Overt Signs (overt + sign)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Toxicity of oral exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis),

Craig A. McFarland
Abstract Contamination of the soil with the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been found at military sites, many of which are habitats used by reptiles. To provide data useful in assessing ecological risk for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted with the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Oral median lethal dose (LD50) values for TNT in corn oil were 1,038 and 1,579 mg/kg of body weight for male and female lizards, respectively. Overt signs of toxicity included chromaturia, abdominal enlargement, and tremors. A 14-d subacute study followed in which male lizards were orally dosed with TNT (corn oil) at 0, 33, 66, 132, 263, 525, and 1,050 mg/kg of body weight each day. Clinical signs of toxicity, while similar to the LD50 study, were more subtle and noted in lizards receiving TNT amounts of at least 66 mg/kg/d. Chromaturia was an early consistent sign, often preceding the onset of adverse effects. Male lizards in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 3, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mg/kg/d with nearly complete survival (>90%) for lizards in all treatments. Changes in food consumption and body weight were observed at 35 and 45 mg/kg/d. Alterations in hematological end points; blood chemistries (albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, calcium); kidney, spleen, and liver weights; and adverse histopathology were observed in lizards exposed at 25 to 45 mg/kg/d. Testosterone concentration, sperm count, and motility were variable between treatments. Although not significant, incidences of hypospermia and testicular atrophy were observed in some individuals. Together, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 25 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 15 mg/kg/d in S. occidentalis. [source]

Cardiac natriuretic peptides and continuously monitored atrial pressures during chronic rapid pacing in pigs


Changes in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were evaluated in relation to continuously monitored atrial pressures in a pacing model of heart failure. Pigs were subjected to rapid atrial pacing (225 beats min,1) for 3 weeks with adjustments of pacing frequencies if the pigs showed overt signs of cardiac decompensation. Atrial pressures were monitored by a telemetry system with the animals unsedated and freely moving. Left atrial pressure responded stronger and more rapidly to the initiation of pacing and to alterations in the rate of pacing than right atrial pressure. Plasma natriuretic peptide levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and all increased during pacing with BNP exhibiting the largest relative increase (2.9-fold increase relative to sham pigs). Multiple regression analysis with dummy variables was used to evaluate the relative changes in natriuretic peptides and atrial pressures and the strongest correlation was found between BNP and left atrial pressure with R,2=0.81. Termination of pacing resulted in rapid normalization of ANP values in spite of persistent elevations in atrial pressures. This may reflect an increased metabolism or an attenuated secretory response of ANP to atrial stretch with established heart failure. In conclusion, 3 weeks of rapid pacing induced significant increases in atrial pressures and natriuretic peptide levels. All the natriuretic peptides correlated with atrial pressures with BNP appearing as a more sensitive marker of cardiac filling pressures than ANP and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide. [source]

Enhanced reproduction in mallards fed a low level of methylmercury: An apparent case of hormesis

Gary H. Heinz
Abstract Breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 g/g mercury (Hg) in the form of methylmercury chloride. There were no effects of Hg on adult weights and no overt signs of Hg poisoning in adults. The Hg-containing diet had no effect on fertility of eggs, but hatching success of eggs was significantly higher for females fed 0.5 g/g Hg (71.8%) than for controls (57.5%). Survival of ducklings through 6 d of age was the same (97.8%) for controls and mallards fed 0.5 g/g mercury. However, the mean number of ducklings produced per female was significantly higher for the pairs fed 0.5 g/g Hg (21.4) than for controls (16.8). Although mercury in the parents' diet had no effect on mean duckling weights at hatching, ducklings from parents fed 0.5 g/g Hg weighed significantly more (mean,=,87.2 g) at 6 d of age than did control ducklings (81.0 g). The mean concentration of Hg in eggs laid by parents fed 0.5 g/g mercury was 0.81 g/g on a wet-weight basis. At this time, one cannot rule out the possibility that low concentrations of Hg in eggs may be beneficial, and this possibility should be considered when setting regulatory thresholds for methylmercury. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:650,653. 2009 SETAC [source]

Mice with the deleted neurofilament of low molecular weight (Nefl) gene: 2.

Effects on motor functions, spatial orientation
Abstract Mice with a null mutation of the Nefl gene were compared with normal controls in tests of motor activity, equilibrium, and spatial orientation. Despite a normal capacity to ambulate, NFL ,/, mice had fewer rears in an open field, crossed fewer segments on stationary beams, and fell more frequently when suspended on a horizontal bar. In addition, the distance swum before reaching the escape platform was greater in NFL ,/, mice than in controls during acquisition of place learning in the Morris water maze at the start of training. The motor impairments were linearly correlated with increased cytochrome oxidase activity seen in cerebellum and brainstem. These results indicate that, as early as 6 months, depletion of the NFL protein is sufficient to cause mild sensorimotor dysfunctions and spatial deficits, but without overt signs of paresis. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Incidence of the JAK2 V617F mutation among patients with splanchnic or cerebral venous thrombosis and without overt chronic myeloproliferative disorders

Summary., Background:, Thrombosis of splanchnic or cerebral veins is a typical manifestation of polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET). The recently identified Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F somatic mutation is closely related to chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMD). Objective:, To assess the incidence of the JAK2 V617F mutation among patients with splanchnic or cerebral venous thrombosis with or without overt CMD. Patients and methods:, We searched for the mutation in 139 adult patients (> 18 years old) with thrombosis of hepatic veins (HVT, n = 15), or extrahepatic portal vein (PVT) and/or mesenteric vein (MVT) (n = 79), or cerebral veins (CVT, n = 45). Only 19 patients fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of PV (n = 8) or ET (n = 11) at the time of thrombosis: four had HVT, 11 PVT and/or MVT, and four CVT. Results:, The JAK2 V617F mutation was found in 94.7% [95% CI 75.3,99.0] of the patients with overt CMD at the time of thrombosis, in 21.5% (95% CI 13.8,31.7) of the patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and without overt CMD, and in 4.8% (95% CI 1.3,16.1) of the patients with CVT and without overt CMD. Among the patients without overt CMD or thrombophilia and with unprovoked thrombosis, 29.4% (95% CI 16.8,46.1) with splanchnic venous thrombosis and 42.8% (95% CI 24.4,63.4) with PVT had the JAK2 V617F mutation. Conclusions:, A substantial proportion of patients with splanchnic venous thrombosis and a small, but significant, number of patients with CVT can be recognized as carriers of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the absence of overt signs of CMD. The clinical significance of such findings deserves further investigation. [source]

Relationship Among Follicular Growth, Oestrus, Time of Ovulation, Endogenous Estradiol 17, and Luteinizing Hormone in Bos Indicus Cows After a Synchronization Program

M Maquivar
Contents To determine the pattern of follicular growth during oestrus and the relationship with estradiol and luteinizing hormone in ovulating and non-ovulating cows, three groups of (n = 10), thirty cyclic, Bos indicus cows were synchronized with CIDR, consecutively at 9-day intervals. Twenty-four hours after implant withdrawal, all cows synchronized in the same group with other cows displaying estrous behaviour after implant withdrawal were subjected to an intensive period of ultrasonographic observations (every 6 h for 120 h). Blood samples were taken to evaluate LH surge and 17- , estradiol. No differences were observed in follicular growth, ovulatory diameter and growth average in the three groups of synchronized cows. Cows ovulating (CO) had a better growth average in comparison with the group of cows not ovulating (CNO) (1.4 0.7 mm vs 0.7 0.5 mm, p < 0.06). The average time from estradiol release to LH surge was 39.3 24.6 h. Differences were also observed between CO and CNO with respect to both the first concentration (27.7 5.2 vs 58.6 31.9, p < 0.004) and last concentration (79.3 23.3 vs 99.2 27.3, p < 0.05) of estradiol above 5 pg/ml. The average time from overt signs of oestrus to LH release was 8.4 7.7 h. In the CNO, the increase in LH concentration was never above two SD from the basal average. In conclusion, there is a wide variability in follicular growth and ovulatory diameter between CO and CNO, which can affect the intervals of LH release, estradiol peak and ovulation. Yet, LH surge might be a good marker for timing ovulation in Zebu cows. [source]

Changes in yearling rhesus monkeys' relationships with their mothers after sibling birth

B.J. Devinney
Abstract The birth of a new sibling is believed to signify an abrupt and important transition in a young primate's relationship with its mother,one that is of potential importance from at least three theoretical perspectives: attachment theory, parent,offspring conflict theory, and dynamic assessment models. This study examines changes in relationships between free-ranging yearling rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and their mothers concomitant with the birth of the mother's next infant, and tests predictions derived from each theoretical perspective. We observed 31 yearling rhesus on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, 3 months before and 3 months after their siblings' births, using focal animal sampling methods. Changes in measures related to mother,yearling interaction and yearling distress were examined using repeated-measures analysis of variance. After sibling birth, mothers and yearlings abruptly reduced amounts of time in contact and increased amounts of time at a distance and out of sight of one another. Mothers and yearlings played approximately equal roles in bringing about decreases in proximity, and yearlings took the primary roles in bringing about decreases in contact. Rates of maternal aggression toward yearlings increased immediately and markedly after birth, possibly providing yearlings with early cues regarding subsequent decreased levels of maternal care. There were no marked increases in overt signs of yearling distress (e.g., vocalizations or tantrums) following the births. We conclude that yearlings generally acquiesced to reduced levels of care, responding behaviorally with increased independence and maturity. In this sense, our study provides preliminary support for dynamic assessment models over attachment theory and parent,offspring conflict theory models. Am. J. Primatol. 54:193,210, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Alsin/Rac1 signaling controls survival and growth of spinal motoneurons

Arnaud Jacquier MSc
Objective Recessive mutations in alsin, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the GTPases Rab5 and Rac1, cause juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) and related motoneuron disorders. Alsin function in motoneurons remained unclear because alsin knock-out mice do not develop overt signs of motoneuron degeneration. Methods To generate an alsin loss-of-function model in an ALS-relevant cell type, we developed a new small interfering RNA electroporation technique that allows efficient knock down of alsin in embryonic rat spinal motoneurons. Results After small interfering RNA,mediated alsin knockdown, cultured motoneurons displayed a reduced apparent size of EEA1-labeled early endosomes and an increased intracellular accumulation of transferrin and L1CAM. Alsin knockdown induced cell death in 32 to 48% of motoneurons and significantly inhibited axon growth in the surviving neurons. Both cellular phenotypes were mimicked by expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 mutant and were completely blocked by expression of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant. Expression of dominant-negative or constitutively active forms of Rab5 had no such effects. Interpretation Our data demonstrate that alsin controls the growth and survival of motoneurons in a Rac1-dependant manner. The strategy reported here illustrates how small interfering RNA electroporation can be used to generate cellular models of neurodegenerative disease involving a loss-of-function mechanism. Ann Neurol 2006;60:105,117 [source]

Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat

RM Wouda
Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in an 11-year-old, desexed female Persian cat. The cat was initially referred for investigation of tachypnoea and dyspnoea. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a common incidental finding in cats and is usually asymptomatic. Myelolipoma is an extremely rare benign tumour, composed of extramedullary haematopoietic cells and adipose tissue. Myelolipomas are hypothesised to result from metaplastic alteration, rather than a neoplastic process, although this theory cannot be substantiated. The present case is only the fourth report of such an unusual occurrence in cats and displays significant differences to previous reports. Hepatic entrapment and burgeoning of the mass within the pericardial sac resulted in cardiac tamponade and overt signs of right-sided cardiac failure. Surgical intervention was successful and despite concerns regarding the cat's clinical presentation and the gross appearance of the lesion(s), a good long-term outcome is anticipated. [source]