Overweight Men (overweight + man)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Weight Loss Intervention on Erectile Function in Older Men with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD Trial

Rena R. Wing PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Overweight men with diabetes often report erectile dysfunction (ED), but few studies have examined effects of weight loss on this problem. Aim., This study examined 1-year changes in erectile function (EF) in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes participating in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Methods., Participants in Look AHEAD were randomly assigned to a control condition involving diabetes support and education (DSE) or to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) involving group and individual sessions to reduce weight and increase physical activity. Men from five of the clinical sites in Look AHEAD completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) at baseline (N = 372) and at 1 year (N = 306) (82%). Main Outcome Measures., Changes in EF as reported on the EF subscale of the IIEF. Results., At 1 year, the ILI group lost a greater percent of initial body weight (9.9% vs. 0.6 %) and had greater improvements in fitness (22.7% vs. 4.6%) than DSE. EF improved more in ILI (17.3 ± 7.6 at baseline; 18.6 ± 8.1 at 1 year) than in DSE (18.3 ± 7.6 at baseline; 18.4 ± 8.0 at 1 year); P = 0.04 and P = 0.06 after adjusting for baseline differences. Using established norms for none (i.e., normal EF), and three grades (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe) ED, 8% of men in ILI reported a worsening of EF from baseline to 1 year, 70% stayed in the same category, and 22% reported improvements. In contrast, 20% of DSE reported worsening, 57% stayed in the same category, and 23% improved (P = 0.006). Conclusion., In this sample of older overweight/obese diabetic men, weight loss intervention was mildly helpful in maintaining EF. Wing RR, Rosen RC, Fava JL, Bahnson J, Brancati F, Gendrano INC, Kitabchi A, Schneider SH, and Wadden TA. Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the look AHEAD trial. J Sex Med 2010;7:156,165. [source]

Effect of raisin consumption on oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity

J. W. Rankin
Aim:, Oxidative stress can initiate increased inflammation that elevates risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of daily consumption of raisins on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial activation in response to an acute high-fat meal in overweight individuals. Methods:, Seventeen overweight men and women consumed 90 g raisins or isocaloric placebo (264 kcal/day) for 14 days in a randomized, crossover design while following a low-flavonoid diet. The oxidative [urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2, (8-epi PGF2,) and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)], inflammatory (serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), endothelial (serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1) and metabolic [free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin] response to four high-fat (53%) meals was tested pre- and postintervention. Results:, Urinary 8-epi PGF2, decreased (,22%) and fasting ORAC increased (+3%) after both interventions combined. Fasting protein-free ORAC was modestly (+3.5%) higher during the raisin than the placebo intervention. Neither the meals nor the raisins consistently induced fasted markers of inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Gender influenced postprandial metabolic responses in that males responded with higher serum FFAs, sVCAM-1 and glucose compared with females. Conclusions:, Serum antioxidant capacity was modestly increased by daily raisin consumption, but this did not alter fasted or postprandial inflammatory response in these relatively healthy but overweight individuals. Providing all food in regular pattern reduced measures of oxidative stress. [source]

Changes in serum leptin concentrations in overweight Japanese men after exercise

N. Miyatake
Aim:, To investigate the link between serum leptin concentrations and exercise. Design:, Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of an exercise intervention. Subjects:, 110 Japanese overweight men aged 32,59 years were recruited. At baseline, the average body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 2.5 kg/m2. From this group, we used data of 36 overweight men (BMI, 28.9 ± 2.3) for a 1-year exercise programme. Measurements:, Leptin was measured at baseline and after 1 year. Fat distribution was evaluated by visceral fat (V) and subcutaneous fat (S) areas measured with computed tomography (CT) scanning at umbilical levels. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic exercise level, muscle strength and flexibility were also investigated at baseline and after 1 year. Results:, In the first analysis, using cross-sectional data, leptin was significantly correlated with total body fat (r = 0.760, p < 0.01), V (r = 0.383, p < 0.01) and S (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) areas. In the second analysis, using longitudinal data, leptin was significantly reduced after 1 year (pre 6.7 ± 4.0 ng/ml vs. post 5.1 ± 3.1 ng/ml, p < 0.01). Results showed that steps per day were increased, and aerobic exercise level, weight-bearing index (WBI) and insulin resistance were significantly improved. Although, there was a positive correlation between , leptin(positive changes in leptin after 1 year) and anthropometric measurements such as , body weight, , BMI and , body fat, leptin/body weight, leptin/BMI and leptin/body fat ratios were significantly reduced during exercise intervention. Conclusion:, The present study indicated exercise significantly lowers serum leptin concentrations, and thus it may improve the leptin resistance observed in overweight Japanese men. [source]

The enigma of increased non-cancer mortality after weight loss in healthy men who are overweight or obese

Abstract.,Nilsson PM, Nilsson J-A, Hedblad B, Berglund G, Lindgärde F. (University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden). The enigma of increased non-cancer mortality after weight loss in healthy men who are overweight or obese. J Intern Med 2002; 252: 70,78. Objective.,To study effects on non-cancer mortality of observational weight loss in middle-aged men stratified for body mass index (BMI), taking a wide range of possible confounders into account. Design.,Prospective, population based study. Setting.,Male population of Malmö, Sweden. Participants.,In all 5722 men were screened twice with a mean time interval of 6 years in Malmö, southern Sweden. They were classified according to BMI category at baseline (<21, 22,25, overweight: 26,30, and obesity: 30+ kg m,2) and weight change category until second screening (weight stable men defined as having a baseline BMI ± 0.1 kg m,2 year,1 at follow-up re-screening). Main outcome measures.,Non-cancer mortality calculated from national registers during 16 years of follow-up after the second screening. Data from the first year of follow-up were excluded to avoid bias by mortality caused by subclinical disease at re-screening. Results.,The relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for non-cancer mortality during follow-up was higher in men with decreasing BMI in all subgroups: RR 2.64 (1.46,4.71, baseline BMI <21 kg m,2), 1.39 (0.98,1.95, baseline BMI 22,25 kg m,2), and 1.71 (1.18,2.47, baseline BMI 26+ kg m,2), using BMI-stable men as reference group. Correspondingly, the non-cancer mortality was also higher in men with increasing BMI, but only in the obese group (baseline BMI 26+ kg m,2) with RR 1.86 (1.31,2.65). In a subanalysis, nonsmoking obese (30+ kg m,2) men with decreased BMI had an increased non-cancer mortality compared with BMI-stable obese men (Fischer's test: P=0.001). The mortality risk for nonsmoking overweight men who increased their BMI compared with BMI-stable men was also significant (P=0.006), but not in corresponding obese men (P=0.094). Conclusions.,Weight loss in self-reported healthy but overweight middle-aged men, without serious disease, is associated with an increased non-cancer mortality, which seems even more pronounced in obese, nonsmoking men, as compared with corresponding but weight-stable men. The explanation for these observational findings is still enigmatic but could hypothetically be because of premature ageing effects causing so-called weight loss of involution. [source]

Role of protein and carbohydrate sources on acute appetite responses in lean and overweight men

Abstract Dietary protein induces greater satiety compared with carbohydrate in lean subjects, which may involve appetite-regulatory gut hormones. Little is known about the duration of effect, influence of protein and carbohydrate source and relevance to non-lean individuals. We compared the effect of various dietary proteins and carbohydrates on post-prandial appetite ratings, ad libitum energy intake (EI) and appetite hormones in lean and overweight men. Three randomised double-blinded cross-over studies examined appetite response (appetite ratings, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin) to liquid preloads over three to four hours followed by a buffet meal to assess ad libitum EI. The 1-MJ preloads contained ,55 g of protein (whey, casein, soy and gluten), carbohydrate (glucose, lactose and fructose) or combined whey/fructose. EI was 10% higher following glucose preloads compared with protein preloads, observed at three hours but not four hours. Protein ingestion was followed by prolonged elevation of cholecystokinin and GLP-1 (two hours) and suppression of ghrelin (three to four hours) compared with glucose and independent of protein type. Replacing some whey with fructose attenuated the effect of protein on these hormones. Treatment effects on EI and appetite hormones were independent of bodyweight status, despite higher GLP-1 and lower ghrelin in overweight subjects. Protein-rich liquid preloads reduce EI over three hours in overweight men compared with glucose. These findings suggest a potential application for protein-rich drinks and/or foods to facilitate reduced EI. Future studies should explore additional dietary manipulations that may enhance this relationship, and confirm these effects within the context of energy-restricted dietary patterns. [source]

Influence of overweight and obesity on physician costs in adolescents and adults in Ontario, Canada

I. Janssen
Summary The study purpose was to perform an obesity cost-of-illness analysis for individuals living in the province of Ontario, Canada. The participants consisted of a representative sample of 25 038 adults and 2440 adolescents (aged 12,17 years) who participated in the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS data set includes measures of body mass index (BMI) (classified as normal weight, overweight or obese) and relevant covariates (age, income, smoking, alcohol, physical activity). The CCHS data set was linked to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan providers' database to obtain physician costs for 2002,2003. A two-part modelling approach was used to calculate and compare the average annual physician cost according to BMI. After adjusting for the covariates, physician costs were not significantly higher in overweight men and women compared with those with a normal weight. Physician costs were 14.7% higher in obese men and 18.2% higher in obese women than in men and women with a normal weight. Average physician costs were comparable in normal-weight and overweight/obese adolescents ($233 per year in both groups). Because Ontario operates a publicly funded healthcare system, the findings of this study have relevance for other provinces/states and countries that operate similar healthcare systems. [source]

Obesity and screening PSA levels among men undergoing an annual physical exam

THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2008
Andrew Rundle
Abstract BACKGROUND Prior reports suggest that obesity is inversely associated with screening prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and may reduce screening sensitivity. METHODS We evaluated data on 10,623 men screened for prostate cancer during an annual physical examination program administered by EHE International, Inc., between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2006. Of these, 3,623 men returned for additional physical exams during this period. We used multivariate linear regression analyses to determine whether higher BMI was inversely associated with PSA, and whether BMI, or change in BMI, was associated with change in PSA levels over time. We also developed a theoretical model for the effect of obesity on PSA levels in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels. RESULTS After control for age and race/ethnicity, higher BMI was associated with lower PSA levels; men with a BMI ,40 had a geometric mean PSA level 0.14 ng/ml lower than men with a BMI <25 (P,<,0.001). Prospectively, BMI at initial screening and change in BMI over 2 years were not associated with change in PSA or PSA velocity. Our theoretical model accurately predicted observed PSA levels and suggests that a screening PSA of 4.0 ng/ml in normal weight and overweight men corresponds to 3.5 ng/ml in obese men and 3.1 ng/ml in morbidly obese men. CONCLUSION Across the study population, increased BMI was significantly inversely associated with lower PSA. Based on a theoretical model in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels we propose new cut-points for a positive screening test. Prostate 68: 373,380, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with weight loss after short-term diet

J Aberle
Apolipoprotein A5 is a recently discovered apolipoprotein involved primarily in triglyceride metabolism. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been investigated since the initial report. The ,1131T > C polymorphism has been associated with higher triglyceride levels and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as with susceptibility to coronary heart disease. However, no study has so far emphasized on the association of a dietary intervention with apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms. In a group of 606 hyperlipaemic and overweight men, we investigated how a short-term fat restriction affects lipid traits and body mass index (BMI) in wildtype and carriers of the ,1131T > C polymorphism. Our result was that the reduction of BMI was significantly higher in C allele carriers (p = 0.0021). Since the ,1131T > C polymorphism predisposes to coronary heart disease, a restriction diet is an important therapeutic approach in ,1131T > C carriers. [source]