Overweight Children (overweight + child)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of a Pilot Hospital-Based Community Program Implementing Fitness and Nutrition Education for Overweight Children

Karen Gabel Speroni PhD
PURPOSE.,Evaluate the effect of the Kids Living FitÔ hospital-based intervention on body mass index (BMI) percentile, adjusted for age (months) and gender in children ages 8,12 years with BMI percentiles , 85. DESIGN AND METHODS.,Twelve weekly exercise sessions and three nutrition presentations were held. Nurses recorded BMI and waist circumference at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Participants completed food and activity diaries. RESULTS.,Of the 32 participants enrolled, 16 completed all outcome measures and experienced a decrease in average BMI, BMI percentile, and waist circumference between baseline and weeks 12 and 24. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,Hospitals can offer exercise and nutrition programs to decrease childhood obesity in their communities. [source]

Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

ALLERGY, Issue 11 2009
S. Vahlkvist
Background:, Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim:, To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods:, Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. The level of asthma control was assessed by measurements of a variety of asthma outcomes. Results:, Children with asthma were less fit (35.1 vs 39.3 ml O2/min/kg) (P < 0.001), had a higher body per cent fat (22.8 vs 19.5%) (P < 0.01) and a higher frequency of overweight (24.6 vs 14.2%) (P < 0.05) than healthy controls. Per cent body fat correlated negativly to overall daily activity (P < 0.001) and to time spent in high or vigorous activity (P < 0.001). Fitness corrrelated positively to time spent in high and vigorous activity (P < 0.001). Within the asthma group, the level of asthma control, fitness and the time spent in vigorous activity correlated positively (P < 0.02). Conclusion:, Children with untreated asthma are less fit and have a higher body per cent fat and frequency of obesity than their healthy peers. Uncontrolled asthma is associated with a reduced fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children. [source]

Physical activity levels and estimated energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children

M Soric
Abstract Aim:, To objectively evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children. Methods:, The final sample consisted of 91 children (32 overweight and 59 normal-weight children), mean age (SD) = 11.3 (0.2) years. Energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed during two weekdays and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor (SenseWear Armband; BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Results:, Time spent in physical activity was higher in normal-weight compared with overweight children (p = 0.002). The highest level of physical activity was noted in normal-weight boys [mean (SD) = 258 (114) min/day] and the lowest in overweight girls [mean (SD) = 136 (59) min/day] (p = 0.002). In contrast, energy expended during physical activity did not differ between normal-weight and overweight children (2.6 and 2.7 MJ/day, respectively, p = 0.89). The average decrease in physical activity at weekends was 39 min in overweight children (from 166 to 127 min/day) and 27 min in their normal-weight counterparts (from 230 to 203 min/day). Conclusion:, Overweight children engaged in less physical activity of both moderate and vigorous intensity compared with their normal-weight peers. Both overweight and normal-weight children were less active at weekends than on weekdays. Initiatives aiming to increase physical activity of overweight children at weekends are warranted. [source]

Ex vivo TCR-induced leukocyte gene expression of inflammatory mediators is increased in type 1 diabetic patients but not in overweight children

Jaime S. Rosa
Abstract Background Abnormal systemic concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines have been implicated in the development of long-term cardiovascular complications in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and obesity. Whether leukocyte white blood cell (WBC) gene expression of these proinflammatory mediators contributes to their increased systemic levels, however, remains unclear, especially in the pediatric patient populations. This study examines mRNA changes of 9 cytokines and chemokines in WBCs following ex vivo immunostimulation from 9 T1DM (13.4 ± 0.5 year, 4F/5 M), 23 overweight (OW, 12.3 ± 0.5 year, 10F/13M, BMI% 97.1 ± 0.5 and > 90.0), and 21 healthy (CL, 13.8 ± 0.7 year, 9F/12 M, BMI% 59.6 ± 4.6 and < 85.0) children. Methods All subjects had been maintained in euglycemic conditions for at least 90 min before blood draws. Whole blood was then sampled and incubated with anti-T-cell receptor (TCR) antibody or heat-aggregated IgG (HAG) to stimulate T-cell and Fc receptors (FcR), respectively. After lysis of leukocytes, mRNA levels of six tumor necrosis factor superfamily cytokines (TNFSF2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14) and three chemokines (CCL8, 20, and CXCL10) were measured using RT-PCR. Results Following TCR stimulation, T1DM displayed significantly greater mRNA responses than CL for TNFSF5, 7, 9, and CCL8, and CXCL10; TNFSF9, CCL8, and CXCL10 were also significantly higher in T1DM than OW; no difference was observed between OW and CL. FcR stimulation induced similar responses across groups. Conclusions Leukocytes of T1DM children displayed exaggerated gene expression in response to ex vivo TCR induction of five key proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. This elevated leukocyte gene expression may be one of the pathophysiological contributors to the development of vascular complications in T1DM. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Maternal employment and overweight children: does timing matter?

Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder
Abstract Recent literature has shown consistent evidence of a positive relationship between maternal employment and children's overweight status. These studies largely use average weekly work hours over the child's life to measure employment. This paper specifically aims at exploring the importance of the timing of employment. Using various econometric techniques to control for observable and unobservable child and family characteristics, the results show that full-time maternal employment during mid-childhood positively affects the probability of being overweight at age 16. There is no evidence that part-time or full-time employment at earlier/later ages affects this probability. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Family-Based Weight Management With Latino Mothers and Children

Kathy Shadle James
PURPOSE.,This paper aims to design a culturally appropriate weight management intervention for high-risk Latino families and to examine the feasibility of recruiting program participants. DESIGN AND METHODS.,A descriptive design using qualitative and quantitative data collected during preliminary phases of an ongoing intervention study. RESULTS.,From the preliminary works, a curriculum was revised for Latino families who have overweight children. The curriculum was modified to include suggestions from the focus groups, including helping mothers set limits with their children and make the transition to lighter foods and a more active family life. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,The information will aid professionals in the process of program design for Latino families who have weight concerns. [source]

Overweight in medical paediatric inpatients: Detection and parent expectations

Karen McLean
Aims: (i) To determine prevalence and rates of detection of overweight/obesity among general paediatric inpatients. (ii) To explore parental expectations regarding detection and management of overweight/obesity during admission. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. A total of 102 children aged 2,12 years admitted to a general paediatric unit at the Royal Children's Hospital and their parents participated in the survey. The main outcome measures are body mass index (BMI); documentation of weight, height and BMI in patient notes; parent description of child's weight, parent concern about child's weight, and parent opinion about detection and management of overweight. Results: Twelve of 102 children (11.7%, 95% confidence intervals 6.2%, 19.7%) were overweight or obese. All children had a documented weight, two children (2.0%) had a documented height and none had BMI documented. Seven of 12 parents of overweight children described their child's weight as healthy; five of 12 parents of overweight children were not concerned about their child's weight. Eight of 12 parents of overweight children believed all admitted children should have their BMI calculated. All parents thought the hospital should take action if a child was found to be overweight. Conclusions: Although prevalence of overweight was lower than expected, documentation of overweight did not occur for any patient in the study. Parents of overweight children with acute illnesses believed that the hospital should screen for overweight and discuss it with parents. Further studies are required to determine expectations among other patient populations. [source]

Parents of Elementary School Students Weigh in on Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Screening at School

Martha Y. Kubik
However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The ,2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(10):496-501) [source]

Preventing Pediatric Obesity: Assessment and Management in the Primary Care Setting

FAANP, Lorna Schumann PhD
Purpose To review the literature on and discuss the role of the primary care provider in assessing and managing overweight children before they become obese. Data Sources Selected research, national guidelines and recommendations, and the professional experience of the authors. Conclusions The focus of primary care involves early detectionand family interventions that are designed for lifestyle modifications, specifically for improved nutrition and an increase in regular physical activity, to achieve optimal child health. Early identification and management of children who exceed a healthy weight for height, gender, and age will prevent the increasing incidence of pediatric obesity. Early prevention and management of pediatric overweight and obesity will also decrease the potential for associated medical and psychosocial problems. Implications For Practice Pediatric obesity has risen dramatically in the United States during the last two decades; it is a significant child health problem that is preventable and largely under-diagnosed and under-treated. It is essential to discuss prevention of obesity with parents at every well-child visit; treatment should be initiated when patterns of weight gain exceed established percentiles for increasing height for age and gender. [source]

Childhood body mass index gain during the summer versus during the school year

Douglas B. Downey
The nationwide increase in obesity affects all population sectors, but the impact on children is of special concern because overweight children are prone to becoming overweight adults. Contrary to the opinion of experts, research suggests that schools may be more part of the solution than the problem. Recent seasonal comparison research (comparing children's outcomes during the summer and during school year) reports that children gain body mass index (BMI) nearly twice as fast during the summer as during the school year. Whereas most children experience healthier BMI gain during the school year than the summer, this is especially the case for black and Hispanic children and for children already overweight. [source]

Paediatric obesity, physical activity and the musculoskeletal system

S. P. Shultz
Summary The current epidemic of paediatric obesity is consistent with a myriad of health-related comorbid conditions. Despite the higher prevalence of orthopaedic conditions in overweight children, a paucity of published research has considered the influence of these conditions on the ability to undertake physical activity. As physical activity participation is directly related to improvements in physical fitness, skeletal health and metabolic conditions, higher levels of physical activity are encouraged, and exercise is commonly prescribed in the treatment and management of childhood obesity. However, research has not correlated orthopaedic conditions, including the increased joint pain and discomfort that is commonly reported by overweight children, with decreases in physical activity. Research has confirmed that overweight children typically display a slower, more tentative walking pattern with increased forces to the hip, knee and ankle during ,normal' gait. This research, combined with anthropometric data indicating a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal malalignment in overweight children, suggests that such individuals are poorly equipped to undertake certain forms of physical activity. Concomitant increases in obesity and decreases in physical activity level strongly support the need to better understand the musculoskeletal factors associated with the performance of motor tasks by overweight and obese children. [source]

School physical activity interventions: do not forget about obesity bias

P. B. Rukavina
Summary Obesity bias is the tendency to negatively judge an overweight or obese individual based on assumed and/or false character traits, such as being physically unattractive, incompetent, lazy and lacking self-discipline. Obesity biases, such as teasing or weight criticism during physical activity (PA), can be psychologically or emotionally damaging for overweight children and adolescents. Ultimately, the effects students experience over time may create a psychological barrier and students can become resistant to schools' health and PA interventions that promote lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the psychological effects of obesity bias are mediated by social buffers and coping mechanisms. Several PA-related researchers have proposed strategic intervention components, but no studies have been completed in PA settings. The purpose of this review was to discuss the nature and different types of obesity bias in PA settings. Major theoretical frameworks of the aetiology and change mechanisms of obesity biases from the psychological literature were reviewed and direct applications for strategic component interventions were made for PA settings. Because of the pervasiveness and entrenchment of obesity bias, it is obvious that multiple theoretical frameworks need to be considered and even combined to create safe and caring school PA environments for students. [source]

Ghrelin and leptin modulate immunity and liver function in overweight children

Yuki Okamatsu
Abstract Background:, The rising prevalence of obesity represents a growing worldwide public health problem. Interactions of adipocytokines and low-grade systemic inflammation presently are considered important in the development of obesity, as well as associated chronic disease including bronchial asthma, obesity-related liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate metabolic, hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory factors in overweight children and to further clarify possible immunomodulatory effects of obesity-related hormones and cytokines. Methods:, Forty-nine prepubertal overweight children and 49 age-matched controls of normal weight without underlying disease were enrolled. Levels of plasma ghrelin and serum leptin, cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10, IL-12, 1L-13), C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, and insulin were measured, and liver function tests were done to better understand their status in the setting of obesity. Results:, Overweight subjects had significantly higher measures of adiposity (body mass indexI, % body fat) and had significantly higher serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgE than non-obese children (P = 0.038, 0.0043, 0.0034, respectively); the opposite was true for IgM (P = 0.025). The incidence of presumed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 28.6% in overweight children. In overweight children, serum leptin levels were associated with liver function index (aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio) and serum insulin levels. Some elevated immunoglobulin levels significantly correlated with plasma ghrelin levels and liver function index. Conclusions:, It is possible that appetite-regulating hormones modulate both humoral immunity and liver function. Further studies with a larger number of subjects are needed to clarify the precise mechanisms of this association. [source]

Body fat ratios in urban Chinese children

Fujihiko Iwata
AbstractObjective: As obesity has been increasing in China, the present study examined the body composition of children to assess their fatness. Study design: A total of 532 healthy schoolchildren who lived in central Beijing were examined. Skinfold thicknesses, hip and waist circumferences, and body fat percentage were measured, as well as height and weight. Results: The prevalence of overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) , 95% for age and sex of Chinese children) was 27.7% in boys and 14.2% in girls (chi-squared; P = 0.0001). The percentages of body fat (BF%), waist/hip ratios and skinfold thicknesses ratios (subscapular/triceps) in overweight children were significantly higher than those in non-overweight children (Mann,Whitney U -test). The BF% of non-overweight boys was significantly higher than that of non-overweight girls. Conclusion: Urban Chinese overweight children have high BF% with adverse fat distribution. They may have high risk of atherogeniety. Boys in the non-overweight category may have higher fat accumulation than predicted by BMI. The establishment of an intervention program for childhood obesity is strongly recommended. [source]

Unfavorable lipid profiles in mild obesity with excess body fat percentage

Akiho Tamura
Abstract Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of subclassifications of overweight children using the body fat percentage (Fat%) to predict the serum lipid profile. Methods: School children (431, 236 boys and 195 girls) aged 9,12 years were divided into three obesity groups (non-, mild and advanced obesity) and were further divided into two subgroups according to the Fat% measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean fasting serum lipid levels were also evaluated. Results: In the non-obesity and the advanced obesity groups, the Fat%-based subclassification demonstrated no essential differences in lipid profiles or in the prevalence of hyperlipidemia between the two subgroups. However, in the mild obesity group, the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride and the atherogenic index were significantly higher and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly lower in the adipositic subgroup (Fat%, age/sex-specific cut-off value) than in the non-adipositic subgroup. Multiple comparison of lipid levels among all six categories of children indicated that the adipositic subgroup of mild obesity had no advantage over the advanced obesity group with respect to the atherogenic potential and that the non-adipositic subgroup of mild obesity showed no additional risks compared to the non-obesity group. Moreover, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in the adipositic subgroup of mild obesity (50.0%) was significantly different from that in its non-adipositic counterpart (13.3%) and was equivalent to that in the advanced obesity group. Conclusions: These results suggest that Fat% evaluation is useful to divide mildly obese children into two distinct subtypes based on serum lipid profiles and that the excess Fat% in mildly obese school children is a predictor of atherogenesis. [source]

Childhood overweight problem in a selected school district in Hawaii

Dennis Chai
Anthropometric measurements were collected from 1,437 public school students in a selected school district in Hawaii every year from 1992 to 1996. Results showed that boys and girls of Hawaiian ancestry (HA) are generally taller in stature and somewhat heavier in weight than their non-Hawaiian counterparts (Non-HA). Also, there are no clear differences between the two groups in BMI, sums of skinfolds, waist and hip circumferences, and waist/hip circumference ratios. When compared to data from NHANES III (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the median statures of HA boys and girls are very close to the median statures of NHANES III, but the body weights of HA are heavier at most ages. Also, the BMI values of HA are distinctly higher and their medians are closer to the 75th percentile of NHANES III. In addition, the values of the sums of skinfolds and the waist and hip circumferences of HA are also higher at most ages than NHANES III. These multiple anthropometric indicators suggest that there might be more overweight children and adolescents of HA. When compared to the statistics in NHANES III, there are twice as many HA and Non-HA boys and girls classified as obese. Clearly, a serious childhood problem exists among the children in this selected school district in Hawaii. More research is needed in other school districts in Hawaii. Also, it is suggested in this study that using multiple anthropometric indicators, rather than a single one, may be more accurate and appropriate in determining overweight problems in a youth population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:164,177, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Practitioner Review: Bridging the gap between research and clinical practice in pediatric obesity

Elissa Jelalian
Background:, Pediatric obesity is a significant public health concern, with rising prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This is of particular significance given that overweight children and adolescents are at increased risk for multiple medical comorbidities, as well as psychosocial and behavioral difficulties. The current review highlights findings from the empirical pediatric obesity treatment literature, with particular attention to diet, physical activity, and behavior interventions. Evaluation and treatment considerations relevant to working with overweight children and adolescents with psychiatric comorbidities are reviewed. Methods:, Review of the relevant treatment literature, with a focus on randomized clinical trials, was conducted. Recommendations regarding treatment of children and adolescents with psychiatric comorbidities are based on relevant prospective studies of the relationship between weight status and psychological variables and studies with adult populations. Results:, Well-established pediatric weight control interventions have been conducted in research settings. These studies provide a starting point, but are limited by homogeneous samples that may exclude participants with psychiatric comorbidities. Practitioners treating obese children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders are encouraged to assess individual, familial, and contextual variables specific to weight (e.g., motivation and existing support to change current eating and physical activity patterns, extent of weight-related conflict within family, impact of weight on current functioning) in order to prioritize treatment objectives. Conclusions:, The review concludes with a discussion of current empirical and practical challenges, including explicitly targeting obese children and adolescents with psychiatric concerns and determining appropriateness of pursuing weight control interventions in this population. [source]

Design and implementation of training to improve management of pediatric overweight

Continuing Medical Education, Luke Beno MD Chief
Abstract Introduction: Clinicians report a low proficiency in treating overweight children and using behavioral management strategies. This paper documents the design and implementation of a training program to improve clinicians' skills in the assessment and behavioral management of pediatric overweight. Methods: Two one-hour CME trainings were designed using published guidelines, research findings, and expert committee recommendations. The trainings were provided to clinicians of a managed care pediatric department, utilizing novel screening and counseling tools, and interactive exercises. Surveys and focus groups were conducted 3 and 6 months post intervention to examine clinician attitudes and practices regarding the screening and counseling tools. Results: Post intervention, the majority of clinicians agreed that the clinical practice guidelines (Pediatric Obesity Practice Resource) and BMI-for-age percentile provided useful information for clinical practice. Clinicians reported an increased utilization of the recommended screening tools and changes in office practices to implement these tools. They offered suggestions to improve the ease of use of the tools and to overcome perceived clinician and/or patient barriers. Discussion: A brief, cost effective, multi-faceted training and provision of counseling tools were perceived as helpful to clinical practice. Useful lessons were learned about tool design and ways to fit tools into practice. Training the entire health care team is advantageous to the adoption of new tools and practices. [source]

Appropriate laryngeal mask airway size for overweight and underweight children

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2010
H. J. Kim
Summary The aim of this study was to compare conventional laryngeal mask airway sizing by weight with sizing by age in over- or underweight children. We studied 26 overweight (body mass index > 85th centile) and 26 underweight (body mass index < 15th centile) children. After general anaesthesia was induced, laryngeal mask airways sized by the patient's weight and by an ideal weight (estimated from the patient's age according to standardised tables) were inserted consecutively. In overweight children, oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly greater when the laryngeal mask was sized by the patient's actual weight. On the other hand in underweight children, it was significantly greater when sized by the ideal weight. In conclusion, laryngeal mask airway sizing according to the manufacturer's weight-based recommendation is to be preferred in overweight children, but laryngeal mask airway size by an ideal weight estimated from the patient's age is a better choice in underweight children. [source]

Parents underestimate their child`s overweight

Nina Vuorela
Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to evaluate parents' ability to perceive the weight status of their children. Methods:, This cross-sectional study was performed on 5 (n = 310) and 11-year-old (n = 296) children. The height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) was calculated. The International Obesity Task Force criteria and the British cut-off points were used to classify BMI and waist circumference. Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning their perception of the weight class of their child. The parents and the 11-year-old children estimated their own weight class. For analysis, the measured and perceived weight classes were divided into two categories; normal weight (including underweight) and overweight or obese. To measure the agreement cross-tabulation with Cohen's Kappa was used. Explanatory variables associated with misclassification of overweight children as normal weight were examined by logistic regression modelling. Results:, The prevalence of overweight (including obese) was 17.4% and 21.6% in 5- and 11-year-old children in this study. Only a few parents misclassified their normal weight children as overweight. By contrast, a majority of parents to the 5-year-old children and about half of the parents to the 11-year-old children misclassified them as normal weight. Using waist circumference for body size classification did not improve parents' performance. Mothers performed best when estimating own weight class. Conclusion:, A majority of parents fail to recognize overweight or obesity in their 5- and 11-year-old children. The underestimation of overweight may impair the motivation of the parents to adopt weight control. [source]

Molecular analysis of the CART gene in overweight and obese Italian children using family-based association methods

L Rigoli
Abstract Aim:, In our study, we evaluated if CART gene A1475G and ,A1457 polymorphisms could be associated with obesity. Patients and methods:, We recruited 133 Italian trios from among 103 (50 males and 53 females) overweight children (mean age 10.5 years, range 6,14 years; mean BMI 26.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2), and 30 (16 males and 14 females) obese children (mean age 9.0 years, range 6,11 years; mean BMI 32.3 ± 2.0 kg/m2). We also selected 187 non-obese unrelated controls. Results:, The allele frequencies of the A1475G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were significantly higher in overweight children (0.07) than in control children (0.02) (p = 0.03) and control adults (0.02) (p = 0.02). Moreover, the allele frequencies were significantly different between obese children (0.08) and control children (0.02) (p = 0.03), and between obese children (0.08) and control adults (0.02) (p = 0.02). The ,A1457 SNP showed no significant association with overweight/obesity. TDT statistic revealed a preferential transmission of the 1475G allele from heterozygous parents to overweight children (p < 0.01) and to obese children (p < 0.05). No statistically significant excess transmission of the ,A1457 allele was found. Conclusion:, Our results supported the hypothesis that inherited variations of the CART gene could influence the development of obesity also in Italian children. [source]

Physical activity levels and estimated energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children

M Soric
Abstract Aim:, To objectively evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children. Methods:, The final sample consisted of 91 children (32 overweight and 59 normal-weight children), mean age (SD) = 11.3 (0.2) years. Energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed during two weekdays and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor (SenseWear Armband; BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Results:, Time spent in physical activity was higher in normal-weight compared with overweight children (p = 0.002). The highest level of physical activity was noted in normal-weight boys [mean (SD) = 258 (114) min/day] and the lowest in overweight girls [mean (SD) = 136 (59) min/day] (p = 0.002). In contrast, energy expended during physical activity did not differ between normal-weight and overweight children (2.6 and 2.7 MJ/day, respectively, p = 0.89). The average decrease in physical activity at weekends was 39 min in overweight children (from 166 to 127 min/day) and 27 min in their normal-weight counterparts (from 230 to 203 min/day). Conclusion:, Overweight children engaged in less physical activity of both moderate and vigorous intensity compared with their normal-weight peers. Both overweight and normal-weight children were less active at weekends than on weekdays. Initiatives aiming to increase physical activity of overweight children at weekends are warranted. [source]

How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

HGM Oude Luttikhuis
Abstract Introduction:, A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective:, To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:, Population-based survey. Participants:, A questionnaire was sent to parents of 1155 4- to 5-year-old children. Results:, In total, 439 questionnaires (35%) were returned. Of all, 90% of the children had a normal weight, 9.3% were overweight and 4.1% were obese. For all weight classes, the parents depicted the child as lighter on both the verbal and visual scale. Of all, 75% of mothers of overweight children stated that the child had a normal weight. In obese children, 50% of the mothers believed that the child had a normal weight. Conclusion:, Children with a weight in the normal range were considered by their parents as a little too light or too light. Overweight was considered as normal weight, and obesity as normal or a little too heavy. The perception of a normal weight in children at 4,5 years is distorted. [source]

Metabolic profiles of fat and glucose differ by gender in healthy 8-year-olds

Susanne Eriksson
Abstract Objective:, The aim was to investigate if metabolic markers were associated with anthropometry and weight increase in healthy 8-year-olds. Methods:, Ninety-seven healthy children, 66 of whom had been examined at the age of 4 years, were investigated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to determine fat (FM) and lean body mass (LBM). Plasma glucose and serum levels of insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and leptin were analysed and HOMA-indices were calculated. Results:, Despite similar anthropometry, metabolic markers differed by gender. Sixteen % of the children were overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) was strongly correlated to FM. Anthropometric measures except LBM correlated to metabolic markers in the girls. Boys had higher concentrations of plasma glucose than girls. In overweight children, insulin was negatively associated with LBM. Leptin and the ratio between leptin and adiponectin, but not adiponectin, were significantly associated with HOMA-IR and body composition. Conclusion:, The metabolic profile of plasma glucose, serum leptin, fasting insulin and related HOMA indices differed by gender, despite no difference in BMI or FM. LBM, but not FM correlated to the insulin concentration in the overweight children. Leptin was the best marker of overweight. [source]

Parental perception of children's weight in a paediatric primary care setting

E. R. Wald
Abstract Objective To determine how parents of overweight children perceived their children's weight status compared with actual body mass index (BMI). Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study assessed parental perception of and concern about weight, diet and physical activity of 3,12-year-olds. BMI values ,85th and <95th percentile and ,95th percentile were considered at risk for overweight and overweight respectively. Differences between groups were tested with chi-squared analyses or Fishers exact test as appropriate and further explored using logistic regression analysis. Results Questionnaires were completed at 612 health maintenance visits (278 girls). Overall, 15% of both boys and girls were at risk for overweight and 22% of boys and 24% of girls were overweight. Forty-nine per cent of parents recognized their overweight children as overweight. Perceptions were more often correct for parents of girls than boys (63% versus 36%, P < 0.001) and for older compared with younger children (61.7% versus 17.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Parents of overweight children frequently did not perceive their children as exceeding healthy weight standards. Targeting parental perception as a point of intervention is necessary. [source]

Hemoglobin A1c in obese children and adolescents who participated in a weight management program

Ivan Zador
Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to compare hemoglobin A1c values in non-diabetic obese children and adolescents before enrollment and after completion of a 12-wk weight management program. Methods: Seventeen children and adolescents, age 10.8±2.5 y (mean±1 SD), joined a multidisciplinary weight management program. Hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were measured at the start and at the completion of the program in each participant. Results: Body mass index at the start of the program was 34.3±6.4 kg/m2. Body mass index at the end of the program was 33±6.6 kg/m2 (p<0.05). Hemoglobin A1c at the beginning of the program was 5.3±0.3%. Hemoglobin A1c at the completion of the program was 5±0.2% (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this group of overweight children, hemoglobin A1c decreased significantly after participating in a multi-disciplinary weight loss program. These findings further point to the beneficial effect of lifestyle changes on the metabolic status of obese children. [source]