Oviposition Sites (oviposition + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Thrips see red , flower colour and the host relationships of a polyphagous anthophilic thrips

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
A. YAKU
Abstract 1.,The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei, is a polyphagous anthophilic species that colonises a wide range of host-plant species across different plant taxa. The environmental cues used by these polyphagous insects to recognise and locate host plants are not known. We therefore determined if colour is an important environmental signal used by F. schultzei to recognise flowers of eight of its more significant host-plant species. 2.,The effect of flower colour on the colonisation of different host plant species by F. schultzei was investigated by collecting and analysing the following: (a) numbers of thrips from different heights and aspects of the primary host plant Malvaviscus arboreus, (b) thrips distribution within flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis, (c) colour reflectance from flowers of eight different host-plant species, and (d) reflectance from different coloured sticky traps and the number of thrips trapped on them at different times of the day and on different dates. 3.,The results indicate that: (a) the thrips (both sexes) concentrate towards the top of the primary host plant M. arboreus and are not distributed differentially according to sunny or shady aspect of the plant, (b) the number of female thrips on H. rosasinensis was higher in anthers compared to petals (corolla) and the basal parts of the flower, and males were as numerous on the petals as were females, and (c) there is a common floral reflectance pattern (but with different intensities) across the eight host plant species, mainly in the red part of the spectrum (600,700 nm). 4.,Results of colour sticky trapping show that red attracts more female thrips compared to any other colour and that most were caught between 09.00 and 11.00 hours. By contrast, more male thrips were trapped between 07.00 and 09.00 hours. Males were more evenly distributed across the different colours but the highest numbers were associated with the yellow traps. 5.,The higher densities of thrips at the top of their host plant may be related to the early morning (07.00,11.00 hours) activity of the thrips, when the top portions of the plant are more exposed to sunlight. The sex-related distributions of F. schultzei thrips across time, coloured sticky traps, and various parts of the flowers seem to be related to mating swarm formation by the males, on the one hand, and the relative frequency and intensity of the use of M. arboreus by the females, on the other, as a feeding and oviposition site. Frankliniella schultzei females respond more strongly to red than to any other colours, so it is predicted that the spectral properties of colour recognition by this species will correlate with the predominant red reflectance of its primary host, M. arboreus, and that there may well be a sex-related difference in colour recognition within this species. [source]


Predatory hoverflies select their oviposition site according to aphid host plant and aphid species

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2007
Raki Almohamad
Abstract The hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae) is an abundant and efficient aphid-specific predator. Several aphidophagous parasitoids and predators are known to respond positively to aphid-infested plants. Semiochemicals from the latter association usually mediate predator/parasitoid foraging behavior toward sites appropriate for offspring fitness. In this study, we investigated the effect of aphid host plant and aphid species on foraging and oviposition behavior of E. balteatus. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer v. 5.0, which allows observed insect behavior to be subdivided into different stages. Additionally, the influence of aphid species and aphid host plant on offspring fitness was tested in a second set of experiments. Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris and Megoura viciae Buckton were equally attractive for E. balteatus whereas Aphis fabae Scopoli (all Homoptera: Aphididae) were less attractive. These results were correlated with (i) the number of eggs laid, which was significantly higher for the two first aphid species, and (ii) the fitness of hoverfly larvae, pupae, and adults. Two solanaceous plant species, Solanum nigrum L. and Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), which were infested with Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae), were also compared using the same approach. Discrimination between these two M. persicae host plants was observed, with S. tuberosum being preferred as an oviposition site by the predatory hoverfly. Larval and adult fitness was correlated with the behavioral observations. Our results demonstrated the importance of the prey,host plant association on the choice of the oviposition site by an aphid predator, which is here shown to be related to offspring fitness. [source]


Conspecifics and Their Posture Influence Site Choice and Oviposition in the Damselfly Argia moesta

ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
Catherine J. Byers
Finding a suitable oviposition site can be costly because of energy and time requirements, and ovipositioning can be dangerous because of the risk of predation and harassment by males. The damselfly Argia moesta oviposits, contact-guarded by her mate, on vegetation in streams. Oviposition aggregations are commonly observed in this species, despite their territorial nature during other behaviors. We conducted experiments in the field to test the hypothesis that aggregations are the result of conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, two oviposition sites (sycamore leaves) were provided, one with models of ovipositing pairs, and one without. In the second experiment, one leaf again had ovipositing models, while the other had models of uncoupled males and females in a resting posture. In both experiments, damselfly pairs preferred the site with ovipositing models. In general, they visited the ovipositing models first more often than expected by chance, stayed longer there, were more likely to oviposit there, and laid a greater total number of eggs there. These results support the hypothesis that conspecific attraction is responsible for ovipositing aggregations in A. moesta and that posture is an important cue for attraction. Using conspecific cues could be a beneficial strategy to save in search costs while taking advantage of the presence of ovipositing conspecifics to dilute the effects of harassment and predation. [source]


Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
A. Romero
Abstract., Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly,microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly,bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management. [source]


Horizontal transfer of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms by gravid Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus mosquitoes in the laboratory

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
B. Dell Chism
Abstract., The insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen is highly active against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Through continuous emersion of large larvae (instars 3,4) the concentration causing 50% inhibition of adult emergence (EI50) was determined as 0.200 p.p.b. for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and 3.5 to 7 times less for Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say): IE50 0.0288 p.p.b. As a possible method of application to larval microscosms of these species that oviposit in water containers and phytotelmata, the horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms by adult mosquitoes was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Gravid females were forced to walk on surfaces treated with pyriproxyfen (tarsal contact exposure) and then allowed to oviposit in larval microcosms. Using replicate bioassay cages, each with an oviposition container, and a factorial experimental design, we assessed Ae. albopictus for the effects of (i) pyriproxyfen concentration (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/cm2) contacted by gravid females, and (ii) the number of treated gravid females added to bioassay cages (one, three or five females/cage), on the mortality of larvae in oviposition containers. Only 0.2 mg/cm2 treatment rate was tested on Oc. triseriatus. A significant (P < 0.05) curvilinear response in inhibition of emergence (IE) was achieved on both species. Densities of one or three treated Oc. triseriatus females/cage yielded IE rates of only 21,27%, whereas five treated females/cage resulted in 70% inhibition. With Ae. albopictus, densities of three or five treated females/cage yielded 48,67% and 59,73% IE, respectively, whereas one treated female/cage gave only 4,30% inhibition. Use of IGR-treated oviposition containers to achieve horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen to mosquito oviposition sites could be a field management technique based on mosquito biology and behaviour. In binary choice tests with Ae. albopictus, horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen from a container with a treated ovistrip (0.3 or 0.4 mg/cm2) to an untreated microcosm resulted in 14,38% inhibition. In larval bioassays, pyriproxyfen activity declined markedly within 10 days. Forcibly exposing gravid female mosquitoes to pyriproxyfen-treated paper surface did not affect their fecundity. However, from the 1st to 2nd gonotrophic cycles the egg hatch rate declined by 30% (P < 0.05). Some variation of results could be due to interactions between females at the oviposition site, possibly causing disproportionate transfer of pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms. Comparative studies of the oviposition behaviour of each mosquito are warranted and would potentially provide information needed to improve the technique. [source]


Oviposition by Lobesia botrana is stimulated by sugars detected by contact chemoreceptors

PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Nevile Maher
Abstract., The influence of glucose, fructose and sucrose on oviposition site selection by Lobesia botrana is studied by combining behavioural and electrophysiological experiments. Oviposition choice assays, using surrogate grapes treated with grape berry surface extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot at different development stages, show that L. botrana females are most stimulated by extracts of mature berries containing the highest concentrations of glucose and fructose. Choice assays reveal that the oviposition response to these sugars is dose-dependant (with a threshold of the applied solution = 10 mm and a maximum stimulation at 1 m) and that females are more sensitive to fructose than to glucose. Tarsal contact-chemoreceptor sensilla are unresponsive to stimulation with sugars but the ovipositor sensilla contain at least one neurone most sensitive to fructose and sucrose with a threshold of approximately 0.5 mm. Corresponding to the behavioural data, glucose is significantly less stimulatory to sensilla than fructose or sucrose. It is argued that fructose may be of special importance for herbivorous insects exploiting fruit as an oviposition site. [source]


Studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) ovipositional responses to newly identified semiochemicals from conspecific eggs

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Kumaran Ganesan
Abstract, The chemical factors influencing the selection of oviposition site by gravid females of various mosquito species have been the subject of numerous investigations. Recent studies have revealed this behaviour to be controlled by semiochemicals. Here we report studies on semiochemicals of egg origin and their effect on the ovipositional behaviour of Aedes aegypti. The compounds present in egg extracts of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. They were then evaluated for their effect on ovipositional behaviour against gravid females of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at different concentrations. Gravid female Ae. aegypti were found to be sensitive to all the identified compounds: 6-hexanolactone, methyl dodecanoate, dodecanoic acid, methyl tetradecanoate, tetradecanoic acid, methyl (Z)-9-hexadecenoate, methyl hexadecanoate (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl (Z)-9-octadecenoate, methyl octadecanoate (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. Among them, dodecanoic and (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acids showed significant positive ovipositional response at different concentrations whereas all the esters showed deterrent/repellent ovipositional effect. [source]


Oviposition decreased in response to enriched water: a field study of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
DAVID HOEKMAN
Abstract 1.,Environmental cues are known to influence oviposition behaviour in mosquitoes, with important consequences for larval survival and insect population dynamics. Enriched microhabitats have been shown to be preferred oviposition sites. 2.,In a field experiment designed to determine whether ovipositing mosquitoes are sensitive to different levels of nutrient enrichment, new pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves were opened and enriched with 0, 2, or 20 dead ants, and the number of pitcher-plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii) larvae resulting from subsequent oviposition were measured. 3.,Oviposition rates were higher in leaves with low levels of enrichment (0 and 2 ants per leaf), although larval development was enhanced at the highest enrichment level. 4.,Results suggest that, although these mosquito larvae are nutrient limited, ovipositing females preferentially avoid highly enriched leaves. This counterintuitive result may be due to low oxygen concentrations or a masked cue in enriched leaves, and contrasts with other oviposition studies. [source]


Skewed sex ratios and multiple founding in galls of the oak apple gall wasp Biorhiza pallida

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Rachel J. Atkinson
Abstract. 1. The gall wasp Biorhiza pallida (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) reproduces by cyclical parthenogenesis. The adults of the sexual generation develop within galls (oak apples) that contain many larval cells. 2. Folliot [(1964) Annales Des Sciences Naturelles: Zoologie, 12, 407,564] found asexual generation females to be of three reproductive types. Androphores produce only sons, gynophores produce only daughters, and gynandrophores produce both sons and daughters. In nature, most oak apples give rise to either only males or only females but a proportion produces both sexes. These mixed-sex galls could result either from eggs laid by one or more gynandrophores or from eggs laid by androphores and gynophores developing within a single gall (multiple founding). 3.,Here the frequency of mixed- and single-sex galls was quantified, and morphological and genetic analyses were carried out on the adults emerging from 10 galls to determine the frequency of multiple founding in B. pallida. 4. Seventy-five per cent of 627 galls yielded only one sex. The majority of the remaining 25% had a highly skewed sex ratio. Low genetic variation in B. pallida limited the application of allozyme-based genetic techniques, however seven of the 10 galls analysed in detail, including mixed-sex galls, appeared to have been multiply founded. Contributions by the different foundresses in multiply founded galls were highly skewed. 5. The significance of multiple founding is discussed in the light of possible adaptive scenarios (reduction of parasitoid-induced mortality, avoidance of local stochastic extinction and inbreeding) and possible competition for oviposition sites. [source]


The role of resources and natural enemies in determining the distribution of an insect herbivore population

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Iain S. Williams
Summary 1. Both resources and natural enemies can influence the distribution of a herbivore. The ideal free distribution predicts that herbivores distribute themselves to optimise utilisation of resources. There is also evidence of herbivores seeking out refuges that reduce natural enemy attack (enemy-free space). Which of these theories predominates in a thistle,tephritid Terellia ruficauda (Diptera: Tephritidae),parasitoid interaction is examined. 2. The plant, Cirsium palustre, had a contagious distribution approximated by the negative binomial distribution. Terellia ruficauda foraged preferentially and oviposited on isolated plants although its larvae gained neither nutritional benefit nor reduced natural enemy pressure from such behaviour. 3. Parasitoids of T. ruficauda foraged and oviposited more frequently on isolated than on crowded T. ruficauda, resulting in inverse density-dependent parasitoid attack at all spatial scales examined. Neither the herbivore nor natural enemies distributed themselves according to the predictions of the ideal free distribution and the herbivore did not oviposit to reduce natural enemy attack. 4. Extrapolating from the theoretical predictions of the ideal free distribution and enemy-free space to the field requires considerable caution. Terellia ruficauda and its parasitoids appear to select their oviposition sites to spread the risk of losses through factors (e.g. mammal herbivory) that may damage dense clusters of C. palustre. [source]


Nutrients, diversity, and community structure of two phytotelm systems in a lower montane forest, Puerto Rico

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
Barbara A. Richardson
Summary 1. Bromeliad and heliconia phytotelmata in the same forest area were compared in terms of their animal assemblages, nutrient inputs, and plant architecture. 2. For all major elements, nutrient inputs from canopy-derived debris and rainfall in bromeliads were significantly lower than those derived from decaying flower parts and plant secretions in heliconia bracts. Bromeliads contained significantly fewer organisms per unit volume of water and unit dry weight of organic matter than did heliconia inflorescences. They also contained a significantly lower animal biomass (199 mg DW from 15 bromeliads, 527 mg DW from 15 heliconia inflorescences). 3. Species richness was independent of abundance, demonstrating that, at least for small container habitats, higher abundance does not necessarily lead to a greater species richness. Communities were remarkably similar in patterns of relative abundance and species richness (23 spp. in bromeliads, 21 spp. in heliconia), probably due to functional similarities in plant architecture, with the two most abundant species comprising 60,62% of the total community. Coefficients of similarity were low because of marked differences in species assemblages. 4. Some taxa were phytotelm generalists but most showed a preference for one particular habitat, indicating differential selection in the choice of oviposition sites and larval development within the forest ecosystem. In common with many island communities, species richness was lower than that reported for these phytotelm habitats in mainland central and south America. [source]


Can late summer Landsat data be used for locating Asian migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratoria, oviposition sites in the Amudarya River delta, Uzbekistan?

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2008
Ramesh Sivanpillai
Abstract Existing survey methods for assessing the Asian migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), infestation risk in the Amudarya River delta, Uzbekistan, are largely constrained by economic resources and site accessibility. The surveys are restricted to a few easily accessible areas, which leads to a misinterpretation of the threat of locust infestation. This often results in indiscriminate blanket treatments of vast areas of wetlands with broad-spectrum insecticides, which may adversely impact non-target fauna and flora. In order to minimize the bias during surveys, one approach would be to allocate the sampling locations based on the distribution of the primary food and shelter plant of the locusts, the common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud (Poaceae). In this study, we evaluated the utility of satellite-based remotely sensed data (Landsat TM) acquired in August 2006 to characterize reed distribution in the delta and identify potential locust oviposition sites. The overall accuracy of the Landsat data to map land cover classes in the delta was 84%. The Landsat TM data identified 90% of the reeds, but it was less useful in identifying areas where other vegetations (shrubs and grasses) were mixed with reeds. During the following summer field survey in June 2007, we identified 37 sites that were infested with early-instar locusts. The low migration capacity of young nymphs in dense reed vegetation allowed us to presume that these sites were used for oviposition in the previous summer. Twenty-eight (74%) of these 37 sites had reeds in the previous year. Results from these studies demonstrate that reed distribution maps derived from satellite data could be used for targeting locust egg-pod survey locations, in order to minimize sampling bias while predicting locust infestation risks for the following season. [source]


Overwintering of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoidis

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2-3 2002
F.A. Wade
Abstract Spatial and temporal aspects of overwintering in the holocyclic sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoidis (Schrank) (Homoptera: Callaphididae) were investigated. Eggs of D. platanoidis were principally laid on trunks and branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L., at considerable distances from the buds. Trunks with rough bark, followed by branches with moderate roughness supported more overwintering eggs than the relatively exposed smooth surfaces of twigs and terminal buds. Eggs were aggregated on rough bark. Aspect had no effect on the number of eggs laid. Experimental manipulations varying ovipara densities showed intra-specific competition among oviparae for optimal oviposition sites. Overwintering egg mortality was a function of time, with the greatest mortality rate occurring in late winter. Egg mortality varied from 80.4% to 76.9% on trunks and 83.0% to 65.9% on branches in 1996 and 1997. [source]


Conspecifics and Their Posture Influence Site Choice and Oviposition in the Damselfly Argia moesta

ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
Catherine J. Byers
Finding a suitable oviposition site can be costly because of energy and time requirements, and ovipositioning can be dangerous because of the risk of predation and harassment by males. The damselfly Argia moesta oviposits, contact-guarded by her mate, on vegetation in streams. Oviposition aggregations are commonly observed in this species, despite their territorial nature during other behaviors. We conducted experiments in the field to test the hypothesis that aggregations are the result of conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, two oviposition sites (sycamore leaves) were provided, one with models of ovipositing pairs, and one without. In the second experiment, one leaf again had ovipositing models, while the other had models of uncoupled males and females in a resting posture. In both experiments, damselfly pairs preferred the site with ovipositing models. In general, they visited the ovipositing models first more often than expected by chance, stayed longer there, were more likely to oviposit there, and laid a greater total number of eggs there. These results support the hypothesis that conspecific attraction is responsible for ovipositing aggregations in A. moesta and that posture is an important cue for attraction. Using conspecific cues could be a beneficial strategy to save in search costs while taking advantage of the presence of ovipositing conspecifics to dilute the effects of harassment and predation. [source]


Life-history traits of the edible stinkbug, Encosternum delegorguei (Hem., Tessaratomidae), a traditional food in southern Africa

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 9-10 2009
C. M. Dzerefos
Abstract Little is known of the life history of the edible stinkbug, Encosternum delegorguei, although it is an important food for people living in north-eastern South Africa and southern Zimbabwe. The present study aimed to establish key elements influencing long-term sustainable harvesting. Outdoor insectaries of two sizes were constructed to observe: daily activity, utilization of plants, copulation, oviposition, eclosion and survival from May 2006 to February 2007. The rest of the annual life cycle was observed in the field in March and April 2007 and identified as univoltine. In autumn (May) E. delegorguei entered reproductive diapause and aggregated within the escarpment mist-belt where it survived the winter on vapour condensation without feeding. Monthly dissections showed that abdominal fat content was highest in June. In spring (September) E. delegorguei fed on sap of the trees Combretum imberbe, Combretum molle, Peltophorum africanum, to a lesser degree on Dodonaea viscosa and the grass Pennisetum clandestinum. Copulation occurred in October and November. An overall total of 1752 E. delegorguei eggs were laid by 103 females and incubation time averaged 18.7 ± 9.0 days (range 7,37) at outdoor temperature ranging from 11°C to 25°C. The mean number of eggs in 64 egg masses was 27.4 ± 13.9 (range of 2,56 eggs). Shade cloth (68.8%) was the most commonly used substrate for depositing eggs followed by P. clandestinum (12.5%), C. imberbe (7.8%), P. africanum (6.3%), D. viscosa (1.6%), C. molle (1.6%) and C. erythrophyllum (1.6%). The parasitoid wasp, Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) infected 57% of the eggs deposited by captive females. Availability of food plants in combination with parasitoid threat may be a reason for seasonal migration between overwintering sites within the mist-belt and summer oviposition sites. Diminishing harvests could be attributed to fuelwood harvesting of food plants in the summer sites. [source]


Influence of the spatial distribution of human hosts and large size containers on the dispersal of the mosquito Aedes aegypti within the first gonotrophic cycle

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
R. MACIEL-DE-FREITAS
It is generally accepted that Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) has a short dispersal capacity, and that displacement can be influenced by the availability of oviposition sites in the surroundings of emergence or release sites. In the present article, we observed the influence of spatial heterogeneity of large containers and human hosts on the cumulative flight direction of Ae. aegypti females during the first gonotrophic cycle, testing the hypothesis that they aggregate in resource-rich areas, i.e. where there are higher concentrations of large containers and/or humans per habitation. We analysed data from pupal surveys and mark-release-recapture experiments (non-blood-fed females were released) carried out in two dengue endemic neighbourhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Tubiacanga (a suburb, with a human density of 337 inhabitants/ha) and Favela do Amorim (a slum, with a human density of 901 inhabitants/ha). In both areas, host-seeking females of three different release cohorts showed an overall non-uniform and extensive dispersal from their release point within 1,2 days post-release. At 4,5 days post-release, when many of the released females would be expected to be gravid, in Tubiacanga most mosquitoes were collected in areas with a relatively higher density of containers/premise, independently of the density of residents/house, whereas in Favela do Amorim, almost half of the captured mosquitoes were collected in relatively resource-poorer areas. Although Ae. aegypti dispersal patterns varied between sites, overall the distances travelled from the release point and the cumulative flight directions were correlated with the density of containers and hosts, more markedly in Tubiacanga than in Favela do Amorim. [source]


Horizontal transfer of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms by gravid Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus mosquitoes in the laboratory

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
B. Dell Chism
Abstract., The insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen is highly active against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Through continuous emersion of large larvae (instars 3,4) the concentration causing 50% inhibition of adult emergence (EI50) was determined as 0.200 p.p.b. for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and 3.5 to 7 times less for Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say): IE50 0.0288 p.p.b. As a possible method of application to larval microscosms of these species that oviposit in water containers and phytotelmata, the horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms by adult mosquitoes was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Gravid females were forced to walk on surfaces treated with pyriproxyfen (tarsal contact exposure) and then allowed to oviposit in larval microcosms. Using replicate bioassay cages, each with an oviposition container, and a factorial experimental design, we assessed Ae. albopictus for the effects of (i) pyriproxyfen concentration (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/cm2) contacted by gravid females, and (ii) the number of treated gravid females added to bioassay cages (one, three or five females/cage), on the mortality of larvae in oviposition containers. Only 0.2 mg/cm2 treatment rate was tested on Oc. triseriatus. A significant (P < 0.05) curvilinear response in inhibition of emergence (IE) was achieved on both species. Densities of one or three treated Oc. triseriatus females/cage yielded IE rates of only 21,27%, whereas five treated females/cage resulted in 70% inhibition. With Ae. albopictus, densities of three or five treated females/cage yielded 48,67% and 59,73% IE, respectively, whereas one treated female/cage gave only 4,30% inhibition. Use of IGR-treated oviposition containers to achieve horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen to mosquito oviposition sites could be a field management technique based on mosquito biology and behaviour. In binary choice tests with Ae. albopictus, horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen from a container with a treated ovistrip (0.3 or 0.4 mg/cm2) to an untreated microcosm resulted in 14,38% inhibition. In larval bioassays, pyriproxyfen activity declined markedly within 10 days. Forcibly exposing gravid female mosquitoes to pyriproxyfen-treated paper surface did not affect their fecundity. However, from the 1st to 2nd gonotrophic cycles the egg hatch rate declined by 30% (P < 0.05). Some variation of results could be due to interactions between females at the oviposition site, possibly causing disproportionate transfer of pyriproxyfen to larval microcosms. Comparative studies of the oviposition behaviour of each mosquito are warranted and would potentially provide information needed to improve the technique. [source]


Egg performance on an egg-carrying bug.

OIKOS, Issue 2 2001
Experiments in the field
Selection of oviposition sites has direct influence on female fitness. Differences in offspring survival among sites should favour females to select oviposition sites with the highest survival. Golden egg bug females (Phyllomorpha laciniata; Coreidae, Heteroptera) use conspecifics as oviposition substrates. Most eggs are laid on the back of the bug but they can be found on all body parts. Females never carry their own eggs, and males commonly carry eggs received without copulation with the donor. We examined differences in egg survival relative to paternity to the egg, host sex and body size and attachment of an egg on a host's body in the field. We also studied which bugs received eggs. Egg loss was surprisingly common: 30,80% of recaptured individuals lost eggs during a six-day period. Unexpectedly, host's paternity to the eggs did not affect egg survival. Also, egg loss did not differ among hosts in respect to other parameters studied. Males received more eggs than females, but survival of the eggs was not better on a male's back than on a female's back. Since egg loss is common in the golden egg bug, we suggest that female oviposition strategy to lay eggs on conspecifics is not perfect. This is due to active behaviour of potential hosts (for example, rejected oviposition attempts) or lack of suitable oviposition substrates (conspecifics) in the field. Since eggs do not survive unless carried, females may be acting opportunistically, doing the best job possible by laying eggs on available conspecifics. [source]


Colleterial glands of Sesamia nonagrioides as a source of the host-recognition kairomone for the egg parasitoid Telenomus busseolae

PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
FEDERICA DE SANTIS
Abstract The maize stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides glues its egg masses under the leaf sheaths or ear bracts using colleterial gland secretion. In spite of such concealed oviposition sites, these eggs are parasitized by Telenomus busseolae. The colleterial glands of S. nonagrioides are investigated as a possible source of the host-recognition kairomone for T. busseolae. This secretion, applied on glass beads, elicits intense antennal drumming and oviposition probing behaviour in the parasitoid. Through an histochemical study, neutral and acid glycoconjugates are identified as components of the secretion. Finally, using ultrastructural techniques, the colleterial glands are described and classified as comprising class 3 secretory cells. [source]


Recovering the Reptile Community after the Mine-Tailing Accident of Aznalcóllar (Southwestern Spain)

RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Rocío Márquez-Ferrando
Abstract Ecosystem restoration requires that habitat requirements of all species be considered. Among animal communities in Mediterranean ecosystems, reptiles, as ectothermic vertebrates, need refuges for avoidance of extreme environmental temperatures, concealment from predators, and oviposition sites. In 1998, a massive amount of tailings broke out of the holding pond of the Aznalcóllar mine (southwestern Spain) and polluted the Guadiamar river valley. After the accident, a soil- and vegetation restoration program began, and the Guadiamar Green Corridor was created to connect two huge natural areas, Doñana National Park and the Sierra Morena. Within this corridor, the reptile community remained dramatically impoverished, probably because of elimination of all natural refuges during the soil restoration program. To test this hypothesis, we set an array of artificial refuges (logs) in a large experimental plot. During the 5 years of the experiment (2002,2006), the area managed with artificial refuges exhibited a better and faster recovery of the reptile community in species richness and individual abundance than did the control area with no artificial refuges. Moreover, reptile colonization of the Guadiamar Green Corridor was transverse rather than lineal,that is, it did not act as a corridor for reptiles, at least in the first stages of colonization. This suggests that landscape restoration programs should not neglect refuge availability, a limiting resource for reptile species. [source]


Mating behaviour and alternative oviposition sites for male eggs in the heteronomous hyperparasitoid Coccophagus gurneyi Compere (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
GT Parkes
Abstract The aphelinid parasitoid Coccophagus gurneyi Compere has unusual sex-related host relationships. Females are diploid and develop internally within mealybugs Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell). Males, in contrast, are haploid and hyperparasitic, developing on primary parasitoid larvae within the mealybugs. Furthermore, males have been claimed to be capable of either internal or external development, depending on the precise site of deposition of the haploid egg. This diversity of developmental pathways could indicate the existence of a sibling-species complex. We therefore quantified the mating and ovipositional behaviour of C. gurneyi, for comparison with that of an undescribed sibling species. We also checked whether the females deposit male eggs in alternative sites. The pattern of mating was found to be typical of mating behaviour in Coccophagus spp. and was consistent among all mating pairs, suggesting that the colony comprised one species. Further, the mating behaviour was significantly different from that of the undescribed sibling species. The site of male egg deposition varied and is apparently dictated by two factors; whether the mealybug is parasitised and, if so, the size of the parasitoid it contains. If the mealybugs were unparasitised or if the parasitoids within the mealybugs were small (< 0.53 mm), male eggs were deposited within the mealybug haemocoel. If the parasitoids were large (> 1.05 mm), male eggs were deposited within the parasitoids. These results support the claim of alternate host relationships and developmental pathways within males of C. gurneyi. [source]


Nesting in a thermally challenging environment: nest-site selection in a rock-dwelling gecko, Oedura lesueurii (Reptilia: Gekkonidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
DAVID A. PIKE
In egg-laying species, maternal oviposition choice can influence egg survival and offspring phenotypes. According to the maternal-preference offspring-performance hypothesis, females should choose oviposition sites that are optimal for offspring fitness. However, in thermally challenging environments, maternal oviposition behaviour may be constrained by the limited availability of suitable oviposition sites. We investigated nest-site selection in a nocturnal lizard [velvet gecko Oedura lesueurii (Duméril and Bibron)] that inhabits a thermally challenging environment in south-eastern Australia. The viability of these gecko populations is critical for the persistence of an endangered snake species (Hoplocephalus bungaroides Wagler) that feeds heavily on velvet geckos. Female geckos chose nest sites nonrandomly, with 87% of nests (N = 30) being laid in deep crevices. By contrast, only 13% of clutches were laid under rocks, which were the most readily available potential nest sites. Nest success in crevices was high (100%), but no eggs hatched from nests under rocks. Temperatures in nest crevices remained relatively low and constant throughout the incubation period (mean = 22.7 °C, range 21.0,24.5 °C), whereas thermal regimes under rocks showed large diurnal fluctuations. Geckos selected crevices that were deeper, had less canopy cover, and were warmer than most available crevices; in 85% of cases, such crevices were used simultaneously by more than one female. The thermally distinctive attributes of nest sites, and their frequent communal use, suggest that nest sites are a scarce resource for female velvet geckos, and that the shading of rock outcrops through vegetation encroachment may influence nest success in this species. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 250,259. [source]


Anti-predator crèches and aggregations of ant-mimicking jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2008
XIMENA J. NELSON
Myrmarachne assimilis, an ant-like jumping spider (Araneae, Salticidae) from the Philippines and a Batesian mimic of Oecophylla smaragdina, the Asian weaver ant, aggregates on leaves in the company of its model. All stages in this species' lifecycle are sometimes found in nest complexes (nests connected to each other by silk). Although aggregating and forming nest complexes is known for a few other salticid species, the aggregations of M. assimilis have some unusual characteristics. In particular, reproductive females appear to be most frequently found with other reproductive females in nest complexes, suggesting that nest complexes have a role in parental care and are often built by females joining other females. An egg-survival experiment showed that eggs in solitary nests were more often destroyed than were eggs in nest complexes, suggesting that, for females of M. assimilis, choosing aggregations as oviposition sites may be functionally akin to life insurance for their progeny. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 94, 475,481. [source]