Own Guidelines (own + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for bladder cancer (Summary , JUA 2009 Edition)

The Committee for Establishment of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bladder Cancer, the Japanese Urological Association
Abstract In Japan, until now, the treatment of bladder cancer has been based on guidelines from overseas. The problem with this practice is that the options recommended in overseas guidelines are not necessarily suitable for Japanese clinical practice. A relatively large number of clinical trials have been conducted in Japan in the field of bladder cancer, and the Japanese Urological Association (JUA) considered it appropriate to formulate their own guidelines. These Guidelines present an overview of bladder cancer at each clinical stage, followed by clinical questions that address problems frequently faced in everyday clinical practice. In this English translation of a shortened version of the original Guidelines, we have abridged each overview, summarized each clinical question and its answer, and only included the references we considered of particular importance. [source]

The Sovereignty of Nature?

Environmental Protection in a Postmodern Age
Recent postmodern international relations (IR) scholarship threatens to undermine global environmental protection efforts. Global environmental protection is fundamentally about conserving and preserving nature. It involves safeguarding the quality of the earth's air, water, soil, and other species. Postmodern critics have shown, however, that "nature" is not simply a given, physical object but a social construction,an entity that assumes meaning within various cultural contexts and is fundamentally unknowable outside of human categories of understanding. This criticism raises significant challenges for global environmental politics. How can societies protect the nonhuman world if the very identity of that enterprise is cast into doubt? How can states cooperate to protect nature if the meaning of the term is socially and historically contingent? This article argues that postmodern criticisms of "nature" do not undermine global environmental protection efforts,as many IR scholars suggest,but rather provide their own guidelines for practice. Postmodernists value the so-called "other"; they aim to give voice to the poor, oppressed, and otherwise disadvantaged in an attempt to limit hegemonic tendencies of the powerful. The article calls on postmodernist IR scholars to take their own concerns seriously and stand up for the paradigmatic "other," the nonhuman world in all its abundance and diversity. It calls on postmodern IR scholars to extend their concern for the "other" to the realm of plants, animals, landscapes, and so forth, and work to protect the radical "otherness" of the so-called natural world. The article, in other words, uses postmodern criticism against itself to ground commitment to global environmental protection. [source]

Operations research and ethics: development trends 1966,2009

Fred Wenstøp
Abstract The paper tracks development trends in the literature on operations research (OR) and ethics from Kenneth Boulding's vision in 1966 of OR as a tool for benevolent decision making, and up to today's constructive papers in this special issue of ITOR. Although this review does not intend to give a complete picture of the relevant literature, two main themes stand out clearly: "Guidelines for the practice of OR" and "How can OR be applied for good purpose?" The first issue is about ethical principles and the second about ethical consequences. Although there is a continued interest in guidelines, few OR societies follow up with their own guidelines, and only a limited number of papers report on the ethicality of real OR applications in relation to guidelines. On the other hand, there is an increasing interest in OR as a tool for benevolent decision making, as we can witness in this special issue of ITOR. [source]

Defining the content for the objective structured clinical examination component of the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board examination: development of a blueprint

Philip Tombleson
Introduction We describe the steps taken to develop an appropriate list of ,clinical problems' used to define the content of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) component of the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) examination. Method A blueprint and list of 255 clinical problems was compiled by reviewing PLAB questions, published curricula of the UK Royal Colleges and other sources such as the General Medical Council's own guidelines. This list was sent to a random sample of 251 successful PLAB candidates who were asked to rate the clinical problems using a scale of ,seen frequently/seldom/never' and to 120 members of the accident and emergency (A&E) specialists' association who were asked to identify ,important' tasks. The list was further validated using activity data obtained for consecutive A&E attendances (934) and admissions (6130) at three hospitals. Results After two mailings, 131/251 (52%) former PLAB candidates and 89/120 (74%) A&E specialists replied. All of the 255 clinical problems were seen by some former candidates and were felt to be important by some A&E specialists. Of the 255 problems, 40 were neither rated as important nor as seen frequently/seldom by over 50% of respondents. The 255 clinical problems covered a mean 94% consecutive A&E attendances and 97·6% reasons for hospital admission. The correlation between clinical problems that were frequently encountered and those felt to be important was rho=0·38 (P < 0·01). Conclusion The clinical problems appear to be appropriate for defining the content of the PLAB OSCE. We suggest that our problem list is useful in that all the problems are seen by some senior house officers, are felt to be important by some A&E specialists and cover greater than or equal to 94% of the conditions for which patients both attend and are admitted from casualty. The correlation between clinical task importance and the frequency that they were seen was only moderate, partly reflecting the relative seriousness of some uncommon medical conditions, which should not be missed on clinical assessment. The content of the OSCE component of the PLAB examination is being reviewed in the light of the findings of this study. The limitations of the study are discussed. [source]