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  • Selected Abstracts


    COMMENT ON THE PAPER (Are Polish and Swedish dental graduates adequately prepared for dental practice in the UK?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2002
    A discussion of the transferability of general dental practitioners in Europe by
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Thirty years on from the paper ,Gust Spectrum Fatigue Crack Propagation in Candidate Skin Materials', Fatigue of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol.

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 1 2009

    IMPACT OF THE PAPER This paper1 addressed a very specific topic and by itself would not have had much impact in the intervening years. However, most of the paper's content was subsequently included in an extensive report on the Damage Tolerance (DT) properties of aluminium alloys.2 This report enabled guidelines for flight simulation fatigue crack growth testing to be formulated.3,4 [source]


    THE OMISSION OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE FROM THE PAPER BY GOLLEDGE ET AL. (2008)

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2009
    DEREK FLINN
    ABSTRACT. In their paper on the last glaciation of Shetland, Golledge et al. (2008) concluded on the basis of a remote sensing study that during that period Shetland had been overrun by ice from Scandinavia. Since the method of study they used does not reveal the sense of the direction in which the ice flowed and since they ignored earlier ground-based work involving striations which do reveal the sense of direction of ice flow their conclusions have no scientific basis. [source]


    CHRISTIAN PRESENCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST A WORKING PAPER,

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 352 2000
    Article first published online: 25 MAR 200
    First page of article [source]


    PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN LESS-DEVELOPED AND TRANSITION ECONOMIES: A REVIEW PAPER

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 4 2009
    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee
    Abstract The concept of purchasing power parity (PPP) has been the subject of numerous studies, many of which have been unable to prove conclusively this core principle of international finance. Although industrialized countries have received most of the attention, studies that focus on less-developed and transition economies have also attained mixed results. This study surveys trends in this branch of the literature, highlighting the econometric advances that have sought to solve this puzzle, while pointing out that more needs to be done to address the reasons that might cause PPP not to hold. [source]


    A COMPARISON BETWEEN PAPER AND COMPUTERIZED BALLOTS AND A STUDY OF SIMULATED SUBSTITUTION BETWEEN THE TWO BALLOTS USED IN DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS,

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 6 2002
    MARIANNE SWANEY-STUEVE
    ABSTRACT Many researchers have compared results from experiments using paper ballots and computer ballots, yet few have studied the interchangeability of the two data collection methods. If computers fail between sessions of an experiment, one would like to be able to use paper ballots for that session with some confidence that the experimental results will not be affected. The objective of this study was to determine if ballot type had a significant influence on descriptive analysis results. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated no significant differences (P<0.05) between ballot types. No significant sample * ballot interactions were found from the univariate analysis of variance. Mann Whitney nonparamatric tests found that substituting paper ballots for computer ballots in a single session did not significantly alter experimental results. One can conclude from this experiment that if a situation occurs forcing panelists to use an alternative ballot, the results probably will not be significantly affected. [source]


    CHASING MOBY-DICK ACROSS PAPER AND CANVAS: FIVE DECADES OF FREE-FLOATING LITERARY ART

    LEVIATHAN, Issue 2 2001
    Robert K. Wallace
    [source]


    Collaborating on state-level institutional research in New Hampshire: NH PAPER

    NEW DIRECTIONS FOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 139 2008
    Ingrid Lemaire
    A model for system-level institutional researchers to work together to address common information and research needs is presented. [source]


    COMMENT ON THE PAPER BY GANI

    AUSTRALIAN & NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF STATISTICS, Issue 3 2010
    D.J. Daley
    First page of article [source]


    COMMENT ON THE PAPER BY GANI

    AUSTRALIAN & NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF STATISTICS, Issue 3 2010
    A.H. Welsh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Janne Hukkanen
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Smoking slows the metabolism of nicotine and accelerates the metabolism of chlorzoxazone. , Nicotine is a useful probe for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and chlorzoxazone is a frequently used probe for CYP2E1 activity. , The tobacco smoke constituents responsible for the reduced CYP2A6 and increased CYP2E1 activities are unknown. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS , This study demonstrates that CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities are not affected by nicotine dosing. , High-dose nicotine treatment has a low potential of interaction with CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 substrates. , The mechanisms of tobacco smoke-elicited changes in CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities are yet to be determined. AIMS Smoking slows the metabolism of nicotine and accelerates the metabolism of chlorzoxazone, which are probe reactions for cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. We aimed to determine the role of nicotine in these metabolic effects of cigarette smoking. METHODS The study had a single-blind, randomized, crossover two-arm design. Twelve healthy smokers were given two transdermal patches with 42-mg nicotine a day or placebo patches, each for 10 days. The subjects abstained from smoking during the study arms. Oral chlorzoxazone was given on day 7 and deuterium-labelled nicotine-d2 and cotinine-d4 infusion on day 8. RESULTS There was no significant influence of transdermal nicotine administration on pharmacokinetic parameters of nicotine-d2 or on the formation of cotinine-d2. Nicotine decreased the volume of distribution (62.6 vs. 67.7 l, 95% confidence interval of the difference ,9.7, ,0.6, P= 0.047) of infused cotinine-d4. There were no significant differences in disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone between the treatments. CONCLUSIONS CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities are not affected by nicotine. The tobacco smoke constituents responsible for the reduced CYP2A6 and increased CYP2E1 activities remain unknown. [source]


    Development of a drug,disease simulation model for rituximab in follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    David Ternant
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Serum concentrations of rituximab influence its clinical efficacy in follicular lymphoma (FL), but its concentration,effect relationship has not been described by pharmacokinetic,pharmacodynamic (PK,PD) modelling. , The genetic polymorphism of FCGR3A influences rituximab efficacy and its in vitro concentration,effect relationship. , Increasing rituximab dose and/or number of infusions may lead to a better clinical response in FL. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS , This study is the first to describe the concentration,effect relationship of rituximab in populations of FL patients. , This PK,PD model relates progression-free survival with rituximab concentrations and takes into account the influence of FCGR3A polymorphism. , Clinical trials testing new dosing regimens of rituximab can be designed using this PK,PD model. AIM Rituximab has dramatically improved the survival of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), but the dosing regimen currently used should be optimized. However, the concentration,effect relationship of rituximab has never been described by pharmacokinetic,pharmacodynamic (PK,PD) modelling, precluding the simulation of new dosing regimens. The aim of this study was to develop a PK,PD model of rituximab in relapsed/resistant follicular NHL (FL). METHODS A model describing the relationship between rituximab concentrations and progression-free survival (PFS) was developed using data extracted from the pivotal study, which evaluated 151 relapsed/resistant FL patients. The influence of FCGR3A genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of rituximab was quantified using data from 87 relapsed/resistant FL patients. The predictive performance of the model was analysed using two independent datasets: a study that evaluated rituximab combined with chemotherapy [rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin and prednisone (R-CHOP)] in 334 relapsed/resistant FL patients and a study that evaluated rituximab monotherapy in 47 asymptomatic FL patients with known FCGR3A genotype. RESULTS For R-CHOP, observed and model-predicted PFS (90% confidence interval) at 24 months were 0.50 and 0.48 (0.40, 0.56), respectively, for the observation arm, and 0.62 and 0.59 (0.50, 0.65), respectively, for the rituximab maintenance arm. For rituximab monotherapy, observed and predicted PFS at 24 months were 0.67 and 0.63, respectively, for FCGR3A -V/V patients, and 0.41 and 0.36 (0.25, 0.49), respectively, for FCGR3A -F carriers. CONCLUSIONS Our model provides a satisfactory prediction of PFS at 24 months. It can be used to simulate new dosing regimens of rituximab in populations of FL patients and should improve the design of future clinical trials. [source]


    RESEARCH PAPER: The antihyperalgesic effect of levetiracetam in an inflammatory model of pain in rats: mechanism of action

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    A Micov
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Levetiracetam, a novel antiepileptic drug, has recently been shown to have antinociceptive effects in various animal models of pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antihyperalgesic effect of levetiracetam and its mechanism of action, by examining the involvement of GABAergic, opioidergic, 5-hydroxytryptaminergic (5-HTergic) and adrenergic systems in its effect, in a rat model of inflammatory pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were intraplantarly injected with the pro-inflammatory compound carrageenan. A paw pressure test was used to determine: (i) the effect of levetiracetam on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia; and (ii) the effects of bicuculline (selective GABAA receptor antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), methysergide (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist) and yohimbine (selective ,2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) on the antihyperalgesic action of levetiracetam. RESULTS Levetiracetam (10,200 mgkg,1; p.o.) significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. The antihyperalgesic effect of levetiracetam was significantly decreased after administration of bicuculline (0.5,2 mgkg,1; i.p.), naloxone (1,3 mgkg,1; i.p.), methysergide (0.25,1 mgkg,1; i.p.) and yohimbine (1,3 mgkg,1; i.p.). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that levetiracetam produced antihyperalgesia which is at least in part mediated by GABAA, opioid, 5-HT and ,2 -adrenergic receptors, in an inflammatory model of pain. The efficacy of levetiracetam in this animal model of inflammatory pain suggests that it could be a potentially important agent for treating inflammatory pain conditions in humans. [source]


    RESEARCH PAPER: Effects of drug interactions on biotransformation and antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in vitro

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Anja Zahno
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite, R-130964, is a two-step cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent process. The current investigations were performed to characterize in vitro the effects of different CYP inhibitors on the biotransformation and on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Clopidogrel biotransformation was studied using human liver microsomes (HLM) or specific CYPs and platelet aggregation using human platelets activated with ADP. KEY RESULTS Experiments using HLM or specific CYPs (3A4, 2C19) revealed that at clopidogrel concentrations >10 M, CYP3A4 was primarily responsible for clopidogrel biotransformation. At a clopidogrel concentration of 40 M, ketoconazole showed the strongest inhibitory effect on clopidogrel biotransformation and clopidogrel-associated inhibition of platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 0.03 0.07 M and 0.55 0.06 M respectively. Clarithromycin, another CYP3A4 inhibitor, impaired clopidogrel biotransformation and antiplatelet activity almost as effectively as ketoconazole. The CYP3A4 substrates atorvastatin and simvastatin both inhibited clopidogrel biotransformation and antiplatelet activity, less potently than ketoconazole. In contrast, pravastatin showed no inhibitory effect. As clopidogrel itself inhibited CYP2C19 at concentrations >10 M, the CYP2C19 inhibitor lansozprazole affected clopidogrel biotransformation only at clopidogrel concentrations ,10 M. The carboxylate metabolite of clopidogrel was not a CYP substrate and did not affect platelet aggregation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At clopidogrel concentrations >10 M, CYP3A4 is mainly responsible for clopidogrel biotransformation, whereas CYP2C19 contributes only at clopidogrel concentrations ,10 M. CYP2C19 inhibition by clopidogrel at concentrations >10 M may explain the conflicting results between in vitro and in vivo investigations regarding drug interactions with clopidogrel. [source]


    THE PETRIFIED SELF: ESTHER BICK AND HER MEMBERSHIP PAPER

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 1 2001
    Roger Willoughby
    First page of article [source]


    SOG BULLETIN: CALL FOR PAPERS

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2007
    Article first published online: 3 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    SOG BULLETIN: CALL FOR PAPERS

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2007
    Article first published online: 22 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR: PUBLICATION OF PAPERS FROM THE SYMPOSIUM "BORROWED CHLOROPLASTS: SECONDARY ENDOSYMBIOSIS AND THE CHROMALVEOLATES"

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Robert G. Sheath
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Marine Conservation on Paper

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Giovanni Bearzi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The use of economic, social and environmental indicators as a measure of sustainable development in Spain

    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2006
    Isabel Gallego
    Abstract In recent years the concept of corporate social responsibility has gained prominence among academics from a wide range of disciplines. According to the Green Paper issued by the Commission of the European Communities in July 2001, corporate social responsibility is defined as a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The problem is how firms have made known the information on corporate social responsibility. With this in mind, we undertook the present work in an attempt to verify empirically how certain Spanish firms present their economic, social and environmental information, how they use the indicators proposed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) that are accepted in all countries and how this information can affect sustainable development. To perform this study we examined some Spanish firms that present economic, social and environmental information according to the GRI framework. Certain relevant conclusions indicate that in Spain in the last few years there has been an increase and an improvement in the information given by firms on economic, social and environmental concerns and that the information most presented by firms has to do with the social indicators related to labour, practices and decent work, strategy and management, non-discrimination, freedom of association, child labour and forced and compulsory labour as well as the environmental indicators related to energy, water, biodiversity and emissions, effluents and waste. This information reveals the great importance afforded in Spain to social and environmental information for sustainable development. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    Paper, its past, present and potential

    CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, Issue 1 2002
    Jonathan Farley
    First page of article [source]


    Paper Versus Electronic Medical Records: The Effects of Access on Physicians' Decisions to Use Complex Information Technologies,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2009
    Virginia Ilie
    ABSTRACT This study examines physicians' responses to complex information technologies (IT) in the health care supply chain. We extend individual-level IT adoption models by incorporating a new construct: system accessibility. The main premise of the study is, when faced with a decision between alternate IT systems, individual users tend to select and make use of the technology or system that is most readily accessible. We discuss both physical and logical dimensions of accessibility as they relate to adoption of electronic medical records (EMR). Physical accessibility refers to the availability of computers that can be used to access EMR, while logical accessibility refers to the ease or difficulty of logging into the system. Using data from a survey of 199 physicians practicing in a large U.S. hospital, we show that, when deciding between the paper chart and EMR, accessibility is an important consideration in a physician's decision to use the system. Both dimensions of accessibility act as barriers to EMR use intentions through their indirect effect on physicians' perceptions of EMR usefulness and ease of use. Logical access also has a direct effect on EMR use intentions. We conclude that accessibility is an important factor that limits acceptance of complex IT such as EMR. [source]


    A Response to the ERA Paper

    EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEORY, Issue 7 2008
    nis (John) Ozolins
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Sustainable development and the ,governance challenge': the French experience with Natura 2000

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2008
    Darren McCauley
    Abstract Sustainable development is conceptualized in this paper as a serious challenge for governance structures and processes in nation states. Global and European agreements have placed the inclusion of civil society actors in policy-making at the heart of the sustainability agenda. This commitment is particularly evident in the Commission's White Paper on Governance and the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. From this perspective, the European Commission has consistently underlined the integral role of dialogue with social partners in any sustainability agenda. In contrast, there is a clear mismatch between these principles of civil society inclusion and policy-making in France. Long-standing traditions of meso-corporatism have struggled to adapt to extending participation to civil society actors. This paper assesses the implementation of sustainable development as civil society inclusion with reference to the French experience in dealing with EU biodiversity policy. It is argued that this governance challenge has effectively presented nation states with an ,interpretation dilemma' with regards to sustainable development. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    The evolving UK wind energy industry: critical policy and management aspects of the emerging research agenda

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2006
    Peter A. Strachan
    Abstract In recent years, renewable energy , and in particular wind power , has come to the fore of both international and UK national environmental policy debates. In addition to helping to meet its Kyoto obligations, the British Government has indicated its desire for a much larger slice of the international wind energy market, and has consequently developed a national strategy to stimulate a more vibrant UK wind energy industry. With this in mind, the British Government's Climate Change Programme (DETR, 2000) and more recent Energy White Paper (DTI, 2003) outline the UK energy strategy for the coming two decades, with wind power featuring as a core component. This article critically considers the prospects for the development of a wind energy industry in the UK and introduces five strategic opportunities and five strategic barriers in this evolving segment of the energy market. The article concludes with recommendations to enhance public acceptance of wind energy and four important areas for future research are outlined. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    A national strategy for smoking cessation treatment in England

    ADDICTION, Issue 2005
    Ann McNeill
    ABSTRACT In 1998 the UK government published a White Paper on tobacco which set out the development of smoking cessation treatment services across England. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the events leading up to the inclusion of smoking cessation treatment services within the White Paper, and the background to the evaluation of those services, the results of which are the subject of the remaining papers in this supplement. [source]


    Lifelong Learning in the European Union: whither the Lisbon Strategy?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 3 2005
    HYWEL CERI JONES
    This article traces the Lisbon strategy back to the White Paper issued by President Jacques Delors in 1993 on Growth, Competitiveness, and Jobs as the launching point for the structural reform agenda needed to turn around the massive unemployment crisis and proposing a combination of policies for the structural reform of the labour market and stability-oriented macroeconomic policies designed to stimulate economic growth. The centrality of education and training in the Lisbon strategy is seen as key to the lifelong chances of every citizen linked to the need for Europe to compete on the basis of a knowledge-based economy if it is to maintain its high social standards. Describing the first years of the Lisbon strategy as ,a stuttering start', the mid-term stock-taking which offered European leaders the opportunity to fine-tune or radically modify the strategy is analysed. The article highlights the paradox that, although human capital is claimed to be Europe's most precious resource, there is inadequate focus on the weakest aspects of current systems. It also focuses on policy and financial levers which need to be mobilised within Member States as well as the implications for national budgets. It suggests the prioritisation of a small number of areas on which to concentrate efforts and echoes the Council calling for a ,quantum leap' in the ambition of the EU to ensure that the necessary follow-up is given to meet the challenges. Finally, a strong argument is put forward to take steps to move towards a unified set of proposals for lifelong learning. [source]


    Europe in Search of its Civil Society

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2002
    Olivier De Schutter
    Building upon the experience of the Convention for the elaboration of the Charter of fundamental rights and upon the suggestions of the White Paper on European Governance, this article puts forward proposals for a better involvement of the ,civil society' in the system of the European Union. It offers a general diagnosis of the misunderstandings surrounding the notion of ,civil society' and the relationship of representative democracy to participatory democracy. It then draws some lessons from the experiment in deliberative democracy which led to the drafting of the Charter of fundamental rights. Finally, it focuses on the contribution the organisations of the civil society can make to good governance in the European Union. Altogether, the proposals presented tend to encourage a better structuration of the actors of the civil society. Such a structuration, the article concludes, although it is usually considered with suspicion even by those whom it would most benefit, must be seen instead as a condition for the effective exercise of whichever participatory rights might be granted to the organisations of the civil society. [source]


    The Governance of the European Union: The Potential for Multi-Level Control

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2002
    Colin Scott
    In its White Paper on the Governance of the European Union the European Commission has adopted a narrow concept of governance which focuses almost exclusively on public institutions exercising legislative and executive power (in other words institutions of government). The article suggests that a theory of multi-level control in the EU would attend to greater variety both in the available governance institutions and the techniques of control. The deployment of an analysis grounded in theories of control suggests that the European Commission is substantially holding to a long-held preference for instruments of government premised on the exercise of hierarchical power. This reform path sits uneasily with revived concerns to render the governance of the EU more democratic. Equally it inhibits the generation of more efficient governance arrangements which place greater dependence on communities, competition, and design as alternative bases of control to hierarchy. Control theory suggests that the assertion of different reform agendas and institutional structures by other actors can check the more wayward (and arguably illegitimate) tendencies within the Commission plan, whilst drawing in alternative bases of control which, when combined, may yield technically superior governance solutions. [source]


    Printable Electronics: Foldable Printed Circuit Boards on Paper Substrates (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2010
    Mater.
    Lightweight and flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs) have been produced by micro-patterning metal on paper substrates, as reported by Siegel et al. on page 28. Paper-based electronic devices can be folded and creased repeatedly, shaped to form three-dimensional structures, integrated with paper-based microfluidic devices, and disposed of by flame (as shown in the cover image). [source]