Overweight Patients (overweight + patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Effect of Metformin in Overweight Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Poor Metabolic Control

Iben Brock Jacobsen
Double-blinded intervention with 2000 mg metformin or placebo daily in 24 type 1 diabetic patients as adjunct to intensive insulin therapy. Primary endpoint was HbA1c, while secondary endpoints were body weight, frequency of hypoglycaemia, blood pressure, lipids, insulin dosage and self-monitored blood glucose profiles were measured. After 24 weeks, no difference in HbA1c was seen between the metformin and placebo groups (,0.5 ± 0.3 vs. ,0.2 ± 0.2%, P = 0.26. , mean ± S.E.M). Mean diurnal blood glucose profiles showed no statistical significant difference between the groups. The total daily insulin dose (IU) was significantly reduced in the metformin group compared to placebo after 24 weeks (,5.9 ± 2.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.7, P = 0.004. , mean ± S.E.M). An increase in the frequency of hypoglycaemia was seen in the metformin group (0.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 events patient,1 week,1, P = 0.005), and a reduction in body weight was found using metformin compared to placebo (,3.0 ± 1.0 vs. 0.8 ± 1.1, P = 0.02. , mean ± S.E.M). Lipids and blood pressure did not differ significantly after intervention. Metformin, as adjunct to intensive insulin therapy, was associated with a reduction in the total daily insulin dose and a significant weight loss in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. [source]

Weight gain in bipolar disorder: pharmacological treatment as a contributing factor

C. Torrent
Objective:, The aim of this paper was to review the association of most commonly used psychopharmacological drugs with weight gain in bipolar disorder. Method:, Information was retrieved from a PubMed/Medline literature search reviewing weight gain in pharmacological studies in bipolar disorder. Results:, Obesity and overweight in bipolar disorder are partly related to prescribed drugs with a strong effect of clozapine and olanzapine. Lesser but still relevant weight gain is caused by quetiapine, risperidone, lithium, valproate, gabapentin and by some antidepressants. Ziprasidone, aripiprazole, carbamazepine and lamotrigine do not seem to cause significant overweight. Conclusion:, Careful monitoring of weight changes in patients before and after drug prescription should be implemented in the clinical routine and drugs which potentially cause weight gain should be avoided in overweight patients with bipolar disorder. Furthermore, eating habits and daily activities should be targeted as they may also have a significant impact on overall health and weight-related issues. [source]

Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors

A. J. Scheen
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease combining defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. New compounds have been developed for improving glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose control, without inducing hypoglycaemia or weight gain. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are new oral glucose-lowering agents, so-called incretin enhancers, which may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic compounds. Sitagliptin, vildaglipin and saxagliptin are already on the market in many countries, either as single agents or in fixed-dose combined formulations with metformin. Other DPP-4 inhibitors, such as alogliptin and linagliptin, are currently in late phase of development. The present paper summarizes and compares the main pharmacokinetics (PK) properties, that is, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, of these five DPP-4 inhibitors. Available data were obtained in clinical trials performed in healthy young male subjects, patients with T2DM, and patients with either renal insufficiency or hepatic impairment. PK characteristics were generally similar in young healthy subjects and in middle-aged overweight patients with diabetes. All together gliptins have a good oral bioavailability which is not significantly influenced by food intake. PK/pharmacodynamics characteristics, that is, sufficiently prolonged half-life and sustained DPP-4 enzyme inactivation, generally allow one single oral administration per day for the management of T2DM; the only exception is vildagliptin for which a twice-daily administration is recommended because of a shorter half-life. DPP-4 inhibitors are in general not substrates for cytochrome P450 (except saxagliptin that is metabolized via CYP 3A4/A5) and do not act as inducers or inhibitors of this system. Several metabolites have been documented but most of them are inactive; however, the main metabolite of saxagliptin also exerts a significant DPP-4 inhibition and is half as potent as the parent compound. Renal excretion is the most important elimination pathway, except for linagliptin whose metabolism in the liver appears to be predominant. PK properties of gliptins, combined with their good safety profile, explain why no dose adjustment is necessary in elderly patients or in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. As far as patients with renal impairment are concerned, significant increases in drug exposure for sitagliptin and saxagliptin have been reported so that appropriate reductions in daily dosages are recommended according to estimated glomerular filtration rate. The PK characteristics of DPP-4 inhibitors suggest that these compounds are not exposed to a high risk of drug,drug interactions. However, the daily dose of saxagliptin should be reduced when coadministered with potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors. In conclusion, besides their pharmacodynamic properties leading to effective glucose-lowering effect without inducing hypoglycaemia or weight gain, DPP-4 inhibitors show favourable PK properties, which contribute to a good efficacy/safety ratio for the management of T2DM in clinical practice. [source]

Benefits of moderate weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes

Ken Fujioka
Weight loss is a primary goal of therapy in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. This review examines whether positive patient outcomes are observed even after relatively small amounts of weight loss, that is, weight loss being more easily attainable in practice. Clinical studies demonstrate that therapeutic benefit rises with increasing weight loss, but that losses as low as 0.45,4 kg (1,9 lb) have positive effects on metabolic control, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality rates. Even the intention to lose weight, without significant success, can improve outcomes in patients with diabetes, presumably because of the healthy behaviours associated with the attempt. The current data support a continued focus on weight loss, including moderate weight loss, as a key component of good care for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. [source]

Moxonidine improves glycaemic control in mildly hypertensive, overweight patients: a comparison with metformin

Irina Chazova
Aim:, To compare the effects of moxonidine and metformin on glycaemic control in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and signs of the metabolic syndrome. Methods:, A multicentre, prospective, randomized, open-label study design was adopted with blinded endpoint evaluation. Patients ,40 years old, with impaired glucose tolerance (or diabetes mellitus treated with diet alone) and a body mass index (BMI) of at least 27 kg/m2 were treated twice daily with moxonidine 0.2 mg or metformin 500 mg for 16 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at baseline and end-of-study; plasma insulin and plasma glucose levels were measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 min after administration. Results:, With regard to effects on insulin [mean area under the curve (AUC) for insulin], the primary efficacy endpoint of the study, both drugs did not show equivalence. On the contrary, in the per protocol (PP) population, moxonidine statistically significantly (p = 0.025) decreased the AUC for insulin from baseline in the PP population; for metformin, the treatment effect on insulin was a small, net increase resulting in a statistically significant between-group difference of 16.2% (95% CI = 0.1,35.0). The change in mean insulin AUC was most marked in the subgroup of patients with higher sympathetic activity (heart rate >80 bpm). Mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and HbA1c levels were largely unchanged by moxonidine treatment but significantly decreased by metformin treatment. The difference between the groups was 14.7% (p = 0.0523) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) sample. By study end, both treatments had significantly increased the Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) from baseline to a comparable extent: moxonidine by reducing plasma insulin after a glucose challenge, metformin by reducing FPG. BMI fell significantly in both groups and blood pressure normalized; both drugs were well tolerated. Conclusions:, Moxonidine improved insulin sensitivity in response to glucose challenge in patients with evidence of metabolic syndrome. This improvement resulted from a reduction in plasma insulin levels and was most marked in patients with high sympathetic drive at baseline. By enhancing insulin sensitivity, moxonidine treatment may help prevent the development of diabetes and thereby ameliorate the risk for cardiovascular disease. [source]

Behavioural management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a review

U Werneke
Objective: Although psychiatrists are aware of weight gain induced by atypical antipsychotics, only few studies on behavioural interventions in this patient group are published. This review aims to summarize the evidence on effectiveness of behavioural interventions for weight gain in the general population and in-patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Method: Medline and Cochrane databases search for evidence on effectiveness of behavioural interventions. Results: In general, behavioural approaches including, diet, exercise and drug treatments may be effective. There were only 13 studies of behavioural interventions for patients taking antipsychotic medication. No study met the criteria for a RCT. Calorie restriction in a controlled ward environment, structured counselling combined with cognitive behavioural therapy and counselling on life style and provision of rewards may potentially lead to weight loss. Conclusion: Currently only limited, methodologically flawed, evidence is available that behavioural interventions in overweight patients treated with antipsychotics, although intuitively appealing, actually work. [source]

Effectiveness and tolerability of the herbal mixture Asparagus P on blood pressure in overweight patients

C Droste

Telangiectatic adenoma: An entity associated with increased body mass index and inflammation,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Valérie Paradis
What were previously called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasias are in fact true adenomas with telangiectatic features (TAs) without overt characterized genetic abnormalities. The aim of our study was to review a surgical series of TAs in order to describe clinical, biological, and radiological findings of these lesions and to evaluate their outcomes. From January 1996 to November 2005, 284 patients with benign hepatocellular nodules underwent surgical resection at Beaujon Hospital. Among them, 32 TAs from 27 patients were diagnosed. Ninety-two percent of the patients were women. Mean age was 38 years (range 17,63). Mean body mass index was 28 (range 18,49), with 16 patients being overweight. Symptoms revealed lesions in 10 patients. In 13 patients, TA was associated with another benign liver lesion. Mean size of the TAs was 5 cm (range 1,17 cm). Histological analysis showed cellular atypias in 6 cases (19%), steatosis in 17 cases (53%), vascular changes in 19 cases (59%), and significant inflammatory infiltrate in 29 cases (91%). In 1 case, the TA had foci of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. In 18 of the 26 cases (69%), adjacent liver showed significant steatosis. Serum biomarkers of inflammation were increased in 90% of patients (19 of 22). After surgical resection, inflammatory marker levels returned to normal values in all patients tested. Conclusion: This study has shown that TAs occur in a characteristic background of overweight patients and are often associated with a biological inflammatory syndrome. Moreover, a TA may progress to malignancy. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;46:140,146.) [source]

A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss treatment for overweight individuals with binge eating disorder

Simone Munsch PhD
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT) for overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighty obese patients meeting criteria of BED according to DSM-IV-TR were randomly assigned to either CBT or BWLT consisting of 16 weekly treatments and 6 monthly follow-up sessions. Binge eating, general psychopathology, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed before, during, and after treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Results: At posttreatment results favored CBT as the more effective treatment. Analysis of the course of treatments pointed to a faster improvement of binge eating in CBT based on the number of self-reported weekly binges, but faster reduction of BMI in BWLT. At 12-month follow-up, no substantial differences between the two treatment conditions existed. Conclusion: CBT was somewhat more efficacious than BWLT in treating binge eating but this superior effect was barely maintained in the long term. Further research into cost effectiveness is needed to assess which treatment should be considered the treatment of choice. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

The efficacy of dietetic intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

L. Bottle
Background:, Clinical trials have shown that pulmonary rehabilitation can improve the functional status and quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (Lacasse, 2006) but there is no research examining the efficacy of group dietetic intervention during standard 8 week rehabilitation courses. Current input is usually limited to a 1 h nutrition education session. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether patients receiving additional dietetic intervention during pulmonary rehabilitation significantly increased their general nutritional knowledge, thereby facilitating improvements in dietary intake and nutritional status. Methods:, Patients were recruited from two courses of pulmonary rehabilitation and randomly allocated to a control group or an intervention group. Anthropometry (height, weight, body mass index, mid arm circumference and triceps skinfold), 3 day food diaries and nutritional knowledge questionnaires covered guidelines, food groups, choosing healthy options and diet and COPD were completed at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks. In week 2 both groups received the same nutrition education session which covered healthy eating during periods of stability as well as advice on coping with loss of appetite and reduced intake during illness and exacerbations. The intervention group was followed up during weeks 4, 6 and 7 when further anthropometric measurements were taken and additional dietary advice was provided, which addressed issues raised by individual patients. Information from food diaries was converted to nutrients using Windiets dietary analysis software. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS (v14) and included Mann,Whitney U non parametric tests, paired t -tests and Spearman correlations used for comparisons over time and between groups. For analysis purposes patients were classified as normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW). Approval was obtained from the appropriate Ethics Committee. Results:, Changes reported were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Complete data sets were obtained for six control (NW = 2, OW = 4) and five intervention (NW = 1, OW = 4) patients. Nutritional knowledge increased in the control group by 5% compared to 3% in the intervention group. Control NW patients increased their energy intake resulting in a mean weight gain of 0.5 kg (SD 3.3). OW control group patients increased their energy intake by 12.4% (16.9) with a mean weight gain of 0.2 kg (2.5). All control patients increased their intake of in total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), sugars and sodium. Conversely there was a decrease in energy intake in the intervention group of 14.4% (17.8) and a mean weight loss of 1.5 kg (1.2) (three out of four overweight patients lost weight). Improvements in diet were shown with reduced intakes of total fat, SFA, sugars and sodium. The NW patient in the intervention group regained weight that had previously been lost. These changes did not correlate with changes in nutritional knowledge. Discussion:, An increase in nutritional knowledge was expected to facilitate appropriate changes in dietary intake and nutritional status. Despite the lack of correlation between dietary knowledge and intake, beneficial outcomes were none-the-less observed in the intervention group. The trend for weight gain in OW control group patients, and weight loss in OW intervention group patients contrasted with results seen by Slinde et al. (2002) where the control OW patients lost weight, and OW intervention patients gained weight. It is possible that in the current study, patients in the intervention group were motivated to lose weight with repeated exposure to the dietitian, rather than an increase in nutritional knowledge. Significant anthropometrical changes were unlikely to be observed in 8 weeks, and further follow up may be necessary to establish sufficient evidence for the most efficacious level of dietetic intervention. The small sample sizes, especially with regard to weight sub groups, limits the conclusions which can be drawn. Further research is recommended, using a larger sample size, in order to make recommendations for dietetic best practice. Conclusion:, The results of this study did not show statistical significance and the association between nutritional knowledge and improved nutritional outcomes remains unclear. However, the findings may have clinical significance since they appear to show that additional dietetic intervention may benefit the nutritional status of patients with COPD attending pulmonary rehabilitation. References, Lacasse, Y., Goldstein, R., et al. (2006) Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4, CD003793. Slinde, F., Gronberg, A.M., et al. (2002) Individual dietary intervention in patients with COPD during multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Respir. Med. 96, 330,336. [source]

Comparison of perioperative spirometric data following spinal or general anaesthesia in normal-weight and overweight gynaecological patients

B. S. Von Ungern-Sternberg
Background:, There is limited data comparing the impact of spinal anaesthesia (SA) and general anaesthesia (GA) on perioperative lung function. Here we assessed the differences of these two anaesthetic techniques on perioperative lung volumes in normal-weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (BMI 25,30) patients using spirometry. Methods:, We prospectively studied 84 consenting patients having operations in the vaginal region receiving either GA (n = 41) or SA (n = 43). Both groups (GA and SA) were further divided into two subgroups each (normal-weight vs. overweight). We measured vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), midexpiratory (MEF25-75) and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) at the preoperative assessment (baseline), after premedication, after effective SA, and 20 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after the operation (last measurement after patient mobilization). Results:, Premedication was associated with a small but significant decrease in lung volumes in direct correlation with BMI (,5%). Spinal anaesthesia resulted in a significant reduction in lung volumes in overweight as opposed to normal-weight patients. Postoperatively, lung volumes were significantly more reduced following GA than SA as indicated by differences in mean VC (SD) of ,12 (6)% vs. ,6 (5)% 20 min after the end of the operation in the normal-weight and ,18 (5)% vs. ,10 (5)% in the overweight patients. There was a significant impact of BMI on postoperative respiratory function, which was significantly more important in the GA group than in the SA group, and recovery of lung volumes was more rapid in the normal-weight patients than in the overweight patients, particularly in the SA group. Conclusion:, In gynaecological patients undergoing vaginal surgery, the impact of anaesthesia on postoperative lung function as assessed by spirometry was significantly less after SA than GA, particularly in overweight patients. [source]

Evaluation of a training to improve management of pediatric overweight

Josephine Hinchman MPH Research Associate
Abstract Introduction: Despite widespread concern about pediatric obesity, health care professionals report low proficiency for identifying and treating this condition. This paper reports on the evaluation of pediatric overweight assessment and management training for clinicians and staff in a managed care system. The training was evaluated for its impact on assessment practices and utilization of management tools. Methods: A delayed-control design was utilized to measure the effects of two 60-minute interactive Continuing Medical education (CME) trainings for the pediatric health care teams. Chart abstraction was conducted at 0-, 3- and 6-months after training, recording the proportion of charts containing the recommended assessment methods and management tools. Results: The training was associated with a significant increase in the utilization of some tools and practices, including charting BMI-for-age percentile (p<0.001) and using a nutrition and activity self-history form (p<0.001). Overall, from baseline to 3-months post training, charting BMI-for-age percentiles increased from zero to 25.2% and utilization of the self-history form increased from zero to 35.3%. These increases were sustained at 6-months post training. Other tools guiding clinician counseling were less widely utilized, although a behavioral prescription pad was used with 20% of overweight patients. Discussion: A modest investment in clinician and staff training designed to be feasible in a clinical setting was associated with substantial increases in the use of appropriate tools and practices for the assessment and management of pediatric overweight. Such training may help to augment and improve the processes of pediatric health care delivery for addressing overweight. The training provides a viable model for future CME efforts in other health care settings. [source]

Effect of intra-operative pressure support vs pressure controlled ventilation on oxygenation and lung function in moderately obese adults*

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2 2010
M. Zoremba
Summary Obesity impairs peri-operative lung function. To evaluate the impact of pressure support ventilation vs pressure controlled ventilation in moderately obese adults upon early postoperative lung function, we randomly assigned 68 moderately obese patients (body mass index 25,35 kg.m,2) undergoing minor surgery to receive intra-operative ventilation either with pressure support or pressure controlled ventilation. We performed intra-operative blood gas analysis and measured pulse oximetry saturation, spirometry values at pre-operative assessment (baseline) and at 10 min, 30 min, 2 h and 24 h after extubation. The intra-operative oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the pressure support ventilation group was significantly improved over time (p < 0.0001). Postoperatively, the pressure support ventilation group also had better lung function and oxygenation values than did the pressure controlled ventilation group (p < 0.005). We conclude that pressure support ventilation better maintains lung function than pressure controlled ventilation in moderately overweight patients scheduled for minor surgery. [source]

Weight Prejudice and Medical Policy: Support for an Ambiguously Discriminatory Policy Is Influenced by Prejudice-Colored Glasses

Paula M. Brochu
This study examined the influence of affectively-based weight prejudice versus weight control beliefs on perceptions of and support for an ambiguously discriminatory medical policy: denying surgery to overweight patients. Participants read a news article describing a new policy in the United Kingdom of denying surgery to overweight patients, and reported their reactions to the policy. Results revealed that participants who scored higher on an affectively-based measure of weight prejudice that was completed 3,4 weeks before the main session were less likely to perceive the medical policy as discriminatory, more likely to agree with the policy and to support adoption of a similar policy in their own country, and recommended lower body mass index (BMI) cutoff values for denying surgery to overweight patients, whereas weight control beliefs had less of a role to play. In addition, perceptions of the policy as (non)discriminatory mediated the effects of weight prejudice on policy agreement, support, and recommended BMI cutoff. These results indicate that affective prejudice influences individuals' support for an ambiguously discriminatory medical policy, which has important implications for policy makers and researchers. [source]