Oviposition Period (oviposition + period)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Patterns of interspecific associations of stem gallers on willows

Jens-Peter Kopelke
Abstract., The pattern of interspecific associations of three stem-galling sawfly species (Euura atra, E. elaeagnos, E. purpureae) and three stem-galling gallmidge species (Rabdophaga sp. 3,5) was investigated on five willow taxa (Salix alba, S. fragilis, S. rubens, S. elaeagnos, S. purpurea) at five natural sites in Central Europe. The willow species harboured specific species associations of two stem gallers, each pair consisting of one Euura and one Rabdophaga species. The stem gallers were patchily distributed and their densities varied significantly among willow host plant species, host plant individuals, and host plant sexes. Four of the six species showed a significant increase in galling rate with shoot length. The other two species were the sawfly and cecidomyiid pair that induce galls on S. purpurea. The preference of stem gallers to longer shoots was generally not related to higher larval performance in terms of survival. Only one species, Rabdophaga sp. 5, was found to be more abundant on male plants. The correlation of densities of the species pairs of stem gallers was independent of willow sexes. Species pairs of stem gallers co-occurring on the same willow species tended to attack different shoots within the same host plant individual. When species pairs co-occurred on shoots they were usually found in similar densities as when occurring alone on shoots. The stem-galling sawflies usually formed galls at the basal part of a shoot, whereas the gallmidge R. sp. 5 (R. sp. 3 and R. sp. 4 showed no clear tendency) preferred the middle or distal part of a shoot. This is interpreted with differences of their phenology and oviposition period. [source]

Relationship between diet composition and the fecundity of Musca domestica

Abstract A study of the relationship between diet compositions of housefly Musca domestica and the fecundity of the insect was carried out. Fecundity was increased more than 30% by adding a protein source and inorganic salts into the larval and adult diets. Also, adding a protein source into the adult diet prolonged the oviposition period of adult houseflies. [source]

Seasonal synchrony of life cycles between the exotic predator, Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its prey, the hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Homoptera:Adelgidae)

Carole A. S. -J.
Abstract 1 The seasonal synchrony between the exotic predator, Pseudoscymnus tsugae and its prey, the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, was investigated in field cages and in the forest in Connecticut, U.S.A. from 1997,1999. 2 In early spring, egg to adult development took 45 d at 18.7 C, 39.7 d at 20.2 C and 31.5 d at 22.7 C. Earliest emerging F1 adults mated and oviposited in the same year. whereas F1 and F2 females emerging later in the summer mated and reserved most of their egg complement for the following year. 3 A second generation of P. tsugae is possible in Connecticut but may be delayed by cool mid-spring temperatures. Individuals of three generations of P. tsugae, including overwintering survivors, may coexist in July and August and adults can be found year-round with A. tsugae in infested hemlock forests. 4 A linear regression model for development from egg to adult under field temperatures gave good agreement with results from constant temperature findings. The model predicted a lower development threshold of 9.5 C and a sum of effective temperatures of 405 day C. Development time of P. tsugae is shorter relative to its prey A. tsugae and generation time ratios of predator to prey was 0.16,0.5, with an advantage conferred on the coccinellid. 5 Overwintering ability and behaviour were determined in 1998,1999 and adults remained on infested hemlock branches throughout a mild winter, becoming reproductively active in mid-April. Peak oviposition period extended from April to July, in synchrony with peak oviposition and developing stages of two generations of A. tsugae. [source]

Gonadoinhibitory effects of Neb-colloostatin and Neb-TMOF on ovarian development in the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

O. Wasielewski
Abstract The gonadostatic action of the peptides Neb-colloostatin (SIVPLGLPVPIGPIVVGPR) and Neb-TMOF (NPTNLH) from Neobellieria bullata was studied in female mealworm Tenebrio molitor. Both peptides potently inhibit ovarian development and terminal oocyte maturation of mated females during their first reproductive cycle. Injection of 4 ,g of Neb-colloostatin or Neb-TMOFNeb-TMOF reduced, at day 4 of the cycle, the size of the terminal oocytes to about half or one third of the normal size in saline-injected controls. In addition, follicular patency was arrested. The injections of Neb-colloostatin and Neb-TMOF also caused a delay to the first ovulation and oviposition as well as a reduction of the number of eggs by about 50% in the first 3 days of the oviposition period. At 4 days after adult emergence, none of the peptides had caused significant changes in protein concentration or composition of the haemolymph. However, both peptides reduced total protein content in ovaries and induced qualitative changes in ovarian protein patterns. Electrophoretic analyses indicated that Neb-colloostatin and Neb-TMOF caused a loss of two proteins (150, 180 kDa) and a drastic reduction of 4 others (39, 43, 47, 130 kDa), which are the most abundant ones in ovaries of control females. On the other hand, they increased the concentration of 2 other polypeptides (65, 70 kDa), which normally occur in insignificant quantities in ovaries. Our results indicate that both peptides have a very similar mode of action despite the differences in their amino acid sequence. They seem to interfere with vitellogenin production by the fat body as well as with vitellogen uptake by the oocytes through modification of patency. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 64:131,141, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]