Overweight Individuals (overweight + individual)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Shedding the Pounds but not the Stigma: Negative Attributions as a Function of a Target's Method of Weight Loss

Brent A. Mattingly
Overweight individuals are perceived as possessing several negative attributes, which often leads them to attempt to lose weight. The current research examined if method of weight loss influences participants' attributions and perceptions of a formerly overweight target individual. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: weight loss via diet/exercise, weight loss via surgery, or control (no description of weight loss). Results indicated that, in general, the surgery targets were perceived more negatively than the diet/exercise targets. Moreover, diet/exercise targets were perceived as being less healthy, and, for female participants, more responsible for their weight than control targets. These data suggest that individuals who lose weight are still prone to the negative attributions associated with the overweight. [source]

Effect of raisin consumption on oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity

J. W. Rankin
Aim:, Oxidative stress can initiate increased inflammation that elevates risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of daily consumption of raisins on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial activation in response to an acute high-fat meal in overweight individuals. Methods:, Seventeen overweight men and women consumed 90 g raisins or isocaloric placebo (264 kcal/day) for 14 days in a randomized, crossover design while following a low-flavonoid diet. The oxidative [urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2, (8-epi PGF2,) and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)], inflammatory (serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), endothelial (serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1) and metabolic [free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin] response to four high-fat (53%) meals was tested pre- and postintervention. Results:, Urinary 8-epi PGF2, decreased (,22%) and fasting ORAC increased (+3%) after both interventions combined. Fasting protein-free ORAC was modestly (+3.5%) higher during the raisin than the placebo intervention. Neither the meals nor the raisins consistently induced fasted markers of inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Gender influenced postprandial metabolic responses in that males responded with higher serum FFAs, sVCAM-1 and glucose compared with females. Conclusions:, Serum antioxidant capacity was modestly increased by daily raisin consumption, but this did not alter fasted or postprandial inflammatory response in these relatively healthy but overweight individuals. Providing all food in regular pattern reduced measures of oxidative stress. [source]

Feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for binge-eating disorder

Jennifer R. Shapiro
Abstract We compared preliminary feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-delivered CBT for overweight individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED) to 10 weekly group CBT sessions (Group) and to a waiting list control (WL). Attrition was numerically greater in the Group than the CD-ROM condition; although only Group differed significantly from WL in dropout rates. Those in the CD-ROM condition reported continued use of their CD-ROM after treatment. Also, the majority of WL participants elected to receive CD-ROM over Group treatment at the end of the waiting period. Preliminarily, no significant differences emerged across the active treatment groups on most outcome measures. However, there was a significantly greater decline in binge days in the two active groups relative to WL. CD-ROM appears to be an acceptable and at least initially preferred method of CBT delivery for overweight individuals with BED. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Overweight and obesity and incidence of leukemia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

Susanna C. Larsson
Abstract We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from cohort studies on the association between excess body weight and incidence of leukemia. Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966,July 2007) and by examining the references of retrieved articles. A random-effects model was used to combine the results from individual studies. We identified 9 cohort studies with data on body mass index (BMI) or obesity in relation to incidence of leukemia. Compared with nonoverweight individuals (BMI < 25 kg/m2), the summary relative risks (RRs) of leukemia were 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03,1.25] for overweight individuals (BMI 25,30 kg/m2) and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.25,1.54) for obese (BMI , 30 kg/m2) individuals. On a continuous scale, a 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with a 13% increased risk of leukemia (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07,1.19). In a meta-analysis of 4 studies reporting results on subtypes of leukemia, the summary RRs associated with obesity were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11,1.41) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16,2.35) for acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19,1.95) for acute myeloid leukemia and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09,1.46) for chronic myeloid leukemia. This meta-analysis indicates that excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing leukemia. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Obesity and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A meta-analysis

Susanna C. Larsson
Abstract Obesity is associated with altered immune and inflammatory responses and it may therefore influence the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, epidemiologic findings on obesity in relation to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the epidemiologic evidence on the association between excess body weight and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966 to February 2007) and the reference lists of retrieved publications. We included cohort and case,control studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of body mass index (BMI) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence or mortality. A random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. Sixteen studies (10 cohorts and 6 case,control studies), with 21,720 cases, met the inclusion criteria. Compared to individuals of normal weight (BMI < 25.0 kg/m2), the summary RRs of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01,1.14) for overweight individuals (BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.07,1.34) for those who were obese (BMI ,,,, 30.0 kg/m2). Meta-analysis stratified by histologic subtypes showed that obesity was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18,1.66; n = 6 studies) but not of follicular lymphoma (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82,1.47; n = 6 studies) or small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.76,1.20; n = 3 studies). These findings indicate that excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation: A function of binge eating behavior

Marney A. White PhD
Abstract Objective This study investigated patterns of self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation among overweight individuals with and without binge eating. Method Participants were 103 overweight (BMI , 25) community volunteers who completed a battery of questionnaires online. Key items queried smoking cessation history and weight gain in the year following cessation. Participants were classified as nonbinge eating overweight (NBO, n = 56) or binge eating disorder (BED, n = 47). Results BED participants were significantly more likely to report weight gain in the year following smoking cessation than NBO participants. After controlling for current BMI, the amount of self-reported weight gain following smoking cessation differed significantly between groups, with the NBO group reporting an average gain of 5.0 kg and the BED group reporting 11.2-kg gain. Discussion Since many individuals resume smoking due to cessation-associated weight gain, these findings highlight the need for targeted interventions for overweight individuals particularly those who also binge eat. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010; 43:572,575 [source]

A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss treatment for overweight individuals with binge eating disorder

Simone Munsch PhD
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT) for overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighty obese patients meeting criteria of BED according to DSM-IV-TR were randomly assigned to either CBT or BWLT consisting of 16 weekly treatments and 6 monthly follow-up sessions. Binge eating, general psychopathology, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed before, during, and after treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Results: At posttreatment results favored CBT as the more effective treatment. Analysis of the course of treatments pointed to a faster improvement of binge eating in CBT based on the number of self-reported weekly binges, but faster reduction of BMI in BWLT. At 12-month follow-up, no substantial differences between the two treatment conditions existed. Conclusion: CBT was somewhat more efficacious than BWLT in treating binge eating but this superior effect was barely maintained in the long term. Further research into cost effectiveness is needed to assess which treatment should be considered the treatment of choice. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

Systematic review: the association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma , epidemiological evidence

Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 1051,1063 Summary Background, Evidence increasingly implicates obesity as an independent risk factor for different cancers. We examined such evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim, To review the effect of increased levels of body mass index on hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Methods, We reviewed systematically the literature examining the association between increased body mass index and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. For each identified study, relevant data were extracted and appraised. Results, Ten cohort studies (>90 million person-years), one nested case-control study (244 cases) and two case-control studies (494 cases) were identified. Of the cohort studies, 75% of person-years related to North Americans, 15% to East Asians, and 10% to Europeans. Three cohort studies adjusted for alcohol consumption, only one cohort study adjusted for hepatitis infection status. Seven cohort studies found a positive association between obesity (body mass index ,30 kg/m2) and hepatocellular carcinoma risk (relative risks ranging from 1.4 to 4.1); two reported no association; and one reported a significant inverse association for a population subgroup (relative risk = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5,0.9). Conclusion, Although most studies did not adjust for confounders and most data relate to a single world region, the overall evidence is suggestive of an increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in obese and overweight individuals. [source]

High insulin levels are positively associated with peripheral nervous system function

H. Isojärvi
Objective,,, The aim of this study was to analyze peripheral nervous system (PNS) function in overweight and obese individuals. Materials and Methods,,, Forty-four adult non-diabetic overweight individuals were recruited. Peroneal motor nerve conduction and radial, sural, and medial plantar sensory nerve conduction were studied. Insulin and glucose levels were determined twice (over a 2- to 3-year period) with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Multiple stepwise linear regression models adjusted for age, height, weight, and skin temperature were used to analyze the data. Results,,, Analysis revealed that baseline insulin levels measured 120 min after an OGTT explained 18% of the variation in peroneal F -wave minimum latency, 8% of peroneal F -wave maximum latency variation, 15% of sural sensory latency variation, 13% of sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) variation, and 10% of the variation in medial plantar sensory NCV. Discussion and Conclusion,,, Our study shows that serum insulin levels measured 120 min after an OGGT are positively associated with PNS function. High insulin levels without notably high glucose levels appear to be beneficial for the function of the PNS. [source]