PM Proteins (pm + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Redox enzymes in the plant plasma membrane and their possible roles

A. Bérczi
ABSTRACT Purified plasma membrane (PM) vesicles from higher plants contain redox proteins with low-molecular-mass prosthetic groups such as flavins (both FMN and FAD), hemes, metals (Cu, Fe and Mn), thiol groups and possibly naphthoquinone (vitamin K1), all of which are likely to participate in redox processes. A few enzymes have already been identified: Monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC is firmly bound to the cytosolic surface of the PM where it might be involved in keeping both cytosolic and, together with a b -type cytochrome, apoplastic ascorbate reduced. A malate dehydrogenase (EC is localized on the inner side of the PM. Several NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductases have been purified from the cytocolic surface of the PM, but their function is still unknown. Different forms of nitrate reductase (EC,3) are found attached to, as well as anchored in, the PM where they may act as a nitrate sensor and/or contribute to blue-light perception, although both functions are speculative. Ferric-chelate-reducing enzymes (EC are localized and partially characterized on the inner surface of the PM but they may participate only in the reduction of ferric-chelates in the cytosol. Very recently a ferric-chelate-reducing enzyme containing binding sites for FAD, NADPH and hemes has been identified and suggested to be a trans -PM protein. This enzyme is involved in the reduction of apoplastic iron prior to uptake of Fe2+ and is induced by iron deficiency. The presence of an NADPH oxidase, similar to the so-called respiratory burst oxidase in mammals, is still an open question. An auxin-stimulated and cyanide-insensitive NADH oxidase (possibly a protein disulphide reductase) has been characterized but its identity is still awaiting independent confirmation. Finally, the only trans -PM redox protein which has been partially purified from plant PM so far is a high-potential and ascorbate-reducible b -type cytochrome. In co-operation with vitamin K1 and an NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, it may participate in trans -PM electron transport. [source]

Characterization of an intestinal mucin from the peritrophic matrix of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

B. L. Sarauer
Abstract The peritrophic matrix (PM) of Plutella xylostella larvae was found to contain twelve integral and eighteen loosely associated proteins. An antiserum against Mamestra configurata integral PM proteins cross-reacted with several P. xylostella PM proteins and was used to isolate a partial cDNA encoding an insect intestinal mucin (PxIIM). PxIIM was expressed primarily in the larval midgut. The deduced protein sequence of the partial cDNA contained three potentially glycosylated, mucin-like domains and six cysteine-rich chitin-binding domains (CBDs). An additional chitin-binding domain was proposed to reside at the amino terminus of the protein based on comparison with other IIM. The organization of mucin domains and CBDs exhibited features, including an internal triplet of regularly spaced CBDs and a carboxyl terminal CBD with two additional conserved cysteine residues, that were found to be common to other lepidopteran IIMs. [source]

Proteomic analysis of rice plasma membrane reveals proteins involved in early defense response to bacterial blight

Fang Chen
Abstract Plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins play important roles in signal transduction during defense response to an attacking pathogen. By using an improved method of PM protein preparation and PM-bound green fluorescent protein fusion protein as a visible marker, we conducted PM proteomic analysis of the rice suspension cells expressing the disease resistance gene Xa21, to identify PM components involved in the early defense response to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). A total of 20 regulated protein spots were observed on 2-D gels of PM fractions at 12 and 24,h after pathogen inoculation, of which some were differentially regulated between the incompatible and compatible interactions mediated by Xa21, with good correlation between biological repeats. Eleven protein spots with predicted functions in plant defense were identified by MS/MS, including nine putative PM-associated proteins H+ -ATPase, protein phosphatase, hypersensitive-induced response protein (OsHIR1), prohibitin (OsPHB2), zinc finger and C2 domain protein, universal stress protein (USP), and heat shock protein. OsHIR1 was modified by the microbal challenge, leading to two differentially accumulated protein spots. Transcript analysis showed that most of the genes were also regulated at transcriptional levels. Our study would provide a starting point for functionality of PM proteins in the rice defense. [source]

Melatonin increases activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in fetal rat brain

Yuji Okatani
Melatonin is a powerful scavenger of oxygen free radicals. In humans, melatonin is rapidly transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. To investigate whether or not maternal melatonin administration can protect the fetal rat brain from radical-induced damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, we administered melatonin to pregnant rats on day 20 of gestation. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at daytime (14:00 hr) and, to remove the fetuses, a laparotomy was performed at 1, 2, or 3 hr after its administration. We measured the melatonin concentration in the maternal serum and in fetal brain homogenates and determined the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in fetal brain homogenates. Melatonin administration markedly increased melatonin concentrations in the maternal serum and fetal brain homogenates, with peak levels achieved 1 hr after melatonin administration (serum: 538.2±160.7 pM/mL; brain homogenates: 13.8±2.8 pM/mg protein). Between 1 and 3 hr after melatonin administration, GSH-Px activity in fetal brain homogenates increased significantly (P<0.01). Similarly, SOD activity increased significantly between 1 and 2 hr after melatonin administration (P<0.01). These results indicate that melatonin administration to the mother increases antioxidant enzyme activities in the fetal brain and may thereby provide indirect protection against free radical injury. Thus, melatonin may potentially be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions that may involve excessive free radical production, such as fetal hypoxia and preeclampsia. [source]