Overweight Women (overweight + woman)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Menstrual cycle symptoms are associated with changes in low-grade inflammation

J. J. Puder
Abstract Background, A close link between mood, low-grade inflammation and obesity has been demonstrated even in healthy subjects. We investigated the relationship between changes in physical and psychological symptoms and inflammatory markers during the menstrual cycle both in normal weight and in overweight women. Materials and methods, Eight healthy normal weight (body mass index 21·6 ± 1·9 kg m,2) and seven overweight (body mass index 30 ± 2·4 kg m,2) young women with normal ovarian function and with no premenstrual syndrome were assessed 15 times throughout their menstrual cycle. At each time point fasting blood was drawn and symptoms were recorded using the Freeman Daily Symptom Record. Results, Independent of weight status, the serum concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the total scores, in addition to the individual four factors (mood, behaviour, pain and physical symptoms), of the Daily Symptom Record varied significantly during the menstrual cycle (all P , 0·04) and paralleled each other. During the menstrual cycle, repeated hs-CRP serum concentrations correlated to the corresponding total symptom score and the factors mood, behaviour and physical symptoms, independent of both weight status and changes in circulating gonadal steroids (all P , 0·04). These associations were not observed for tumour necrosis factor-, serum levels. The mean hs-CRP concentrations were associated with the mean total symptom score, independent of weight status (r = 0·56, P = 0·04). Conclusion, Healthy young women showed psychological and physical symptoms during the menstrual cycle which changed in association with alterations in low-grade inflammation and which were independent of body weight or plasma levels of gonadal steroids. [source]

Exercise and Diet Beliefs of Overweight Women Participating in an Exercise and Diet Program: An Elicitation Study Using the Theory of Planned Behavior,

Rebecca Ellis Gardner
The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise and diet beliefs of overweight women using the theory of planned behavior. Participants were 104 overweight community women and university students who completed a 4-week exercise and diet program. The most salient exercise beliefs for the participants were (a) increased motivation, structure and accountability, and social support (behavioral beliefs); (b) job or school responsibilities and traveling (control beliefs); and (c) group members and the program trainer (normative beliefs). The most salient diet beliefs were (a) improved eating habits and convenience (behavioral beliefs), (b) lack of control over food preparation and inconvenience (control beliefs), and (c) family and spouse or significant other (normative beliefs). These results are discussed in comparison to beliefs held by different populations and in regard to implications for intervention design. [source]

Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake,

Claudia S Riedt
Abstract Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction: Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 ± 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 ± 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 ± 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (,4.2 ± 4.1%) and BMC (,4.8 ± 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (,1.4 ± 5.6% and ,1.1 ± 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion: Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women. [source]

Association between maternal seafood consumption before pregnancy and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women.

The EDEN mother-child cohort
Summary Studies in countries with high seafood consumption have shown a benefit on fetal growth and child development. The objective of our study was to determine the association between seafood consumption in French pregnant women and fetal growth. Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study completed two food frequency questionnaires on their usual diet in the year before and during the last 3 months of pregnancy (n = 1805). Fetal circumferences were measured by ultrasound and anthropometry at birth. Variables were compared across tertiles of the mother's seafood consumption using multiple linear regression to adjust for confounding variables. Analyses were stratified by maternal overweight status because of an interaction between maternal seafood consumption and her body mass index (P < 0.01). There was no association between seafood intake and fetal growth in the whole sample of women. For overweight women (n = 464), higher consumption of seafood before pregnancy was associated with higher fetal biparietal and abdominal circumferences and anthropometric measures. From the lowest to the highest tertiles, mean birthweight was 167 g higher (P = 0.002). No significant association was found with consumption at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, high seafood consumption before pregnancy is positively associated with fetal growth in overweight women. [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 7 2007
Article first published online: 11 JUL 200
Poor asthma control with off-licence prescribing Children who are prescribed off-licence medications are more likely to have poor asthma control, according to an analysis from Dundee (Br J Gen Practice 2007;57:220-2). The review of 17 163 consultations identified 1050 (6.1 per cent) who received a prescription for an unlicensed use (defined as not licensed for children or the particular age group, or dose not licensed). High doses (4.5 per cent) were more frequent than unlicensed indications (1.9 per cent). Children who received off-label prescriptions reported statistically significantly more symptoms in the day or night, symptoms during activity, and increased use of daily short-acting beta2-agonists. The authors note that off-label prescribing appears to be increasing. Atkins diet most effective over one year? The ultra low-carbohydrate, high-protein Atkins diet achieved greater weight loss than other popular diets in overweight women over one year, say US investigators (J Am Med Assoc 2007;297:969-77). The study compared the Atkins diet with three diets designed as low- or very high-carbohydrate, or based on USA nutritional guidance, in 311 women with body mass index 27-40. After one year, mean weight loss was 4.7kg with the Atkins diet , significantly greater than with the low- carbohydrate diet (1.6kg) but not compared with very high-carbohydrate (2.2kg) or the nutrition-based diet (2.6kg). Metabolic endpoints were comparable or more favourable in women using the Atkins diet. Androgen therapy linked to gum disease The majority of men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer are more likely to have periodontal disease (J Urol 2007;177:921-4). After controlling for risk factors, the prevalence of periodontal disease was 80.5 per cent among treated men compared with 3.7 per cent in matched controls not receiving treatment. There was no difference in bone mineral density between the groups but plaque scores were significantly higher among treated men. Food Commission rebuts MHRA on additives An independent watchdog has not accepted the MHRA's justification for including certain additives in medicines for children. The Food Commission (www.foodcomm.org.uk) found that most medicines for children contained additives, some of which , including azo dyes and benzoates , are not permitted in food. The Commission called on the pharmaceutical industry to stop using ,questionable additives'. The MHRA stated that the licensing process takes into account the likely exposure to excipients that are considered essential to make medicines palatable to children. Colouring helps children to identify the correct medicine, and preservatives ensure a reasonable shelf-life. A list of additives is included in the product's summary of product characteristics and patient information leaflet. In response, the Commission states: , , it is quite possible to flavour medicines with natural oils or extracts, and natural colourings such as beetroot and beta-carotene can be used instead of azo dyes. If parents were advised to give these medicinal products at mealtimes the manufacturers could also add a little sugar to sweeten their products, rather than relying on artificial sweeteners.' All triptans the same? There is no economic case for choosing one triptan over another and no evidence for preferring a particular triptan for adults, a systematic review has concluded. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (www.cadth.ca) found that published trials had compared most triptans with sumatriptan but not with one another, and most economic evaluations were flawed. New drug for HIV Janssen-Cilag has introduced darunavir (Prezista), a new protease inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection. Licensed for highly pre- treated patients in whom more than one other pro- tease inhibitor regimen has failed, darunavir must be co-administered with ritonavir (Norvir). A month's treatment at the recommended dose of 600mg twice daily costs £446.70. Variation in liquid captopril for children The NHS uses a wide range of liquid formulations of captopril to treat children with heart failure , with no assurance of their bioequivalence (Arch Dis Child 2007; published online 15 March. doi: 10.1136/adc.2006.109389). Specialists in Leicester surveyed 13 tertiary paediatric cardiac centres and 13 hospitals that referred patients to them. Only three tertiary centres supplied the same liquid for-mulation of captopril as their referring hospitals. Four hospitals supplied tablets for crushing and dissolving in water; the other hospitals and centres used a total of nine different formulations. The authors say the formulations had widely varying shelf-lives, determined empirically in all but one case, and were used interchangeably despite a lack of quality control data to establish their bioequivalence. QOF CVD targets not good enough for GPs Two-thirds of GPs want Quality Outcome Framework (QOF) targets for cardiovascular disease brought into line with those of the Joint British Societies latest guidance (JBS2), according to a survey by doctor.net.uk. The survey of 1000 GPs showed that 88 per cent were aware of the JBS2 guidelines and most were already implementing the targets for lipids, blood pressure and blood glucose in some form; however, only 55 per cent were implementing the JBS2 obesity target and 14 per cent were implementing screening for the over-40s. The JBS2 target for lipids in at-risk patients is <4mmol per litre total cholesterol and <2 mmol per litre LDL-cholesterol, compared with <5 and <3mmol per litre respectively in QOF and the NSF. The survey was commissioned by Merck Sharp & Dohme and Schering- Plough. Fracture warning Following warnings in the US that rosiglitazone (Avandia) is associated with an increased risk of fractures in women, Takeda has advised prescribers that pioglitazone (Actos) carries a similar risk. An analysis of the company's clinical trials database has revealed an excess risk of fractures of bones below the elbow and knee. The incidence was similar to the excess risk associated with rosiglitazone and also confined to women. Scottish approvals The Scottish Medicines Consortium (www.scottish medicines.org.uk) has approved for use within NHS Scotland the sublingual tablet formulation buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) for the treatment of opioid dependence. It has also approved the combined formulation of valsartan and amlodipine (Exforge) and the restricted use of the If inhibitor ivabradine (Procoralan). [source]

Association of the G-2548A polymorphism in the 5, region of the LEP gene with overweight

Mutations in the translated part of the leptin gene (LEP) have been found in only two families. Nevertheless DNA polymorphisms in the LEP region are linked to extreme obesity. We previously found in the 5, region of LEP a polymorphism, G-2548A, associated with a difference in BMI reduction following a low calorie diet in overweight women. Recently, this polymorphism was associated with extreme obesity in women. In this work, we genotyped a new sample from the general population including 314 normal weight (BMI < 27 kg/m2) and 109 overweight subjects (BMI , 27 kg/m2). The genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between groups, with the G-2548 allele being more frequent in the overweight subjects (p < 0.01). In men, carriers of this allele had lower leptin concentrations adjusted for fat mass (p= 0.05). Our results indicate that variations at the leptin locus are associated with common obesity phenotypes, and not only with extreme obesity or the rare mendelian obesity syndromes. [source]

Physical activity, Body Mass Index and health care costs in mid-age Australian women

Wendy J. Brown
Abstract Objective: This study examined the relationships between combined categories of physical activity (PA) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with health care costs in women and assessed the potential cost savings of improving PA and BMI in sedentary mid-age women. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 2001 survey data linked to health service use data for the same year from 7,004 mid-age women (50-55 years) participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Results: The mean (median; interquartile range) annual cost of Medicare-subsidised services was $542 (355; 156-693) per woman. Costs were 17% higher in obese than in healthy-weight women and 26% higher in sedentary than in moderately active women. For sedentary obese women, mean costs were 43% higher than in healthy weight, moderately active women. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative risk of ,high' claims (,15 claims per year) for overweight women who reported ,moderate' or ,high' PA were lower than for women with healthy BMI who reported no PA. Conclusions and Implications: Lower PA and higher BMI are both associated with higher health care costs, but costs are lower for overweight active women than for healthy-weight sedentary women. At the population level these data suggest that there would be significant cost savings if all sedentary mid-age women could achieve at least ,low' levels of PA (60-150 minutes a week). [source]