Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Overweight

  • adolescent overweight
  • being overweight
  • childhood overweight
  • pediatric overweight

  • Terms modified by Overweight

  • overweight adolescent
  • overweight adult
  • overweight child
  • overweight individual
  • overweight man
  • overweight patient
  • overweight people
  • overweight status
  • overweight subject
  • overweight woman

  • Selected Abstracts

    Obesity in adults and children: a call for action

    Karyn Holm PhD RN FAAN
    Obesity in adults and children: a call for action Obesity/overweight in adults and children is a worldwide health problem associated with substantial economic burden as measured by paid sick leave, life and disability insurance rates, and obesity-related physician visits and hospital stays. Overweight/obese people experience hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes and suffer more joint and mobility problems than people within the normal weight for height range. While there is need to understand individual behaviors that can be modified to promote weight loss and weight maintenance, there is as great a need to consider contextual factors at the societal level that can impede or even sabotage weight control efforts. In every country with improved living standards people will continue to eat too much and engage in too little physical activity. The call for action is for all modernized societies to alter environments and attitudes to support, rather than hinder, healthy dietary intake and being physically active. [source]

    Obesity and metabolic changes are common in young childhood brain tumor survivors

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 7 2009
    Sari Pietilä MD
    Abstract Background A population based cross-sectional study was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in childhood brain tumor survivors. Procedure Fifty-two survivors were examined at a mean age of 14.4 years (range 3.8,28.7). Lipid and glucose metabolism, thyroid function, and plasma uric acid were evaluated. Fat mass and fat percentage were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Metabolic syndrome was defined on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Ten (19%) patients were overweight and four (8%) were obese. According to DXA, 16/46 (35%) patients were obese. Central obesity was found in 11 (21%) patients. Cranial irradiation, hypothalamic/hypophyseal damage, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and impaired mobility were associated with overweight/obesity and central obesity. Thirteen (25%) subjects had hypercholesterolemia, 14 (27%) had raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 12 (23%) had raised blood pressure, four (8%) had metabolic syndrome, two (4%) had hyperinsulinemia and five (10%) had hyperuricemia. Cranial irradiation was associated with hypercholesterolemia (P,=,0.019), raised LDL-C (P,=,0.028), raised blood pressure (P,=,0.040), and metabolic syndrome (P,=,0.018). Impaired mobility was associated with hypercholesterolemia (P,=,0.034). Hypothalamic/hypophyseal damage was associated with metabolic syndrome (P,=,0.003) and hyperuricemia (P,=,0.011) as was GH deficiency (P,=,0.034 and P,=,0.008). GH supplementation alleviated adverse metabolic outcomes among brain tumor survivors with GH deficiency. Conclusions Obesity/overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hyperuricemia were common in young childhood brain tumor survivors. Cranial irradiation, hypothalamic/hypophyseal damage, growth hormone deficiency, and/or impaired mobility were associated with higher risk for obesity and metabolic changes among these patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;52:853,859. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    How many cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus are due to being overweight in middle age?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    Evidence from the Midspan prospective cohort studies using mention of diabetes mellitus on hospital discharge or death records
    Abstract Aims To relate body mass index (BMI) in middle age to development of diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants were 6927 men and 8227 women from the Renfrew/Paisley general population study and 3993 men from the Collaborative occupational study. They were aged 45,64 years and did not have reported diabetes mellitus. Cases who developed diabetes mellitus, identified from acute hospital discharge data and from death certificates in the period from screening in 1970,1976 to 31 March 2004, were related to BMI at screening. Results Of Renfrew/Paisley study men 5.4%, 4.8% of women and 5% of Collaborative study men developed diabetes mellitus. Odds ratios for diabetes mellitus were higher in the overweight group (BMI 25 to < 30 kg/m2) than in the normal weight group (BMI 18.5 to < 25 kg/m2) and highest in the obese group (BMI , 30 kg/m2). Compared with the normal weight group, age-adjusted odds ratios for overweight and obese Renfrew/Paisley men were 2.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.05, 3.64] and 7.26 (95% CI 5.26, 10.04), respectively. Further subdividing the normal, overweight and obese groups showed increasing odds ratios with increasing BMI, even at the higher normal level. Assuming a causal relation, around 60% of cases of diabetes could have been prevented if everyone had been of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obesity account for a major proportion of diabetes mellitus, as identified from hospital discharge and death records. With recent increases in the prevalence of overweight, the burden of disease related to diabetes mellitus is likely to increase markedly. Primordial prevention of obesity would be a major strategy for reducing the incidence of diabetes mellitus in populations. [source]

    Predictors of insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2002
    E. Bonora
    Abstract Aims To identify the independent predictors of insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes, and to establish whether isolated Type 2 diabetes (i.e. diabetes without overweight, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) is a condition of insulin resistance. Methods We examined 45 patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes undergoing a 4-h euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (20 mU/m2 per min) combined with 3H-3-D-glucose and 14C-U-glucose infusions and indirect calorimetry. We also examined 1366 patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes randomly selected among those attending the Diabetes Clinic and in whom insulin resistance was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). Results In the 45 patients undergoing glucose clamp studies, insulin-mediated total glucose disposal (TGD) was independently and negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (standardized , coefficient = ,0.407, P = 0.003), plasma triglycerides (,= ,0.355, P = 0.007), and HbA1c (,= ,0.350, P = 0.008). The overall variability of TGD explained by these variables was 53%. Overweight diabetic subjects with central fat distribution, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and poor glycometabolic control had insulin-mediated TGD values markedly lower than their lean counterparts without hypertension, with normal triglycerides, and with good glycometabolic control (16 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 10 µmol/min per kg lean body mass, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, the latter still were markedly insulin-resistant when compared with sex- and age-matched non-diabetic control subjects (31 ± 10 vs. 54 ± 13 µmol/min per kg lean body mass, P < 0.01). In the 1366 Type 2 diabetic patients of the epidemiological study, HOMA-IR value was independently associated with HbA1c (, = 0.283, P < 0.0001), plasma triglycerides (, = 0.246, P < 0.0001), body mass index (, = 0.139, P < 0.001), waist girth (, = 0.124, P < 0.001) and hypertension (, = 0.066, P = 0.006). Conclusion Overweight, central fat distribution, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and poor glycometabolic control are strong independent predictors of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes. However, reduced insulin sensitivity can be found even when Type 2 diabetes is isolated and well controlled. Diabet. Med. 19, 535,542 (2002) [source]

    Overweight and perception of overweight as predictors of smokeless tobacco use and of cigarette smoking in a cohort of Swedish adolescents

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    Maria Paola Caria
    ABSTRACT Aims To study the association between measured or perceived overweight in adolescence and subsequent uptake of cigarette smoking and of the Swedish smokeless tobacco ,snus' (oral moist snuff). Design Population-based prospective cohort study with 7 years' follow-up. Setting Self-administered questionnaires and school nurses' visits. Participants A total of 2922 children of both sexes and mean age 11.6 years at recruitment, resident in the Stockholm region, Sweden. Measurements Tobacco use was self-reported at baseline and on six subsequent surveys. Subjects' height and weight were measured by school nurses during the first 4 years, self-reported thereafter. Overweight perception was self-reported at the age of 15 years. Findings Overweight and perception of overweight were not associated with subsequent uptake of either smoking or snus among males. Among females, overweight at baseline was associated with uptake of smoking [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09,1.63], but not of snus. A similar pattern was found with overweight status during follow-up. Among girls with low-educated parents, overweight at baseline predicted the uptake of both snus and smoking. Among 15-year-old females who never used tobacco perceived overweight was associated with subsequent uptake of smoking (adjusted HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20,2.46), but not of snus. Conclusions In Sweden, adolescent girls with actual or perceived overweight are at increased risk to start smoking, while indications that this increased risk applies to smokeless tobacco (snus) are limited to girls of low socio-economic status. [source]

    Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Girls and Young Women with Epilepsy during Pubertal Maturation

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2005
    Kirsi Mikkonen
    Summary:,Purpose: To assess growth and the serum lipid profile in girls with epilepsy receiving monotherapy at a mean age of 12.6 years and approximately 6 years later. Methods: A population-based cohort of 77 girls with epilepsy and 49 healthy controls participated in this follow-up study including two cross-sectional evaluations (age range, 8,18.5 years on the first evaluation, and 12.5,25.8 years on the second evaluation). Forty of the patients were initially taking valproate (VPA), 19, carbamazepine (CBZ), and 18, oxcarbazepine (OXC). Growth data were compiled, body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and serum total (TC), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were analyzed. Results: Linear growth and final height did not differ between the patients and the controls. At follow-up, the mean BMI of the patients who were off medication (61%) was similar to that of the controls, whereas the patients initially treated with VPA who were still taking any medication had a higher BMI. On the first evaluation, the patients taking VPA had low serum HDL-C, and those taking CBZ or OXC had high serum TC and LDL-C concentrations. At follow-up, serum lipid levels were similar in the patients off medication and the controls. Conclusions: Neither epilepsy nor antiepileptic therapy affects linear growth or final height, but they may have unfavorable effects on body weight and serum lipid concentrations. Lipid-profile impairment seems to be transient if the medication is discontinued. Overweight is common in patients treated with VPA during puberty if epilepsy and medication continue into adulthood. [source]

    Smoking habits and obesity in young adults

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2005
    Eyal Zimlichman
    ABSTRACT Aims The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Design and setting Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Participants A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20,21 years. Findings Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16 363 males and 13 382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 ± 9.2, 15.6 ± 10.7, 18.0 ± 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). Conclusion The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity. [source]

    Overweight and obesity and incidence of leukemia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    Susanna C. Larsson
    Abstract We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from cohort studies on the association between excess body weight and incidence of leukemia. Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966,July 2007) and by examining the references of retrieved articles. A random-effects model was used to combine the results from individual studies. We identified 9 cohort studies with data on body mass index (BMI) or obesity in relation to incidence of leukemia. Compared with nonoverweight individuals (BMI < 25 kg/m2), the summary relative risks (RRs) of leukemia were 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03,1.25] for overweight individuals (BMI 25,30 kg/m2) and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.25,1.54) for obese (BMI , 30 kg/m2) individuals. On a continuous scale, a 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with a 13% increased risk of leukemia (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07,1.19). In a meta-analysis of 4 studies reporting results on subtypes of leukemia, the summary RRs associated with obesity were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11,1.41) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16,2.35) for acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19,1.95) for acute myeloid leukemia and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09,1.46) for chronic myeloid leukemia. This meta-analysis indicates that excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing leukemia. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Obesity,hypertension: an ongoing pandemic

    E. A. Francischetti
    Summary Considerable evidence has suggested that excessive weight gain is the most common cause of arterial hypertension. This association has been observed in several populations, in different regions of the world. Obesity,hypertension, a term that underscores the link between these two deleterious conditions, is an important public health challenge, because of its high frequency and concomitant risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. The obesity,hypertension pandemic imposes a considerable economic burden on societies, directly reflecting on healthcare system costs. Increased renal sodium reabsorption and blood volume expansion are central features in the development of obesity,hypertension. Overweight is also associated with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin, a protein expressed in and secreted by adipocytes, is the main factor linking obesity, increased sympathetic nervous system activity and hypertension. The renin,angiotensin,aldosterone system has also been causally implicated in obesity,hypertension, because angiotensinogen is expressed in and secreted by adipose tissue. Hypoadiponectinemia, high circulating levels of free fatty acids and increased vascular production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been reported as potential mechanisms for obesity,hypertension. Lifestyle changes are effective in obesity,hypertension control, though pharmacological treatment is frequently necessary. Despite the consistency of the mechanistic approach in explaining the causal relation between hypertension and obesity, there is yet no evidence that one class of drug is superior to the others in controlling obesity,hypertension. In this review, we present the current knowledge and research in obesity,hypertension, exploring the epidemiologic evidence of the association, its probable pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment issues. [source]

    Overweight and Obesity in Old Age Are Not Associated with Greater Dementia Risk

    (See editorial comments by Dr. David S. Knodman, 2350), pp 234
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia risk in older persons. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study, with 8 years of follow-up. SETTING: The municipality of Lieto, Finland, 1990/91 and 1998/99. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred five men and women without dementia aged 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8). MEASUREMENTS: Weight and height were measured at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up. Dementia was clinically assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. RESULTS: Eighty-six persons were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, education, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and alcohol use, indicated that, for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87,0.97). This association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia early during the first 4 years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.86,0.99). Women with high BMI scores had a lower dementia risk (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84,0.96). Men with high BMI scores also tended to have a lower dementia risk, although the association did not reach significance (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.84,1.07). CONCLUSION: Older persons with higher BMI scores have less dementia risk than their counterparts with lower BMI scores. High BMI scores in late life should not necessarily be considered to be a risk factor for dementia. [source]

    Food Security, Overweight, and Agricultural Research,A View from 2003

    ABSTRACT: Some of the poorest countries of the world are facing an apparent paradox. Food insecurity, undernutrition, and overweight exist side by side within the same country. Indeed, food-insecure households often contain an overweight member. Data from 11 mega-countries (countries with a population of more than 100 million) will be presented to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. These 11 countries represent more than 60% of the world's population. Agriculture is still a dominant industry. The links between food insecurity, nutritional status, and agriculture will be presented. [source]

    Association of body mass index with heartburn, regurgitation and esophagitis: Results of the Progression of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease study

    Marc Nocon
    Abstract Background:, Overweight and obesity are believed to be risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the severity and frequency of reflux symptoms and esophagitis in a large cohort of reflux patients. Methods:, As part of the Progression of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (ProGERD) study, 6215 patients with clinically assessed GERD were included in the present investigation (53% male, 52 ± 14 years; 47% female, 56 ± 14 years). Heartburn and regurgitation symptoms were assessed using the validated Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopies were performed and patients were subsequently classified as having non-erosive or erosive disease. To examine the association between BMI, GERD symptoms, and esophagitis, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using logistic regression models. Results:, In patients with GERD, higher BMI was associated with more frequent and more severe heartburn and regurgitation, as well as with esophagitis. The effects were more pronounced for regurgitation than for heartburn. The strongest association was between obesity and severity of regurgitation symptoms (women: OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.60,2.77; men: OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.59,2.90). Obese women, but not men, had an increased risk of severe esophagitis compared to women with normal weight (OR 2.51, 95%CI 1.53,4.12). Conclusions:, In patients with GERD, higher BMI was associated with more severe and more frequent reflux symptoms and esophagitis. [source]

    The French longitudinal study of growth and nutrition: data in adolescent males and females

    M. Deheeger
    Abstract Objectives To assess nutritional intake, growth parameters, physical activity and television viewing in French adolescents. Method A longitudinal study of dietary intake and anthropometric data recorded in the same children (n = 94) from 10 to 16 years of age is presented here. Results Energy intake increased from age 10,16 years in boys, whereas it decreased in girls from the age of 14. Height and weight increased in both males and females over the same period of time. Energy intake was positively associated with age at menarche. Nutritional intake, such as fat and calcium, did not meet recommendations for French adolescents. Height was higher than reference values, but the difference was not significant for girls between 14 and 16 years. Overweight (BMI > 97th percentile of the French reference) was found to be 13,14% between age 10 and 16 years. Time watching TV/computer increased with age from 1.4 to 2.2 h day,1 from 10 to 16 years. Active children had nutritional intake closer to recommendations. Conclusion In conclusion, this study shows that during adolescence, some nutritional variations can be explained by normal individual growth processes. Low intake of calcium in girls and sedentary lifestyle are of particular concern. [source]

    Body mass index, alcohol, tobacco and symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish twin study

    D. Katsika
    Abstract. Background/Aims., Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease (GD). We aimed to examine the association between symptomatic GD and overweight (body mass index, BMI, 25,30 kg m,2), obesity (BMI > 30 kg m,2), alcohol, smoking and smoke-free tobacco by analysing a large twin population. Methods., The Swedish Twin Registry (STR) was linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death Registries for GD and GD-surgery related diagnoses. Weight, height, use of alcohol, smoking and smoke-free tobacco were provided by STR and analysed for possible associations by conditional logistic regression. Results., Overweight and obesity were associated with a significantly higher risk for symptomatic GD in the whole study population (OR 1.86 and OR 3.38; CI: 1.52,2.28 and 2.28,5.02 respectively). High alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk for GD in the whole population (OR 0.62; CI: 0.51,0.74) with no difference between discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins (OR 1.08 and OR 0.96; CI: 0.82,1.42 and 0.79,1.16). Smoking or smoke-free tobacco was not correlated with GD. Conclusion., Consistent with epidemiological studies, we found positive associations between BMI and the development of symptomatic GD. High alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk against GD. Tobacco use has no impact on GD. [source]

    Overweight in medical paediatric inpatients: Detection and parent expectations

    Karen McLean
    Aims: (i) To determine prevalence and rates of detection of overweight/obesity among general paediatric inpatients. (ii) To explore parental expectations regarding detection and management of overweight/obesity during admission. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. A total of 102 children aged 2,12 years admitted to a general paediatric unit at the Royal Children's Hospital and their parents participated in the survey. The main outcome measures are body mass index (BMI); documentation of weight, height and BMI in patient notes; parent description of child's weight, parent concern about child's weight, and parent opinion about detection and management of overweight. Results: Twelve of 102 children (11.7%, 95% confidence intervals 6.2%, 19.7%) were overweight or obese. All children had a documented weight, two children (2.0%) had a documented height and none had BMI documented. Seven of 12 parents of overweight children described their child's weight as healthy; five of 12 parents of overweight children were not concerned about their child's weight. Eight of 12 parents of overweight children believed all admitted children should have their BMI calculated. All parents thought the hospital should take action if a child was found to be overweight. Conclusions: Although prevalence of overweight was lower than expected, documentation of overweight did not occur for any patient in the study. Parents of overweight children with acute illnesses believed that the hospital should screen for overweight and discuss it with parents. Further studies are required to determine expectations among other patient populations. [source]

    Obesity and under-nutrition in a tertiary paediatric hospital

    J O'Connor
    Objective: (i) To determine the prevalence of over- and under-nutrition in both inpatients and outpatients in a tertiary paediatric hospital; (ii) to compare the prevalence of over-nutrition with that in the Australian community and (iii) to determine whether nutritional status has an impact on length of stay in hospital. Methods: Patients aged over 12 months were proportionately sampled from medical and surgical wards and outpatient clinics. Data were collected for 245 inpatients (54% male) and 272 outpatients (55% male). Children's height, weight and body mass index (kg/m2) were measured. Overweight, obesity and under-nutrition were defined according to international criteria. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was compared with that in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS). Results: Similar proportions of inpatients and outpatients were underweight (6%) and wasted (4%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in inpatients (22%) was similar to the NNS but was significantly higher in outpatients (32%, P < 0.0001). In a regression model to predict inpatient length of stay, nutritional status (P = 0.004) and the interaction between age and nutritional status (P = 0.009) were significant predictors. For over-nourished inpatients, length of stay increased significantly with age. For normally nourished and under-nourished inpatients, length of stay was relatively constant, regardless of age. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of over-nutrition in paediatric patients, and increased length of stay for older over-nourished inpatients. These issues need to be addressed in terms of opportunities for intervention and impact on hospital resources. [source]

    Prevalence and Degree of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight in Rural, Urban, and Suburban Georgia

    Richard D. Lewis
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OW and EOW in school-aged youths from 4 regions of Georgia. A 2-stage cluster sampling procedure was performed in 2002, with participation of 4th-, 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 3114). Measured height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI) for age percentiles and data were weighted to estimate population prevalence of OW. A logistic regression model determined predictors of OW. The overall estimate of OW prevalence was 20.2% and highest in males (22.0%), non-Hispanic blacks (21.8%), "other races" (32.4%), and students residing in rural growth (23.7%) and rural decline (23.0%) areas. Overweight prevalence was similar among grades. The overall estimated EOW was 4.3 and highest in males (4.7), other races (5.6), non-Hispanic blacks (5.2), and students from rural growth (5.4) and rural decline (5.0) areas. Sex, race, location, and economic tier were significant predictors (= 0.02) of OW. The prevalence and severity of OW was higher in youths residing in Georgia than nationally. School health professionals, community leaders, and parents should provide support for updated school policies aimed at providing BMI surveillance and a school environment that encourages physical activity and healthy nutrition practices. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(4):126-132) [source]

    Integrating the transtheoretical model into the management of overweight and obese adults

    Judy Gainey Seals NP, MSN (Cardiovascular Nurse Practitioner)
    Abstract Purpose: To show how the nurse practitioner (NP) can incorporate stage-specific interventions from the transtheoretical model in the management of overweight and obese adults. Data sources: Research articles, clinical articles, and government guidelines pertaining to the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are complex and chronic conditions that require lifelong management. The NP can help clients to safely and successfully lose weight by developing stage-specific interventions, by using an expert multidisciplinary team, and by providing ongoing monitoring and motivation. Implications for practice: The prevalence of overweight and obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate and is a major public health concern. The NP has an important role in the assessment and management of clients with this condition. [source]

    Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obese Adults

    APRN-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    This month's CPG review is on overweight and obese adults. With an estimated 97 million or more adults in the United States who are overweight or obese and as the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States, this guideline is expected to be of wide interest to nurse practitioners. [source]

    Trading Nutrition for Education: Nutritional Status and the Sale of Snack Foods in an Eastern Kentucky School

    Deborah L Crooks
    Overweight and poor nutrition of children in the United States are becoming issues of increasing concern for public health. Dietary patterns of U.S. children indicate they are consuming too few fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in fat and sugar. Contributing to this pattern of food consumption is snacking, which is reported to be on the increase among adults and children alike. One place where snacking is under increased scrutiny, and where it is being increasingly criticized, is in U.S. schools, where snack foods are often sold to supplement inadequate budgets. This article takes a biocultural approach to understanding the nutritional status of elementary school children in a rural community in eastern Kentucky. It pays particular attention to the ways in which the schools nutrition environment shapes overweight and nutritional status for many of the children, focusing on the sale of snack foods and the reasons behind the principal's decision to sell snack foods in the school [nutritional anthropology, overweight, snack foods, Appalachia] [source]

    Labor Longer for Overweight, Obese Women

    Carolyn Davis Cockey MLS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 3 2010
    Klaas R Westerterp
    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached. [source]

    Caloric Restriction and Calcium's Effect on Bone Metabolism and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 12 2004
    Tim L. Radak DrPH
    Obesity results in numerous preventable deaths and comorbidities. Unfortunately, a reduction of body weight has been correlated with a reduction in bone mass, the reasons for which have not been fully elucidated. The importance of maximizing peak bone mass during premenopausal years is well known. Most studies demonstrate a positive relationship between calcium intake and bone mass. However, during caloric restriction, which is commonly used for weight loss, calcium intake has shown mixed results. Calcium from dairy sources has received additional attention, beyond its importance to bone, for its role in regulating body weight and composition. Dairy foods are perceived as high fat, and therefore, are generally minimized or avoided during caloric restriction. The current calcium intake for premenopausal women is significantly below recommendations, and even if met during caloric restriction, may not be adequate. This review underscores the need for maintaining at least adequate intake levels of calcium, if not more, during weight loss regimens to minimize potential long-term detrimental effects on bone metabolism. [source]

    Prevalence and Trends in Overweight in Mexican-American Adults and Children

    Katherine M. Flegal Ph.D.
    Overweight and obesity have been increasing in many countries. Our objective is to describe the trends in overweight and obesity occurring in the Mexican-American population in the United States. Data on measured height and weight for Mexican Americans come from the following surveys: the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982,84), the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988,94), and NHANES 1999,2002. In 1999,2002, 73% of Mexican-American adults were overweight and 33% were obese. Obesity increased between NHANES III and NHANES 1999,2002, from 24% to 27% for men and from 35% to 38% for women. Increases were also seen for children and adolescents. The Mexican-American population in the United States, both children and adults, is showing trends in overweight and obesity over time that are similar to those seen in other segments of the U.S. population and indeed in many countries [source]

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Danish school children

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 7 2010
    S. Krue
    Summary In 14 Danish municipalities physicians have gathered weight and height data from 7541 9th grade students (86.7% of all students in 9th grade participating). Overall 25.2% of the population were overweight (body mass index > 90th percentile). Boys were more frequently overweight than girls (29.3% vs. 21.1%) (P < 0.05). 14.1% of the boys and 8.2% of the girls were obese (body mass index > 97th percentile). Categorizing the participating municipalities by socioeconomic status students in municipalities with low status had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than students in municipalities with high status. Overweight and obesity among Danish school children is a major concern and there are significant social differences in the prevalence of overweight. [source]

    Trends in overweight and obese adults in Malaysia (1996,2009): a systematic review

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 6 2010
    A. Z. Khambalia
    Summary Like other nations experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization and a nutrition transition, there is concern in Malaysia of a possible escalation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In 1996, the National Health and Morbidity Survey reported a 16.6% and 4.4% prevalence of overweight and obesity, respectively. In the following decade, there have been several national and community surveys on overweight and obesity in Malaysia. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the trend from 1996 to 2009 in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in Malaysia nationally and by gender, age and race. Results indicate that there has been a small rise in overweight adults in the years 1996, 2003 and 2006 (20.7%, 26.7% and 29.1%) and a much more dramatic increase in obesity in 1996, 2003, 2004 and 2006 (5.5%, 12.2%, 12.3% and 14.0%). Evidence showed a greater risk for overweight and obesity among women compared with men. Based on the highest-quality studies, overweight and obesity levels were highest among adults 40,59 years old. Overweight levels were highest among Indians, followed by Malays, Chinese and Aboriginals, with less consistency across studies on the order of risk or obesity by ethnicity. [source]

    Prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults in Iran

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 5 2010
    S. M. T. Ayatollahi
    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed and developing countries have been increasing markedly over the past two decades. This increase includes all ages, genders, racial and ethnic groups, income, and educational levels. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults aged 25,55 years in Shiraz (Southern Iran). The data are based on a random multistage sample survey of 2282 married adults (1141 pairs) living is Shiraz, whose heights and weights were measured in the 2002,2003 academic year. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (body mass index , 25) was 49.7% in men and 63.9% in women. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index , 30) was 10.5% and 22.5% in men and women, respectively, which shows an increased secular change of 5.8% in men and 17.4% in women during a 14-year period. Overweight and obesity are common in Iran. Obesity and overweight were significantly more common among women than among men (P -valve = 0.000). There is a need to establish programmes for prevention and treatment of obesity especially Iranian's women. [source]

    Prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles: 15 year trends and association with socio-economic status

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 6 2008
    P. Bovet
    Summary We assessed the 15-year trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African Region) and the relationship with socio-economic status (SES). Three population-based examination surveys were conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Occupation was categorized as ,labourer', ,intermediate' or ,professional'. Education was also assessed in 1994 and 2004. Between 1989 and 2004, mean BMI increased markedly in all sex and age categories (overall: 0.16 kg m,2 per calendar year, which corresponds to 0.46 kg per calendar year). The prevalence of overweight (including obesity, BMI , 25 kg m,2) increased from 29% to 52% in men and from 50% to 67% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI , 30 kg m,2) increased from 4% to 15% in men and from 23% to 34% in women. Overweight was associated inversely with occupation in women and directly in men in all surveys. In multivariate analysis, overweight was associated similarly (direction and magnitude) to occupation and education. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity over time in all age, sex and SES categories suggests large-scale changes in societal obesogenic factors. The sex-specific association of SES with overweight suggests that prevention measures should be tailored accordingly. [source]

    Overweight and obesity in preadolescent children and their parents in Cyprus: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors , the CYKIDS study

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 3 2008
    C. Lazarou
    Summary Obesity status differs by socio-demographic factors, but data for Cyprus are scarce. An in-depth understanding of this relationship may be useful in designing public health programmes. The objective of the present study is to estimate overweight and obesity (OW/OB) prevalence among children and adults in Cyprus and identify related socio-demographic variables. National cross-sectional study of 1140 children (mean age 11 ± 0.98 years) and their parents (mean age 42.5 ± 5.8 years, total n = 1954). Obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization classification for adults and according to IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) criteria for children. Overweight and obesity prevalence among girls was 18.3% and 2.9%, respectively, while in boys, 19.0% and 6.0%. Among parents, OW/OB prevalence was, respectively, women, 22.6% and 5.8%; men, 47.1% and 14.1%. Logistic regression analysis in both children and adults revealed that the most important socio-demographic predictors of obesity status are factors of built environment. Higher prevalence of OW/OB was observed in adults living in a house as opposed to an apartment, in older adults, in younger children, and in men, irrespective of age. There is a severe obesity problem in the Cypriot population; almost one in two adults and at least one in four preadolescent children are overweight or obese. Prevalence of OW/OB was related to socio-demographic factors, especially among adults and women. [source]

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Greek men

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 2 2008
    A. Papadimitriou
    Summary We determined the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Greek men in 2006 and examined variations related to their place of residence and educational level. Body height and weight were measured in 2568 conscripts of the Greek army, aged 19,26 years. The calculated body mass index (BMI, kg m,2) was correlated to their socio-demographic characteristics, i.e. level of education and place of residence (urban or rural). Overweight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization classification. Mean BMI (standard deviation) of the conscripts was 24.7 (4.2). The prevalence of overweight (30 > BMI , 25 kg m,2) was 28.5% and correlated positively with a higher educational level, whereas the prevalence of obesity (BMI , 30 kg m,2) was 10.4% and correlated positively with a lower educational level. Our data were compared with those of similar studies performed in the years 1969: BMI 23.8 (1.4) (P < 0.0001) and 1990: BMI 23.8 (2.9) (P < 0.0001), showing a positive secular trend for BMI in Greek conscripts in the last 16 years. In conclusion, we documented an alarmingly high prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Greek men. [source]