognition is the time course of orthographic and phonological information during reading. Previous research, using both behavioral and event related brain potential (ERP) measures, has shown that orthographic codes are activated very early but that phonological activation starts to occur immediately afterward. Here we report an ERP masked priming experiment in Spanish that investigates this issue further by using very strict control conditions. The critical phonological comparison was between two pairs of primes having the same orthographic similarity to the target words but differing in phonological similarity (e.g., conal - CANAL vs. cinal - CANAL vis à vis ponel - PANEL vs. pinel - PANEL), whereas the critical orthographic contrast was between pairs of primes that had the same phonological similarity to the target but differing in orthographic similarity (e.g., conal - CANAL vs. konal - CANAL). Orthographic priming was mainly observed in the 150,250-ms time window whereas phonological priming occurred in the 350,550-ms window. [source]


    ABSTRACT Two independent, highly trained panels separately conducted descriptive analysis of orange juices using different descriptive analysis methods and sets of samples. Lexicons were developed independently. One panel evaluated 23 orange juice products and identified and referenced 24 attributes. The other panel evaluated 17 products and identified 17 attributes for testing. Though not identical, the lexicons developed by both panels were similar overall. To compare the sensory space of the product category, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and sensory maps were developed separately for each panel. The comparison showed that the underlying sample spaces obtained from both panels were comparable in many ways. Key flavor characteristics for the same types of orange juice products were described similarly by both panels. These data indicate that the process of using highly trained panels that define attributes and use reference standards for descriptive sensory analysis can give objective and comparable information for a product category across different panels. [source]


    We investigate the consequences of various types of infrastructure provision in a panel of countries from 1950 to 1992. We develop new tests which enable us to isolate the sign and direction of long-run effects in a manner that is robust to the presence of unknown heterogeneous short-run causal relationships. We show that while infrastructure does tend to cause long-run economic growth, there is substantial variation across countries. We also provide evidence that each infrastructure type is provided at close to the growth-maximizing level on average globally, but is under-supplied in some countries and over-supplied in others. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2010
    Analyses at the Cu,K, Fe,K and Mn,K edge were performed to study the green, marbled (green and yellow), blue and blackish (deep greyish olive green) glass slabs decorating three sectilia panels from the archaeological site of Faragola. Results indicate that all slabs were made by mixing siliceous sand with natron, sometimes probably mixed with small percentages of plant ash. Cu2+ and Pb antimonates should be responsible for the opaque green colours. The dark green and yellow portions of the marbled slabs are respectively comparable to the slabs comprising only one of these colours. Cu2+ together with Ca antimonates probably produced light blue slabs, whereas cobalt was used to produce dark blue slabs. We consider it possible that the abundance ratio of Fe2+/Fe3+ and the complex Fe3+S2, would have an effect on the blackish slabs. The contribution of Mn cannot be ascertained even if it could have played a role in darkening glass colour. The comparison between the chemical composition of Faragola samples and several glass reference groups provided no conclusive evidence of provenance; whereas, the presence of a secondary local workshop can be hypothesized. [source]

    The virtual interaction panel: an easy control tool in augmented reality systems

    M. L. Yuan
    Abstract In this paper, we propose and develop an easy control tool called Virtual Interaction Panel (VirIP) for Augmented Reality (AR) systems, which can be used to control AR systems. This tool is composed of two parts: the design of the VirIPs and the tracking of an interaction pen using a Restricted Coulomb Energy (RCE) neural network. The VirIP is composed of some virtual buttons, which have meaningful information that can be activated by an interaction pen during the augmentation process. The interaction pen is a general pen-like object with a certain color distribution. It is tracked using a RCE network in real-time and used to trigger the VirIPs for AR systems. In our system, only one camera is used for capturing the real world. Therefore, 2D information is used to trigger the virtual buttons to control the AR systems. The proposed method is real-time because the RCE-based image segmentation for a small region is fast. It can be used to control AR systems quite easily without any annoying sensors attached to entangling cables. This proposed method has good potential in many AR applications in manufacturing, such as assembly without the need for object recognition, collaborative product design, system control, etc. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    BNP Consensus Panel 2004: A Clinical Approach for the Diagnostic, Prognostic, Screening, Treatment Monitoring, and Therapeutic Roles of Natriuretic Peptides in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Marc A. Silver MD
    Among the most exciting developments in the field of heart failure in recent times has been the rediscovery of the natriuretic peptide system and its pleuripotent effects on cardiac structure and function. This is particularly true of its natriuretic and hemodynamic effects. There has been an explosion of the knowledge base seeking to understand the wide range of homeostatic, regulatory, and counter-regulatory functions in which the natriuretic peptide system participates. Additional interest has been stimulated by advances in technology such as point-of-care and core laboratory BNP assays and the use of the recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide nesiritide as a treatment option. Despite this recent interest, the available literature lacks a comprehensive expert review of the current science and roles of natriuretic peptides for diagnostic, prognostic, screening, treatment monitoring, and therapeutic purposes. More importantly, a summary updating and guiding the clinician on most of these advances was lacking. An expert Consensus Panel with basic, methodological, and clinical expertise was convened to summarize current knowledge in these areas and the findings and consensus statements are contained herein. [source]

    Full Scope of Effect of Facial Lipoatrophy: A Framework of Disease Understanding

    BACKGROUND Facial lipoatrophy has been observed to occur in a variety of patient populations, with inherited or acquired disease, or even in aging patients as a natural progression of tissue change over time. There is currently no framework from which physicians of all medical specialties can communally discuss the manifestations, diagnoses, and management of facial lipoatrophy. OBJECTIVE The aim of this assembly was to derive a definition of facial lipoatrophy capable of being applied to all patient populations and develop an accompanying grading system. RESULTS The final consensus of the Facial Lipoatrophy Panel encompasses both aging and disease states: "Loss of facial fat due to aging, trauma or disease, manifested by flattening or indentation of normally convex contours." The proposed grading scale includes five gradations (Grades 1,5; 5 being the most severe), and the face is assessed according to three criteria: contour, bony prominence, and visibility of musculature. CONCLUSION Categorizing the presentation of facial lipoatrophy is subjective and qualitative, and will need to be validated with objective measures. Furthermore, during the assembly, several topics were exposed that warrant further research, including the physiology of volume loss, age and lipoatrophy, and human immunodeficiency virus and lipoatrophy. [source]

    Insulin-treated diabetes and driving in the UK

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2002
    G. Gill
    Abstract Diabetes, and particularly insulin-treated diabetes, has important implications for motor vehicle driving, largely because of its association with potential hypoglycaemia. For this reason, most countries operate some driving restrictions on insulin-treated diabetic patients, as well as systems of intermittent reassessment of hypoglycaemic risk. In the UK, regulations are operated by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), which is an agency of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). They are supported by an Expert Panel which advises the Secretary of State on diabetes-related issues relating to fitness to drive. The patient organization Diabetes UK is also concerned with diabetes and driving issues, largely from a position of lobbying policy-influencers and supporting individual cases. All parties involved with diabetes and driving issues recognize the need for more research on the subject, as the current literature is flawed in design, though no convincing excess of accidents amongst diabetic drivers has been conclusively demonstrated. Currently in the UK, Class 2 vehicles (large trucks and passenger vehicles) are barred to diabetic drivers on insulin. European law has recently extended this to so-called C1 (large vans and small lorries) and D1 (minibuses) vehicles, though the law has recently been revised to allow individual consideration for potential diabetic C1 drivers on insulin treatment. Diabetes and insulin-treated diabetes is an emotive and difficult issue, for which a stronger evidence base is urgently needed. [source]

    Religion and Science: What Is at Stake?

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2007
    Lynne Lorenzen
    Abstract:, "Religion and Science: What Is at Stake" looks at the latest information available on global warming from the International Panel on Climate Change and puts it in the context of the current culture war between progressives and conservatives. We worry that the science will become captive to ideological concerns that are theological, economic, and therefore political. The ideological domination of science may make a sustainable response to global warming even more difficult. It is vitally important that Christian theologians learn enough about the science to be articulate and support the scientists in their endeavors to promote our care of the creation. [source]

    James Killian, the Technological Capabilities Panel, and the Emergency of President Eisenhower' "Scientific-Technological Elite"

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 1 2000
    Richard V. Damms
    First page of article [source]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases attributable to the activities of the land transport: modelling and analysis using I-CIR stochastic diffusion,the case of Spain

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 2 2008
    R. Gutiérrez
    Abstract In this study, carried out on the basis of the conclusions and methodological recommendations of the Fourth Assessment Report (2007) of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we consider the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and particularly those of CO2, attributable to the activities of land transport, for all sectors of the economy, as these constitute a significant proportion of total GHG emissions. In particular, the case of Spain is an example of a worrying situation in this respect, both in itself and in the context of the European Union. To analyse the evolution, in this case, of such emissions, to enable medium-term forecasts to be made and to obtain a model that will enable us to analyse the effects of possible corrector mechanisms, we have statistically fitted a inverse Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (I-CIR) type nonlinear stochastic diffusion process, on the basis of the real data measured for the period 1990,2004, during which the Kyoto protocol has been applicable. We have studied the evolution of the trend of these emissions using estimated trend functions, for which purpose probabilistic complements such as trend functions and stationary distribution are incorporated, and a statistical methodology (estimation and asymptotic inference) for this diffusion, these tools being necessary for the application of the analytical methodology proposed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Protocols for the diagnosis of quarantine pests,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3-4 2000

    EPPO member countries have recognized the need for a harmonized approach to detection and identification methods for quarantine pests. In 1998, EPPO started anew project to prepare diagnostic protocols for the quarantine pests of the EPPO region. The work is conducted by the Panel on Diagnostics, which is under the authority of the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations. The Panel consists of 10 experts in different fields. When necessary, expert groups on specific disciplines are called upon. The Panel agreed on a suitable common format for the protocols and a procedure for producing the best quality of diagnostic protocols. As there are about 325 quarantine pests for the region (listed in the EPPO A1 and A2 lists of quarantine pests and in the Annexes of EU Directive 77/93), it was necessary to decide upon a priority list of the organisms for which protocols should be developed first. At the moment, 52 protocols are at different stages of preparation. [source]

    EFNS guidelines on the use of neuroimaging in the management of multiple sclerosis

    M. Filippi
    Magnetic resonance (MR)-based techniques are widely used for the assessment of patients with suspected and definite multiple sclerosis (MS). However, despite the publication of several position papers, which attempted to define the utility of MR techniques in the management of MS, their application in everyday clinical practice is still suboptimal. This is probably related, not only, to the fact that the majority of published guidelines focused on the optimization of MR technology in clinical trials, but also to the continuing development of modern, quantitative MR-based techniques, that have not as yet entered the clinical arena. The present report summarizes the conclusions of the ,EFNS Expert Panel of Neuroimaging of MS' on the application of conventional and non-conventional MR techniques to the clinical management of patients with MS. These guidelines are intended to assist in the use of conventional MRI for the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of patients with MS. In addition, they should provide a foundation for the development of more widespread but rational clinical applications of non-conventional MR-based techniques in studies of MS patients. [source]

    Aluminum "Egg-Box" Panel as an Energy Absorber for Pedestrian Protection

    Sravanthi Nowpada
    Abstract This paper evaluates the quasi-static performance of lightweight aluminum "egg-box" panels which have an improved architecture specifically designed to increase the energy absorption capability. In its entirety, the egg-box panel structure investigated herein is made up of arrays of positive and negative frusta. To understand the collapse mechanism and the factors influencing the energy absorption thereof, compressive tests were conducted under similar test conditions on two single frusta, one constrained in situ and the other separated from the egg-box panel exposing the free,free edges. Their load-displacement histories show characteristics that are similar, with a rise in load to a point where they plateau at a steady state load for the entire collapse time. But the energy absorbed by the in situ constrained frustum is 80% greater than that separated from the egg-box panel with free,free edges. [source]

    Shaky attachments: Individual-level stability and change of partisanship among West German voters, 1984,2001

    In this article, the authors take advantage of a unique longitudinal database , the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) , to test the basic premise of partisanship's high persistence. Analysing individual-level data from 18 annual panel waves conducted in West Germany between 1984 and 2001, it was found that only a minority of the electorate appears steadfast with regard to partisanship over the entire period. Using event history analysis, the authors demonstrate how movements from partisanship into independence and changes between parties are affected by: personal attributes of voters, especially cognitive mobilisation; by properties of their social contexts, in particular spousal relationships and family constellations; by situational contexts, specifically election campaigns; and by the type of party with which voters identify. [source]

    Drought changes phosphorus and potassium accumulation patterns in an evergreen Mediterranean forest

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Summary 1Climate models predict more extreme weather in Mediterranean ecosystems, with more frequent drought periods and torrential rainfall. These expected changes may affect major process in ecosystems such as mineral cycling. However, there is a lack of experimental data regarding the effects of prolonged drought on nutrient cycling and content in Mediterranean ecosystems. 2A 6-year drought manipulation experiment was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. The aim was to investigate the effects of drought conditions expected to occur over the coming decades, on the contents and concentrations of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in stand biomass, and P and K content and availability in soils. 3Drought (an average reduction of 15% in soil moisture) increased P leaf concentration by 18·2% and reduced P wood and root concentrations (30·9% and 39·8%, respectively) in the dominant tree species Quercus ilex, suggesting a process of mobilization of P from wood towards leaves. The decrease in P wood concentrations in Quercus ilex, together with a decrease in forest biomass growth, led to an overall decrease (by approximately one-third) of the total P content in above-ground biomass. In control plots, the total P content in the above-ground biomass increased 54 kg ha,1 from 1999 to 2005, whereas in drought plots there was no increase in P levels in above-ground biomass. Drought had no effects on either K above-ground contents or concentrations. 4Drought increased total soil soluble P by increasing soil soluble organic P, which is the soil soluble P not directly available to plant capture. Drought reduced the ratio of soil soluble inorganic P : soil soluble organic P by 50% showing a decrease of inorganic P release from P bound to organic matter. Drought increased by 10% the total K content in the soil, but reduced the soil soluble K by 20·4%. 5Drought led to diminished plant uptake of mineral nutrients and to greater recalcitrance of minerals in soil. This will lead to a reduction in P and K in the ecosystem, due to losses in P and K through leaching and erosion, if the heavy rainfalls predicted by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) models occur. As P is currently a limiting factor in many Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and given that P and K are necessary for high water-use efficiency and stomata control, the negative effects of drought on P and K content in the ecosystem may well have additional indirect negative effects on plant fitness. [source]

    Pan Evaporation Trends and the Terrestrial Water Balance.


    Pan evaporation is just that , it is the evaporation rate of water from a small dish located at the ground-surface. Pan evaporation is a measure of the evaporative demand over terrestrial surfaces. Declines in pan evaporation have now been reported in many regions of the world. The trends vary from one pan to the next, but when averaged over many pans, they are typically in the range of ,1 to ,4 mm a,2 (mm per annum per annum). In energetic terms, a trend of ,2 mm a,2 is equivalent to ,0.16 W m,2 a,1 and over 30 years this is a change of ,4.8 W m,2. For comparison, the top-of-atmosphere forcing due to doubled CO2 is estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to be ~3.7 W m,2. Hence, the magnitude of the pan evaporation trend is large. What is of even greater interest is the direction , a decline , given the well-established warming of the last 30,50 years. In this article, the first in a two part series, we describe the underlying principles in using and interpreting pan evaporation data and then summarise the reported observations from different countries. In the second article, we describe the interpretation of the trends in terms of changes in the terrestrial water balance. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Geopolitics of Climate Change

    Jon Barnett
    Author's Introduction Climate change is a security problem in as much as the kinds of environmental changes that may result pose risks to peace and development. However, responsibilities for the causes of climate change, vulnerability to its effects, and capacity to solve the problem, are not equally distributed between countries, classes and cultures. There is no uniformity in the geopolitics of climate change, and this impedes solutions. Author Recommends 1.,Adger, W. N., et al. (eds) (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive collection of articles on the justice dimensions of adaptation to climate change. Chapters discuss potential points at which climate change becomes ,dangerous', the issue of adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the unequal outcomes of adaptation within a society, the effects of violent conflict on adaptation, the costs of adaptation, and examples from Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana, and Hungary. 2.,Leichenko, R., and O'Brien, K. (2008). Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. New York: Oxford University Press. This book uses examples from around the world to show the way global economic and political processes interact with environmental changes to create unequal outcomes within and across societies. A very clear demonstration of the way vulnerability to environmental change is as much driven by social processes as environmental ones, and how solutions lie within the realm of decisions about ,development' and ,environment'. 3.,Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003 An up-to-date, systematic and balanced review of research on the links between climate change and violent conflict. See also the other papers in this special issue of Political Geography. 4.,Parry, M., et al. (eds) (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The definitive review of all the peer-reviewed research on the way climate change may impact on places and sectors across the world. Includes chapters on ecosystems, health, human settlements, primary industries, water resources, and the major regions of the world. All chapters are available online at 5.,Salehyan, I. (2008). From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3), pp. 315,326. doi:10.1177/0022343308088812 A balanced review of research on the links between climate change and conflict, with attention to existing evidence. 6.,Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. Gives insight into how the US security policy community is framing the problem of climate change. This needs to be read critically. Available at 7.,German Advisory Council on Global Change. (2007). World in transition: climate change as a security risk. Berlin, Germany: WBGU. A major report from the German Advisory Council on Global Change on the risks climate changes poses to peace and stability. Needs to be read with caution. Summary and background studies are available online at 8.,Yamin, F., and Depedge, J. (2004). The International climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. A clear and very detailed explanation of the UNFCCC's objectives, actors, history, and challenges. A must read for anyone seeking to understand the UNFCCC process, written by two scholars with practical experience in negotiations. Online Materials 1.,Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars The major website for information about environmental security. From here, you can download many reports and studies, including the Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2.,Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project This website is a clearing house for work and events on environmental change and human security. 3.,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) From this website, you can download all the chapters of all the IPCC's reports, including its comprehensive and highly influential assessment reports, the most recent of which was published in 2007. The IPCC were awarded of the Nobel Peace Prize ,for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made (sic) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change'. 4.,Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research The website of a major centre for research on climate change, and probably the world's leading centre for social science based analysis of climate change. From this site, you can download many publications about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and about various issues in the UNFCCC. 5.,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The website contains every major document relation to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, including the text of the agreements, national communications, country submissions, negotiated outcomes, and background documents about most key issues. Sample Syllabus: The Geopolitics of Climate Change topics for lecture and discussion Week I: Introduction Barnett, J. (2007). The geopolitics of climate change. Geography Compass 1 (6), pp. 1361,1375. United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, address to the 12th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Nairobi, 15 November 2006. Available online at Week II: The History and Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Topic: The drivers of climate change in space and time Reading Baer, P. (2006). Adaptation: who pays whom? In: Adger, N., et al. (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 131,154. Boyden, S., and Dovers, S. (1992). Natural-resource consumption and its environmental impacts in the Western World: impacts of increasing per capita consumption. Ambio 21 (1), pp. 63,69. Week III: The Environmental Consequences of climate change Topic: The risks climate change poses to environmental systems Reading Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat. Watch: Al Gore. The Inconvenient Truth. Weeks IV and V: The Social Consequences of Climate Change Topic: The risks climate change poses to social systems Reading Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development 27, pp. 249,269. Comrie, A. (2007). Climate change and human health. Geography Compass 1 (3), pp. 325,339. Leary, N., et al. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerability in a changing climate. A Synthesis from the AIACC project, AIACC Working Paper No. 21, International START Secretariat, Florida. Stern, N. (2007). Economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Chapters 3,5). Week VI: Mitigation of Climate Change: The UNFCCC Topic: The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol Reading Najam, A., Huq, S., and Sokona, Y. (2003). Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (3), pp. 221,231. UNFCCC Secretariat. (2005). Caring for climate: a guide to the climate change convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Bonn, Germany: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat. Weeks VII and VIII: Adaptation to Climate Change Topic: What can be done to allow societies to adapt to avoid climate impacts? Reading Adger, N., et al. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M., et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 717,744. Burton, I., et al. (2002). From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Climate Policy 2 (2,3), pp. 145,159. Eakin, H., and Lemos, M. C. (2006). Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 16 (1), pp. 7,18. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30, pp. 294,305. Weeks IX and X: Climate Change and Migration Topic: Will climate change force migration? Readings Gaim, K. (1997). Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: a critique of the current debate. Disasters 21 (1), pp. 20,38. McLeman, R., and Smit, B. (2006). Migration as adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change 76 (1), pp. 31,53. Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357 (1420), pp. 609,613. Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M., and Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change (online first, forthcoming); doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y Weeks XI and XII: Climate Change and Violent Conflict Topic: Will Climate change cause violent conflict? Readings Barnett, J., and Adger, N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 639,655. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. (2007). The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: CSIS. Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. [online]. Retrieved on 8 April 2007 from Focus Questions 1Who is most responsible for climate change? 2Who is most vulnerable to climate change? 3Does everyone have equal power in the UNFCCC process? 4Will climate change force people to migrate? Who? 5What is the relationship between adaptation to climate change and violent conflict? [source]

    Downward Wage Rigidity in Europe: A New Flexible Parametric Approach and Empirical Results

    Andreas Behr
    Wage rigidity; ECHP; Sticky prices Abstract. We suggest a new parametric approach to estimate the extent of downward nominal wage rigidity in ten European countries between 1995 and 2001. The database used throughout is the User Data Base of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The proposed approach is based on the generalized hyperbolic distribution, which allows to model wage change distributions characterized by thick tales, skewness and leptokurtosis. Significant downward nominal wage rigidity is found in all countries under analysis, but the extent varies considerably across countries. Yearly estimates reveal increasing rigidity in Italy, Greece and Portugal, while rigidity is declining in Denmark and Belgium. The results imply that the costs of price stability differ substantially across Europe. [source]

    Implications of future climate and atmospheric CO2 content for regional biogeochemistry, biogeography and ecosystem services across East Africa

    Abstract We model future changes in land biogeochemistry and biogeography across East Africa. East Africa is one of few tropical regions where general circulation model (GCM) future climate projections exhibit a robust response of strong future warming and general annual-mean rainfall increases. Eighteen future climate projections from nine GCMs participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment were used as input to the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), which predicted vegetation patterns and carbon storage in agreement with satellite observations and forest inventory data under the present-day climate. All simulations showed future increases in tropical woody vegetation over the region at the expense of grasslands. Regional increases in net primary productivity (NPP) (18,36%) and total carbon storage (3,13%) by 2080,2099 compared with the present-day were common to all simulations. Despite decreases in soil carbon after 2050, seven out of nine simulations continued to show an annual net land carbon sink in the final decades of the 21st century because vegetation biomass continued to increase. The seasonal cycles of rainfall and soil moisture show future increases in wet season rainfall across the GCMs with generally little change in dry season rainfall. Based on the simulated present-day climate and its future trends, the GCMs can be grouped into four broad categories. Overall, our model results suggest that East Africa, a populous and economically poor region, is likely to experience some ecosystem service benefits through increased precipitation, river runoff and fresh water availability. Resulting enhancements in NPP may lead to improved crop yields in some areas. Our results stand in partial contradiction to other studies that suggest possible negative consequences for agriculture, biodiversity and other ecosystem services caused by temperature increases. [source]

    Projected changes in the organic carbon stocks of cropland mineral soils of European Russia and the Ukraine, 1990,2070

    Abstract In this paper, we use the Rothamsted Carbon Model to estimate how cropland mineral soil carbon stocks are likely to change under future climate, and how agricultural management might influence these stocks in the future. The model was run for croplands occurring on mineral soils in European Russia and the Ukraine, representing 74 Mha of cropland in Russia and 31 Mha in the Ukraine. The model used climate data (1990,2070) from the HadCM3 climate model, forced by four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios representing various degrees of globalization and emphasis on economic vs. environmental considerations. Three land use scenarios were examined, business as usual (BAU) management, optimal management (OPT) to maximize profit, and soil sustainability (SUS) in which profit was maximized within the constraint that soil carbon must either remain stable or increase. Our findings suggest that soil organic carbon (SOC) will be lost under all climate scenarios, but less is lost under the climate scenarios where environmental considerations are placed higher than purely economic considerations (IPCC B1 and B2 scenarios) compared with the climate associated with emissions resulting from the global free market scenario (IPCC A1FI scenario). More SOC is lost towards the end of the study period. Optimal management is able to reduce this loss of SOC, by up to 44% compared with business as usual management. The soil sustainability scenario could be run only for a limited area, but in that area was shown to increase SOC stocks under three climate scenarios, compared with a loss of SOC under business as usual management in the same area. Improved agricultural soil management will have a significant role to play in the adaptation to, and mitigation of, climate change in this region. Further, our results suggest that this adaptation could be realized without damaging profitability for the farmers, a key criteria affecting whether optimal management can be achieved in reality. [source]

    Projecting future N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Belgium

    Abstract This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions from the agricultural soils of Belgium. Annual N2O emission rates are estimated with two statistical models, MCROPS and MGRASS, which take account of the impact of changes in land use, climate, and nitrogen-fertilization rate. The models are used to simulate the temporal trend of N2O emissions between 1990 and 2050 for a 10, latitude and longitude grid. The results are also aggregated to the regional and national scale to facilitate comparison with other studies and national inventories. Changes in climate and land use are derived from the quantitative scenarios developed by the ATEAM project based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC-SRES) storylines. The average N2O flux for Belgium was estimated to be 8.6 × 106 kg N2O-N yr,1 (STD = 2.1 × 106 kg N2O-N yr,1) for the period 1990,2000. Fluxes estimated for a single year (1996) give a reasonable agreement with published results at the national and regional scales for the same year. The scenario-based simulations of future N2O emissions show the strong influence of land-use change. The scenarios A1FI, B1 and B2 produce similar results between 2001 and 2050 with a national emission rate in 2050 of 11.9 × 106 kg N2O-N yr,1. The A2 scenario, however, is very sensitive to the reduction in agricultural land areas (,14% compared with the 1990 baseline), which results in a reduced emission rate in 2050 of 8.3 × 106 kg N2O-N yr,1. Neither the climatic change scenarios nor the reduction in nitrogen fertilization rate could explain these results leading to the conclusion that N2O emissions from Belgian agricultural soils will be more markedly affected by changes in agricultural land areas. [source]

    Performance of High Arctic tundra plants improved during but deteriorated after exposure to a simulated extreme temperature event

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2005
    Fleur L. Marchand
    Abstract Arctic ecosystems are known to be extremely vulnerable to climate change. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios project extreme climate events to increase in frequency and severity, we exposed High Arctic tundra plots during 8 days in summer to a temperature rise of approximately 9°C, induced by infrared irradiation, followed by a recovery period. Increased plant growth rates during the heat wave, increased green cover at the end of the heat wave and higher chlorophyll concentrations of all four predominating species (Salix arctica Pall., Arctagrostis latifolia Griseb., Carex bigelowii Torr. ex Schwein and Polygonum viviparum L.) after the recovery period, indicated stimulation of vegetative growth. Improved plant performance during the heat wave was confirmed at plant level by higher leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and at ecosystem level by increased gross canopy photosynthesis. However, in the aftermath of the temperature extreme, the heated plants were more stressed than the unheated plants, probably because they acclimated to warmer conditions and experienced the return to (low) ambient as stressful. We also calculated the impact of the heat wave on the carbon balance of this tundra ecosystem. Below- and aboveground respiration were stimulated by the instantaneous warmer soil and canopy, respectively, outweighing the increased gross photosynthesis. As a result, during the heat wave, the heated plots were a smaller sink compared with their unheated counterparts, whereas afterwards the balance was not affected. If other High Arctic tundra ecosystems react similarly, more frequent extreme temperature events in a future climate may shift this biome towards a source. It is uncertain, however, whether these short-term effects will hold when C exchange rates acclimate to higher average temperatures. [source]

    Estimating annual N2O emissions from agricultural soils in temperate climates

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2005
    Caroline Roelandt
    Abstract The Kyoto protocol requires countries to provide national inventories for a list of greenhouse gases including N2O. A standard methodology proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates direct N2O emissions from soils as a constant fraction (1.25%) of the nitrogen input. This approach is insensitive to environmental variability. A more dynamic approach is needed to establish reliable N2O emission inventories and to propose efficient mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to develop a model that allows the spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions to be taken into account in national inventories of direct N2O emissions. Observed annual N2O emission rates are used to establish statistical relationships between N2O emissions, seasonal climate and nitrogen-fertilization rate. Two empirical models, MCROPS and MGRASS, were developed for croplands and grasslands. Validated with an independent data set, MCROPS shows that spring temperature and summer precipitation explain 35% of the variance in annual N2O emissions from croplands. In MGRASS, nitrogen-fertilization rate and winter temperature explain 48% of the variance in annual N2O emissions from grasslands. Using long-term climate observations (1900,2000), the sensitivity of the models with climate variability is estimated by comparing the year-to-year prediction of the model to the precision obtained during the validation process. MCROPS is able to capture interannual variability of N2O emissions from croplands. However, grassland emissions show very small interannual variations, which are too small to be detectable by MGRASS. MCROPS and MGRASS improve the statistical reliability of direct N2O emissions compared with the IPCC default methodology. Furthermore, the models can be used to estimate the effects of interannual variation in climate, climate change on direct N2O emissions from soils at the regional scale. [source]

    Unemployment and self-assessed health: evidence from panel data

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2009
    Petri Böckerman
    Abstract We examine the relationship between unemployment and self-assessed health using the European Community Household Panel for Finland over the period 1996,2001. Our results show that the event of becoming unemployed does not matter as such for self-assessed health. The health status of those that end up being unemployed is lower than that of the continually employed. Therefore, persons who have poor health are being selected for the pool of the unemployed. This explains why, in a cross-section, unemployment is associated with poor self-assessed health. All in all, the cross-sectional negative relationship between unemployment and self-assessed health is not found longitudinally. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]