Oviposition Preference (oviposition + preference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Oviposition Preferences in Newts: Does Temperature Matter?

ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Jan Dvo
A female's decision where and when to place her eggs has important fitness consequences for her offspring. Although temperature is considered among the most relevant abiotic factors affecting female oviposition site choice in ectotherms, little is known about the relative importance of temperature cues in complex oviposition decisions. In this study, we examined female's oviposition choice under conflicting demands for temperature and embryo protection by studying oviposition behaviour in female alpine newts, Triturus alpestris, exposed to various thermal conditions and the availability of egg-wrapping vegetation. Females oviposited between 12.5 and 22.5°C in the aquatic thermal gradient (5,32.5°C) with the unrestricted availability of oviposition vegetation. The removal of the vegetation from predominantly chosen oviposition temperatures (15,20°C) induced egg-retention in most females. This suggests that both temperature and the presence of egg-wrapping vegetation play important roles in oviposition site choice of alpine newts. [source]


Oviposition preference and larval performance within a diverging lineage of lycaenid butterflies

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Matthew L. Forister
Abstract. 1. The butterfly genus Mitoura in Northern California includes three nominal species associated with four host plants having parapatric or interdigitated ranges. Genetic analyses have shown the taxa to be very closely related, and adults from all host backgrounds will mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. Oviposition preference and larval performance were investigated with the aim of testing the hypothesis that variation in these traits can exist in a system in which non-ecological barriers to gene flow (i.e. geographic barriers and genetic incompatibilities) appear to be minimal. 2. Females were sampled from 12 locations throughout Northern California, including sympatric and parapatric populations associated with the four different host-plant species. Oviposition preference was assayed by confining wild-caught females with branches of all four host species and counting the number of eggs laid on each. Offspring were reared on the same host species and two measures of larval success were taken: per cent survival and pupal weight. 3. For populations associated with one of the hosts, incense cedar, the preference,performance relationship is simple: the host that females chose is the plant which results in the highest pupal weights for offspring. The preference,performance relationship for populations associated with the other hosts is more complex and may reflect different levels of local adaptation. The variation in preference and performance reported here suggests that these traits can evolve when non-ecological barriers to gene flow are low, and that differences in these traits may be important for the evolution of reproductive isolation within Mitoura. [source]


Role of prey,host plant associations on Harmonia axyridis and Episyrphus balteatus reproduction and predatory efficiency

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2008
Ammar Alhmedi
Abstract In order to predict possible locations of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the field, we studied their oviposition and prey preferences in relation to several host plant,prey associations under laboratory conditions. Oviposition preference of H. axyridis and E. balteatus females was determined for three aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae),host plant associations: Microlophium carnosum Buckton on stinging nettle [Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae)], Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris on green pea [Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae)], and Sitobion avenae F. on wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae)]. Prey preference of H. axyridis and E. balteatus larvae was determined with the aphids M. carnosum, A. pisum, and S. avenae. Harmonia axyridis females showed a strong oviposition preference for the stinging nettle,M. carnosum association. The preferred association for ovipostion by E. balteatus was pea-hosting A. pisum, on which fecundity was also highest. Feeding behaviour was less restricted in H. axyridis, in which the preferred preys were M. carnosum and S. avenae. A lower specificity of predation was observed in E. balteatus larvae with respect to A. pisum. These laboratory experiments may help us to understand the spatial distribution of H. axyridis and E. balteatus in the field. [source]


Oviposition preference and larval performance of the sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata on Ipomoea species in Ethiopia

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Ferdu Azerefegne
1The sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata is an indigenous species in Ethiopia that has become a major pest on the introduced sweet potato Ipomoea batatas. To assess the role of wild Ethiopian Ipomoea species as host plants, the presence of larvae on wild ipomoeas was studied, and female oviposition choice and larval performance were tested on five wild ipomoeas, as well as on sweet potato. 2In laboratory tests, oviposition and larval development were successful on two wild ipomoeas (Ipomoea tenuirostris and Ipomoea cairica) but no oviposition occurred on the remaining three species. Of the latter, larvae did not feed on Ipomoea hochstetteri and Ipomoea indica, and survival rates were extremely low on Ipomoea purpurea. 3Sweet potato was a better host plant than I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in terms of oviposition preference, larval survival and pupal size; pupae were larger, resulting in more fecund female butterflies. 4In the wild butterfly populations were abundant on I. tenuirostris but absent on I. cairica. Females also tended to prefer I. tenuirostris to I. cairica in oviposition choice experiments. However, no significant differences in performance were found between larvae raised on I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in the laboratory. 5Wild populations of A. acerata also existed on Ipomoea obscura, a plant not investigated in the present study. 6The abundance of A. acerata on wild ipomoeas is too low to likely affect butterfly population densities on sweet potato. However, wild populations may act as reservoirs subsequent to butterfly population bottlenecks on sweet potato. [source]


Differential defoliation of Eucalyptus grandis arises from indiscriminant oviposition and differential larval survival

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
M. L. Henery
Abstract 1,The influence of six open-pollinated families (OPFs) of Eucalyptus grandis on both the growth and development of larvae and the oviposition preference of a paropsine chrysomelid (Paropsis atomaria) was investigated. The OPFs had previously been identified as differing in their susceptibility to defoliation by P. atomaria in forestry progeny trials. 2,Oviposition preference for resistant and susceptible foliage was tested using binary choice tests. These tests did not demonstrate any significant preference for either resistant or susceptible open-pollinated material indicating that adult host preference for susceptible trees was not a likely cause of differential defoliation. 3,Quantification and analysis of growth and development parameters for all larval stages of P. atomaria showed that feeding on genetic material identified as resistant resulted in a significant reduction of relative growth rate of first instar larvae and an alteration to normal feeding behaviour. There was also a trend towards increased larval mortality on resistant E. grandis. 4,We argue that although the magnitude of these effects was minor, interactions with additional biotic and abiotic sources of mortality in the field have the potential, when magnified over successive generations, to result in significant variation in defoliation of host genotypes in the field. [source]


Oviposition preferences of Maculinea alcon as influenced by aphid (Aphis gentianae) and fungal (Puccinia gentianae) infestation of larval host plants

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
ERVIN ÁRNYAS
Abstract 1.,The influence of infestation of the larval host plant Gentiana cruciata on the egg-laying preferences of the xerophilous ecotype of Alcon Blue butterfly (Maculinea alcon) was studied in a semi-dry grassland area (Aggtelek Karst Region, Northern Hungary). 2.,We examined whether oviposition patterns of females differed when G. cruciata stems were uninfested compared with when they were infested by an aphid (Aphis gentianae) or a rust (Puccinia gentianae) species. 3.,Females laid more than 90% of their eggs on fertile, uninfested G. cruciata stems, although these stems comprised only , 50% of the total stems available. Stems infested by aphids were similar to uninfested ones in properties that had a strong correlation with egg numbers, and yet there were significantly fewer eggs on infested stems than on intact ones. 4.,Females never laid eggs on parts of Gentiana stems infested by aphids, and the presence of Lasius paralienus ants, which have a mutualistic interaction with Aphis gentianae, did not increase the repulsive effect of aphids. Infection of Gentiana by Puccinia did not influence the egg-laying behaviour of females, even though the flowers and buds of infested stems exhibited a delayed development. 5.,Aphid infestation can influence butterfly oviposition patterns through both direct and indirect effects. The presence of aphids directly excluded oviposition, but our data also indicated the possibility of an indirect effect of aphid infestation. Stems that had no aphids at the last egg counting, but were infested prior to it, had significantly fewer eggs than those that were never infested. [source]


Trade-offs in oviposition choice?

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2007
Food-dependent performance, defence against predators of a herbivorous sawfly
Abstract The sawfly Athalia rosae L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is a feeding specialist on plant species of the Brassicaceae, which are characterised by secondary metabolites, called glucosinolates. The larvae can take up the respective glucosinolates of their hosts and concentrate them in their haemolymph to protect themselves against predators. Oviposition preferences of naďve females were tested for three species, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, and Barbarea stricta Andrz., and were related to larval performance patterns. Larvae were reared on either one of these plants and it was investigated how host-plant quality influences both the developmental times and growth of larvae (bottom-up) and the defence efficiency against predators (top-down). Innately, almost all adult females avoided B. stricta for oviposition and clearly preferred B. nigra over S. alba. On average, larvae developed best on B. nigra. Female larvae reached similar final body masses on all host-plant species, but males reared on S. alba were slightly lighter. The developmental time of larvae reared on B. stricta was significantly longer than on the other two plants. However, larvae reared on B. stricta were best protected against the predatory wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The wasps rejected these larvae most often, while they attacked larvae reared on S. alba most frequently. Thus, larvae feeding on B. stricta theoretically run a higher risk of predation due to a prolonged developmental time, but in practice they are better protected against predators. Overall, oviposition preferences of A. rosae seem to be more influenced by bottom-up effects on larval performance than by top-down effects. [source]


Diamondback moth females oviposit more on plants infested by non-parasitised than by parasitised conspecifics

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
YASUYUKI CHOH
Abstract 1.,When offered a choice, female diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) oviposited more eggs on plants with non-parasitised conspecific larvae than on plants with parasitised larvae. 2.,The leaf area consumed by parasitised larvae was significantly lower than that by non-parasitised larvae. However, this quantitative difference in larval damage did not explain the female's ability to discriminate between plants with parasitised and non-parasitised larvae, as females showed an equal oviposition preference for plants infested by higher or lower densities of non-parasitised larvae. 3.,Pupal weight and duration of the larval stage of P. xylostella were independent of whether larvae were reared on plants that were previously infested by either non-parasitised or parasitised larvae. 4.,The larval parasitoid Cotesia vestalis did not distinguish between plants infested by non-parasitised larvae and plants infested by larvae that had already been parasitised by conspecific wasps. 5.,Based on these data, it can be concluded that the moth oviposition preference for plants infested by non-parasitised conspecifics relative to plants infested by parasitised conspecifics was not explained by plant quality or by the attractiveness of plants towards wasps. It is hypothesised that one of the reasons for this preference is avoidance of plants where a relatively high risk of parasitism is expected due to the emergence of parasitoids from the parasitised host larvae. [source]


Do parasitoids diversify in response to host-plant shifts by herbivorous insects?

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
James T. Cronin
Summary 1. For herbivorous insects, the incorporation of a novel host into the diet, and subsequent formation of distinct host associations (races), is thought to be a significant early step in the speciation process. While many studies have addressed this issue, virtually nothing is known about the evolutionary response of natural enemies to herbivore host-race formation. 2. The hypothesis that the parasitoid wasp Eurytoma gigantea (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) has formed host races in direct response to the host shift and subsequent host-race formation by its host, the gallmaker Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) was tested. Emergence time, mating preference, and female oviposition preference were determined for parasitoids derived from galls of each Eurosta host race. 3. Male and female E. gigantea overlap broadly in their emergence times from each Eurosta host race, suggesting that there is no phenological barrier to gene flow. 4. In choice experiments, female parasitoids did not mate assortatively: females that emerged from one Eurosta host race were equally likely to mate with males from either Eurosta host race. 5. Oviposition behaviour experiments revealed that female parasitoids do not prefer to oviposit on their host race of origin and that there is no overall preference for one host race, even though fitness is higher when parasitoids are reared from Eurosta galls of the Solidago gigantea host race than when reared from Eurosta galls of the Solidago altissima host race. 6. These results suggest that E. gigantea has not diverged in parallel with its host in response to the herbivore host-plant shift. Further studies are needed before the ubiquity of this diversification mechanism can be evaluated fully. [source]


The influence of host plant variation and intraspecific competition on oviposition preference and offspring performance in the host races of Eurosta solidaginis

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
Timothy P. Craig
Summary 1. A series of experiments was conducted to measure the impact of plant genotype, plant growth rate, and intraspecific competition on the oviposition preference and offspring performance of the host races of Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a fly that forms galls on Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae). Previous research has shown that both host races prefer to oviposit on their own host plant where survival is much higher than on the alternate host plant. In this study, neither host race showed any relationship between oviposition preference and offspring performance in choosing among plants of their natal host species. 2. The larval survival of both host races differed among plant genotypes when each host race oviposited on its natal host species. In one experiment, altissima host race females showed a preference among plant genotypes that was not correlated with offspring performance on those genotypes. In all other experiments, neither the altissima nor gigantea host race demonstrated a preference for specific host plant genotypes. 3. Eurosta solidaginis had a preference for ovipositing on rapidly growing ramets in all experiments, however larval survival was not correlated with ramet growth rate at the time of oviposition. 4. Eurosta solidaginis suffered high mortality from intraspecific competition in the early larval stage. There was little evidence, however, that females avoided ovipositing on ramets that had been attacked previously. This led to an aggregated distribution of eggs among ramets and strong intraspecific competition. 5. There was no interaction among plant genotype, plant growth rate, or intraspecific competition in determining oviposition preference or offspring performance. [source]


Role of prey,host plant associations on Harmonia axyridis and Episyrphus balteatus reproduction and predatory efficiency

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2008
Ammar Alhmedi
Abstract In order to predict possible locations of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the field, we studied their oviposition and prey preferences in relation to several host plant,prey associations under laboratory conditions. Oviposition preference of H. axyridis and E. balteatus females was determined for three aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae),host plant associations: Microlophium carnosum Buckton on stinging nettle [Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae)], Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris on green pea [Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae)], and Sitobion avenae F. on wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae)]. Prey preference of H. axyridis and E. balteatus larvae was determined with the aphids M. carnosum, A. pisum, and S. avenae. Harmonia axyridis females showed a strong oviposition preference for the stinging nettle,M. carnosum association. The preferred association for ovipostion by E. balteatus was pea-hosting A. pisum, on which fecundity was also highest. Feeding behaviour was less restricted in H. axyridis, in which the preferred preys were M. carnosum and S. avenae. A lower specificity of predation was observed in E. balteatus larvae with respect to A. pisum. These laboratory experiments may help us to understand the spatial distribution of H. axyridis and E. balteatus in the field. [source]


Oviposition and feeding preference of Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lep., Acrolepiidae)

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 9-10 2007
J. Allison
Abstract:, The leek moth, Acrolepiopsisassectella (Zell.), is a recently discovered exotic species in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. This Allium spp. (Asparagales, Alliaceae) specialist can cause up to 40% crop damage. A no-choice experiment was used to determine the relationship between oviposition behaviour and larval survival of the leek moth as the phylogenetic distance from the preferred host Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum L. increased. Results indicate that oviposition preference and larval survival of the leek moth declined as the phylogenetic distance from the preferred host increased. These results support the conclusion that the leek moth is a specialist feeder on closely related Allium spp. although the strength of this preference may decline as the motivation to oviposit increases. This may indicate that the leek moth is able to use closely related novel hosts as temporary refuges if the preferred host plant is unavailable. [source]


Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behaviour of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
C. W. Fox
Abstract Few studies have examined the genetic architecture of population differences in behaviour and its implications for population differentiation and adaptation. Even fewer have examined whether differences in genetic architecture depend on the environment in which organisms are reared or tested. We examined the genetic basis of differences in oviposition preference and egg dispersion between Asian (SI) and African (BF) populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes (cowpea and mung bean). The two populations differed in mean oviposition preference (BF females preferred cowpea seeds more strongly than did SI females) and egg dispersion (SI females distributed eggs more uniformly among seeds than did BF females). Observations of hybrid and backcross individuals indicated that only the population difference in oviposition preference could be explained by complete additivity, whereas substantial dominance and epistasis contributed to the differences in egg dispersion. Both rearing host and test host affected the relative magnitude of population differences in egg dispersion and the composite genetic effects. Our results thus demonstrate that the relative influence of epistasis and dominance on the behaviour of hybrids depends on the behaviour measured and that different aspects of insect oviposition are under different genetic control. In addition, the observed effect of rearing host and oviposition host on the relative importance of dominance and epistasis indicates that the genetic basis of population differences depends on the environment in which genes are expressed. [source]


Oviposition preference and larval performance of the sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata on Ipomoea species in Ethiopia

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Ferdu Azerefegne
1The sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata is an indigenous species in Ethiopia that has become a major pest on the introduced sweet potato Ipomoea batatas. To assess the role of wild Ethiopian Ipomoea species as host plants, the presence of larvae on wild ipomoeas was studied, and female oviposition choice and larval performance were tested on five wild ipomoeas, as well as on sweet potato. 2In laboratory tests, oviposition and larval development were successful on two wild ipomoeas (Ipomoea tenuirostris and Ipomoea cairica) but no oviposition occurred on the remaining three species. Of the latter, larvae did not feed on Ipomoea hochstetteri and Ipomoea indica, and survival rates were extremely low on Ipomoea purpurea. 3Sweet potato was a better host plant than I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in terms of oviposition preference, larval survival and pupal size; pupae were larger, resulting in more fecund female butterflies. 4In the wild butterfly populations were abundant on I. tenuirostris but absent on I. cairica. Females also tended to prefer I. tenuirostris to I. cairica in oviposition choice experiments. However, no significant differences in performance were found between larvae raised on I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in the laboratory. 5Wild populations of A. acerata also existed on Ipomoea obscura, a plant not investigated in the present study. 6The abundance of A. acerata on wild ipomoeas is too low to likely affect butterfly population densities on sweet potato. However, wild populations may act as reservoirs subsequent to butterfly population bottlenecks on sweet potato. [source]


Fertilizer affects the behaviour and performance of Plutella xylostella on brassicas

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Joanna T. Staley
Abstract 1,Foliar nitrogen concentration, which can be manipulated in crop plants by fertilizer supply, has long been recognized as a major factor in phytophagous insect abundance and performance. More recently, the type of fertilizer supplied has been shown to influence the abundance of some herbivore species. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella is a global pest of Brassica crops. Although it has been the subject of numerous studies on host-plant resistance and pest control, few studies have addressed the effect of abiotic factors, such as nutrient supply, on its performance and behaviour. 2,We assessed oviposition preference, larval feeding preference and larval performance of P. xylostella on two cultivars of Brassica oleracea. Plants were grown using two fertilizer types, John Innes fertilizer and an organic animal manure, at high and low concentrations. 3,Plutella xylostella laid more eggs on cultivar Derby Day than Drago. Derby Day was also the cultivar on which larval performance was maximized. However, differences in larval performance between cultivars were only found when plants were grown in compost with John Innes fertilizer, and not when fertilized with animal manure. 4,Foliar nitrogen concentration was greater in plants grown in high fertilizer treatments but did not differ between cultivars. The concentrations of three glucosinolate compounds (glucoiberin, sinigrin and glucobrassicin) were greater in the high fertilizer treatments. Glucosinolate concentrations were higher in the Drago than the Derby Day cultivar. 5,These results are discussed in relation to the preference-performance hypothesis, and the assessment of plant resistance differences between cultivars using different types of fertilizer. [source]


Differential defoliation of Eucalyptus grandis arises from indiscriminant oviposition and differential larval survival

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
M. L. Henery
Abstract 1,The influence of six open-pollinated families (OPFs) of Eucalyptus grandis on both the growth and development of larvae and the oviposition preference of a paropsine chrysomelid (Paropsis atomaria) was investigated. The OPFs had previously been identified as differing in their susceptibility to defoliation by P. atomaria in forestry progeny trials. 2,Oviposition preference for resistant and susceptible foliage was tested using binary choice tests. These tests did not demonstrate any significant preference for either resistant or susceptible open-pollinated material indicating that adult host preference for susceptible trees was not a likely cause of differential defoliation. 3,Quantification and analysis of growth and development parameters for all larval stages of P. atomaria showed that feeding on genetic material identified as resistant resulted in a significant reduction of relative growth rate of first instar larvae and an alteration to normal feeding behaviour. There was also a trend towards increased larval mortality on resistant E. grandis. 4,We argue that although the magnitude of these effects was minor, interactions with additional biotic and abiotic sources of mortality in the field have the potential, when magnified over successive generations, to result in significant variation in defoliation of host genotypes in the field. [source]


Influence of sulphur plant nutrition on oviposition and larval performance of the cabbage root fly

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
Cristina Marazzi
Abstract 1,Oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) (L.) (Brassicaceae) were grown under different levels of sulphur supply and tested for the oviposition preference and larval performance of cabbage root flies Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). 2,Adult females laid more than three-fold as many eggs on control Sn (normal field concentration) than on sulphur-free S0 plants. By contrast, no significant difference was observed between control and double normal concentration (S+) plants. 3,The larval performance was evaluated using three additional, intermediate sulphur levels between S0 and Sn, and the plants were infected with equal numbers of eggs. The percentage pupation at the end of larval feeding ranged from 6% (S0) to 32% (Sn or S+) and the average number of pupae, or of emerging flies, was significantly correlated with sulphur application. 4,The weight of emerging males and females was correlated with plant sulphur supply. 5,The duration of development from eggs to adult emergence was approximately 2 days longer in females than in males. Females originating from plants with a normal or higher sulphur supply tended to emerge 1,2 days earlier. [source]


Interactions between the stem-mining weevils Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. and Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in oilseed rape

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Georg Dechert
Abstract 1,The rape stem weevil Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. and the cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.) share the same habitat and food resource within the stems of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. var. oleifera. Interactions occurring between these two sympatric species on this host were studied under both field and laboratory conditions. 2,The oviposition preference of C. pallidactylus and the within-plant distribution of eggs and larvae were examined in field plots of oilseed rape. Female C. pallidactylus tended to lay their eggs in plants already infested by eggs and larvae of C. napi rather than in uninfested plants. The within-plant distribution of the egg batches of C. pallidactylus did not differ significantly between uninfested plants and those preinfested by C. napi. Ovipositing females of C. napi and C. pallidactylus generally showed a significant preference for plants with larger stem diameter. 3,Laboratory choice tests provided further evidence for the oviposition preference of C. pallidactylus. Females laid significantly more eggs in leaves of plants that had been previously infested by C. napi than in leaves of previously uninfested plants. 4,Larvae of C. pallidactylus showed a significant shift of their feeding niche towards the stem base when feeding in individual plants attacked by both species. This possibly indicates ressource partitioning between C. pallidactylus and C. napi. The within-plant distribution of C. napi larvae was not affected by the simultaneous attack of C. pallidactylus. 5,The size of the head capsule of full-grown larvae of C. napi and C. pallidactylus was not significantly correlated with the diameter of the stem of their host plant or with the number of conspecific larvae within individual plants. [source]


Oviposition strategies employed by the western spruce budworm: tests of predictions from the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Kathryn J. Leyva
Abstract 1,Predictions from the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis were tested for the first time in an eruptive forest Lepidopteran species, the western spruce budworm. 2,In previous work, we established that western spruce budworm females exhibit oviposition preferences with regard to tree age, tree vigour and host species. However, there was no evidence to support a link between oviposition preference and larval performance, which supports the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis. 3,Our preference data led us to test whether female budworms use oviposition strategies to select the sites where they lay their egg masses. Our experiments were designed to make direct comparisons between latent and eruptive insect herbivores with respect to two oviposition behaviours: egg retention and avoidance of conspecifics. This type of research has not previously been conducted on any eruptive forest Lepidopteran. 4,Female budworms retained eggs instead of laying them on less preferred hosts in two of three experiments, but the percentage of eggs they retained was significantly less compared to latent insect herbivores. 5,In addition, female budworms actively avoided oviposition in areas with the highest density of conspecific egg masses, but they laid egg masses in all the other locations provided. This contrasts with the pattern seen in latent insect herbivores, which consistently avoid laying their eggs near any sites already used by conspecifics. 6,Our research indicates that there are extreme differences between latent and eruptive insect herbivores with respect to egg retention and avoidance of conspecifics, thus supporting the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis. [source]


Infestation of coconut fruits by Aceria guerreronis enhances the pest status of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
S.W.J. De Santana
Abstract The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and the coconut moth, Atheloca subrufella (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), exploit the same habitat,meristematic region underneath the coconut fruit perianth. The coconut fruit perianth, however, is a tight structure allowing free colonisation of the meristematic region of the fruit only by small arthropods such as the eriophyid and tarsonemid mites. Fruits infested by the mites develop different levels of necrosis around the perianth providing access to colonising larvae of the coconut moth, which bore the fruit under the perianth resulting in fruit abortion. Based on field observations, we hypothesise that A. subrufella will colonise coconut fruits only if they exhibit damage on the perianth such as the necrosis caused by the coconut mite. Fruits with and without necrosis were collected from different production areas located in three different states along the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inspected for infestation with coconut moth larvae. In the laboratory, coconut fruits with and without necrosis were offered to moths for oviposition preference and tested for colonisation by neonate and third instar larvae. The results showed that the moths showed no preference for fruits with or without necrosis for oviposition and, hence, neonate larvae have to go under the perianth bract to reach the meristematic region of the fruit. However, neonate larvae were unable to colonise fruits without necrosis (0%) compared to 23% and 60% of fruit colonisation success when exhibiting mite necrosis or mechanical damage, respectively. Similar results were found with respect to older coconut moth larvae. Thus, the data support the hypothesis that the indirect interaction through previous fruit colonisation and necrosis caused by the coconut mite allows the larvae of A. subrufella to be a key pest of coconut fruits. [source]


Influence of fruit traits on oviposition preference and offspring performance of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on three tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) cultivars

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Solomon Balagawi
Abstract, In Queensland, three tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) cultivars, Grosse Lisse, Roma and Cherry, are infested by Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In this study, we examined if there was a correlation between oviposition preference and offspring performance of B. tryoni among the three tomato cultivars. We also investigated host plant traits that may explain any variation in preference and performance. Choice and no-choice experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions. A positive correlation between oviposition preference and offspring performance of B. tryoni was observed in the three tomato cultivars. Grosse Lisse and Roma cultivars were highly preferred by B. tryoni over Cherry cultivar. Performance (measured as proportion of eggs developing to the pupal stage) was significantly higher in Grosse Lisse and Roma cultivars than in Cherry cultivar. The pericarp toughness of Cherry cultivar appears responsible for its low rate of infestation, while the presence of 2-butanol and 1,4-butanediamine in Roma and Grosse Lisse, respectively, may partly be responsible for the high oviposition preference shown by B. tryoni towards these cultivars. [source]


When random sampling does not work: standard design falsely indicates maladaptive host preferences in a butterfly

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 1 2002
Michael C. Singer
In experiments that investigate species' interactions, individuals are often chosen at random to represent their populations. However, this practice can generate misleading results when individuals of different species do not interact at random. We illustrate this effect by examining oviposition preferences of Euphydryas aurinia butterflies from three populations using three different plant genera. We first offered each insect a randomly chosen member of its own host population and a foreign host (Succisa pratensis) not present in the insect's habitat. The butterflies uniformly preferred the foreign Succisa over their own hosts. Preferences were apparently maladaptive because insects wasted time searching for a nonexistent plant. We repeated the experiment using individual hosts that had naturally received eggs in the field. The overall preference for Succisa and the appearance of maladaptation both disappeared. In the original experiments, our random choice of experimental host individuals had combined with strong within-species discrimination by the butterflies and with overlap of acceptability between host species to obscure the true nature of host preference. [source]


Trade-offs in oviposition choice?

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2007
Food-dependent performance, defence against predators of a herbivorous sawfly
Abstract The sawfly Athalia rosae L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is a feeding specialist on plant species of the Brassicaceae, which are characterised by secondary metabolites, called glucosinolates. The larvae can take up the respective glucosinolates of their hosts and concentrate them in their haemolymph to protect themselves against predators. Oviposition preferences of naďve females were tested for three species, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, and Barbarea stricta Andrz., and were related to larval performance patterns. Larvae were reared on either one of these plants and it was investigated how host-plant quality influences both the developmental times and growth of larvae (bottom-up) and the defence efficiency against predators (top-down). Innately, almost all adult females avoided B. stricta for oviposition and clearly preferred B. nigra over S. alba. On average, larvae developed best on B. nigra. Female larvae reached similar final body masses on all host-plant species, but males reared on S. alba were slightly lighter. The developmental time of larvae reared on B. stricta was significantly longer than on the other two plants. However, larvae reared on B. stricta were best protected against the predatory wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The wasps rejected these larvae most often, while they attacked larvae reared on S. alba most frequently. Thus, larvae feeding on B. stricta theoretically run a higher risk of predation due to a prolonged developmental time, but in practice they are better protected against predators. Overall, oviposition preferences of A. rosae seem to be more influenced by bottom-up effects on larval performance than by top-down effects. [source]


A tritrophic analysis of host preference and performance in a polyphagous leafminer

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2006
Martín Videla
Abstract The optimal oviposition theory predicts that oviposition preferences of phytophagous insects should correlate with host suitability for their offspring. As plant host suitability depends not only on its quality as food, but also on its provision of enemy-free space, we examined the relationship between adult host preference and offspring performance for the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on various host plants, considering also the interaction with natural enemies. Preference and offspring performance were assessed through observational field data and laboratory experiments in central Argentina. Field data suggested a positive host preference , performance linkage, as the leafminer attained larger body size on the crops where it was more abundant. Laboratory trials supported these results: Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) was the preferred host in the laboratory as well as in the field, performance of L. huidobrensis being also best on this host, with highest survival rates and shortest development time. The actively feeding larval stage showed the largest plant-related effects. Higher overall parasitism rates were found on plants from which smaller leafminers were reared, reinforcing the preference,performance linkage. On the other hand, the main parasitoid Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reached larger body size, and caused higher mortality rates on crops where the leafminer was larger. Changes in abundance of particular parasitoid species could thus modify overall parasitism trends. [source]


Willow genotype, but not drought treatment, affects foliar phenolic concentrations and leaf-beetle resistance

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2004
Carolyn Glynn
Abstract In a greenhouse experiment we examined the effect of willow genotype and irrigation regime (moderate drought and well-watered) on plant growth parameters, foliar nitrogen, and phenolic concentrations, as well as on the preference and performance of the blue leaf beetle, Phratora vulgatissima (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The 10 vegetatively propagated willow genotypes in the experiments were F2 full-sibling hybrids, originated from a cross between Salix viminalis (L.) (Salicaceae) (high in condensed tannins) and Salix dasyclados (L.) (Salicaceae) (rich in phenolic glycosides). Insect bioassays were conducted on detached leaves in Petri dishes as well as with free-living insects on intact potted plants. The 10-week long irrigation treatments caused statistically significant phenotypic differences in the potted willow saplings. Total biomass was somewhat higher in the well-watered treatment. The root to total biomass ratio was higher in the drought-treatment plants. There was significant genotypic variation in foliar nitrogen concentrations, and they were higher in the drought-treatment plants. There was also a strong genotypic variation in each of the phenolic substances analyzed. Condensed tannins, which accounted for the greatest proportion of total phenolic mass, were higher in the well-watered treatment. There was, however, no difference in levels of the other phenolics (salicylates, cinnamic acid, flavonoids, and chlorogenic acid) between irrigation treatments. The sum of these phenolics was higher in the well-watered treatment. There was a strong variation in P. vulgatissima larval development on different willow genotypes, and larval performance was negatively correlated with levels of salicylates and cinnamic acid. There was, however, no effect of irrigation treatment on larval performance. Phratora vulgatissima preferred to feed on well-watered plants, and we found a preference for oviposition there, but neither feeding nor oviposition site preference was affected by willow genotype. Adult feeding and oviposition preferences were not correlated with larval performance. [source]


Pulp handling by vertebrate seed dispersers increases palm seed predation by bruchid beetles in the northern Amazon

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Kirsten M. Silvius
Abstract 1The simultaneous use of fruits and seeds by invertebrate seed predators and vertebrate seed dispersers produces complex ecological interactions that reduce the predictability of seed fate. 2Cocosoid palm seeds in the Neotropics are subject to high mortality by bruchid beetle infestation and such attack is the major cause of mortality for seeds of the palm Attalea maripa at our study site in the northern Brazilian Amazon. 3The exocarp and mesocarp of 1400 fruits were manipulated in different ways to simulate handling by vertebrates. No eggs of the bruchid beetle, Pachymerus cardo, were laid on intact control fruits, while the highest numbers of eggs were received by fruits whose exocarp and mesocarp had been partially removed, as if by primates and rodents (mean of 15.9 and 18.9 eggs fruit,1, respectively, during the peak fruiting season). Fruits with intact mesocarp but no exocarp, and fruits with all mesocarp and exocarp removed, received low numbers of eggs (mean of 4.6 and 6.6 eggs per fruit, respectively, during the peak fruiting season). Thus both exocarp and mesocarp deter oviposition, and removal of these fruit structures increases fruit susceptibility to infestation. 4Oviposition rates declined as the fruiting season progressed, but oviposition preferences remained the same. Seed mortality was high for any fruit on which eggs were laid. 5Large rodents and primates, which have been considered among the most effective seed dispersers for large-seeded Neotropical trees such as palms, actually increased the susceptibility of seeds to bruchid beetle attack. Removal of (intact) seeds by other dispersers may be necessary to ensure seed survival. 6These results indicate that the reliability of seed dispersers cannot be gauged without a complete understanding of variables that affect seed viability. [source]


Oviposition strategies employed by the western spruce budworm: tests of predictions from the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Kathryn J. Leyva
Abstract 1,Predictions from the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis were tested for the first time in an eruptive forest Lepidopteran species, the western spruce budworm. 2,In previous work, we established that western spruce budworm females exhibit oviposition preferences with regard to tree age, tree vigour and host species. However, there was no evidence to support a link between oviposition preference and larval performance, which supports the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis. 3,Our preference data led us to test whether female budworms use oviposition strategies to select the sites where they lay their egg masses. Our experiments were designed to make direct comparisons between latent and eruptive insect herbivores with respect to two oviposition behaviours: egg retention and avoidance of conspecifics. This type of research has not previously been conducted on any eruptive forest Lepidopteran. 4,Female budworms retained eggs instead of laying them on less preferred hosts in two of three experiments, but the percentage of eggs they retained was significantly less compared to latent insect herbivores. 5,In addition, female budworms actively avoided oviposition in areas with the highest density of conspecific egg masses, but they laid egg masses in all the other locations provided. This contrasts with the pattern seen in latent insect herbivores, which consistently avoid laying their eggs near any sites already used by conspecifics. 6,Our research indicates that there are extreme differences between latent and eruptive insect herbivores with respect to egg retention and avoidance of conspecifics, thus supporting the Phylogenetic Constraints Hypothesis. [source]