Oviposition Choice (oviposition + choice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Manipulation of oviposition choice of the parasitoid wasp, Encarsia pergandiella, by the endosymbiotic bacterium Cardinium

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
S. G. KENYON
Abstract Reproductive manipulations of hosts by maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts often result in an increase in the proportion of infected female hosts in the population. When this involves the conversion of incipient males to genetic or functional females, it presents unique difficulties for symbionts invading hosts with sex-specific reproductive behaviours, such as the autoparasitic Encarsia pergandiella. In sexual forms of this species, female eggs are laid in whitefly nymphs and male eggs are laid in conspecific or heterospecific parasitoids developing within the whitefly cuticle. Further, eggs laid in the ,wrong' host do not ordinarily complete development. This study explored the role of a bacterial symbiont, Cardinium, in manipulating oviposition behaviour in a thelytokous population of E. pergandiella. Oviposition choice was measured by the number and location of eggs deposited by both infected and uninfected adult waSPS in arenas containing equal numbers of hosts suitable for the development of male and female waSPS. Uninfected waSPS included antibiotic-treated female waSPS and (untreated) daughters of antibiotic-treated female waSPS. The choices of waSPS in the thelytokous population treatments were compared with those of a conspecific sexual population. We found that offspring of antibiotic-cured thelytokous waSPS reverted to the behaviour of unmated sexual waSPS, laying their few eggs almost exclusively in hosts appropriate for male eggs. Infected thelytokous waSPS distributed their eggs approximately evenly between host types, much like mated sexual female waSPS. The antibiotic-treated female waSPS exhibited choices intermediate to waSPS in the other two treatments. The change in the observed behaviour appears sufficient to allow invasion and persistence of Cardinium in sexual populations. Lastly, our results suggest a reduction in host discrimination as a possible mechanism by which Cardinium influences this change. [source]


Oviposition by Lobesia botrana is stimulated by sugars detected by contact chemoreceptors

PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Nevile Maher
Abstract., The influence of glucose, fructose and sucrose on oviposition site selection by Lobesia botrana is studied by combining behavioural and electrophysiological experiments. Oviposition choice assays, using surrogate grapes treated with grape berry surface extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot at different development stages, show that L. botrana females are most stimulated by extracts of mature berries containing the highest concentrations of glucose and fructose. Choice assays reveal that the oviposition response to these sugars is dose-dependant (with a threshold of the applied solution = 10 mm and a maximum stimulation at 1 m) and that females are more sensitive to fructose than to glucose. Tarsal contact-chemoreceptor sensilla are unresponsive to stimulation with sugars but the ovipositor sensilla contain at least one neurone most sensitive to fructose and sucrose with a threshold of approximately 0.5 mm. Corresponding to the behavioural data, glucose is significantly less stimulatory to sensilla than fructose or sucrose. It is argued that fructose may be of special importance for herbivorous insects exploiting fruit as an oviposition site. [source]


Trade-offs in oviposition choice?

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2007
Food-dependent performance, defence against predators of a herbivorous sawfly
Abstract The sawfly Athalia rosae L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is a feeding specialist on plant species of the Brassicaceae, which are characterised by secondary metabolites, called glucosinolates. The larvae can take up the respective glucosinolates of their hosts and concentrate them in their haemolymph to protect themselves against predators. Oviposition preferences of nave females were tested for three species, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, and Barbarea stricta Andrz., and were related to larval performance patterns. Larvae were reared on either one of these plants and it was investigated how host-plant quality influences both the developmental times and growth of larvae (bottom-up) and the defence efficiency against predators (top-down). Innately, almost all adult females avoided B. stricta for oviposition and clearly preferred B. nigra over S. alba. On average, larvae developed best on B. nigra. Female larvae reached similar final body masses on all host-plant species, but males reared on S. alba were slightly lighter. The developmental time of larvae reared on B. stricta was significantly longer than on the other two plants. However, larvae reared on B. stricta were best protected against the predatory wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The wasps rejected these larvae most often, while they attacked larvae reared on S. alba most frequently. Thus, larvae feeding on B. stricta theoretically run a higher risk of predation due to a prolonged developmental time, but in practice they are better protected against predators. Overall, oviposition preferences of A. rosae seem to be more influenced by bottom-up effects on larval performance than by top-down effects. [source]


Oviposition Preferences in Newts: Does Temperature Matter?

ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Jan Dvo
A female's decision where and when to place her eggs has important fitness consequences for her offspring. Although temperature is considered among the most relevant abiotic factors affecting female oviposition site choice in ectotherms, little is known about the relative importance of temperature cues in complex oviposition decisions. In this study, we examined female's oviposition choice under conflicting demands for temperature and embryo protection by studying oviposition behaviour in female alpine newts, Triturus alpestris, exposed to various thermal conditions and the availability of egg-wrapping vegetation. Females oviposited between 12.5 and 22.5C in the aquatic thermal gradient (5,32.5C) with the unrestricted availability of oviposition vegetation. The removal of the vegetation from predominantly chosen oviposition temperatures (15,20C) induced egg-retention in most females. This suggests that both temperature and the presence of egg-wrapping vegetation play important roles in oviposition site choice of alpine newts. [source]


Manipulation of oviposition choice of the parasitoid wasp, Encarsia pergandiella, by the endosymbiotic bacterium Cardinium

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
S. G. KENYON
Abstract Reproductive manipulations of hosts by maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts often result in an increase in the proportion of infected female hosts in the population. When this involves the conversion of incipient males to genetic or functional females, it presents unique difficulties for symbionts invading hosts with sex-specific reproductive behaviours, such as the autoparasitic Encarsia pergandiella. In sexual forms of this species, female eggs are laid in whitefly nymphs and male eggs are laid in conspecific or heterospecific parasitoids developing within the whitefly cuticle. Further, eggs laid in the ,wrong' host do not ordinarily complete development. This study explored the role of a bacterial symbiont, Cardinium, in manipulating oviposition behaviour in a thelytokous population of E. pergandiella. Oviposition choice was measured by the number and location of eggs deposited by both infected and uninfected adult waSPS in arenas containing equal numbers of hosts suitable for the development of male and female waSPS. Uninfected waSPS included antibiotic-treated female waSPS and (untreated) daughters of antibiotic-treated female waSPS. The choices of waSPS in the thelytokous population treatments were compared with those of a conspecific sexual population. We found that offspring of antibiotic-cured thelytokous waSPS reverted to the behaviour of unmated sexual waSPS, laying their few eggs almost exclusively in hosts appropriate for male eggs. Infected thelytokous waSPS distributed their eggs approximately evenly between host types, much like mated sexual female waSPS. The antibiotic-treated female waSPS exhibited choices intermediate to waSPS in the other two treatments. The change in the observed behaviour appears sufficient to allow invasion and persistence of Cardinium in sexual populations. Lastly, our results suggest a reduction in host discrimination as a possible mechanism by which Cardinium influences this change. [source]


Oviposition preference and larval performance of the sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata on Ipomoea species in Ethiopia

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Ferdu Azerefegne
1The sweet potato butterfly Acraea acerata is an indigenous species in Ethiopia that has become a major pest on the introduced sweet potato Ipomoea batatas. To assess the role of wild Ethiopian Ipomoea species as host plants, the presence of larvae on wild ipomoeas was studied, and female oviposition choice and larval performance were tested on five wild ipomoeas, as well as on sweet potato. 2In laboratory tests, oviposition and larval development were successful on two wild ipomoeas (Ipomoea tenuirostris and Ipomoea cairica) but no oviposition occurred on the remaining three species. Of the latter, larvae did not feed on Ipomoea hochstetteri and Ipomoea indica, and survival rates were extremely low on Ipomoea purpurea. 3Sweet potato was a better host plant than I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in terms of oviposition preference, larval survival and pupal size; pupae were larger, resulting in more fecund female butterflies. 4In the wild butterfly populations were abundant on I. tenuirostris but absent on I. cairica. Females also tended to prefer I. tenuirostris to I. cairica in oviposition choice experiments. However, no significant differences in performance were found between larvae raised on I. tenuirostris and I. cairica in the laboratory. 5Wild populations of A. acerata also existed on Ipomoea obscura, a plant not investigated in the present study. 6The abundance of A. acerata on wild ipomoeas is too low to likely affect butterfly population densities on sweet potato. However, wild populations may act as reservoirs subsequent to butterfly population bottlenecks on sweet potato. [source]


Nesting in a thermally challenging environment: nest-site selection in a rock-dwelling gecko, Oedura lesueurii (Reptilia: Gekkonidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
DAVID A. PIKE
In egg-laying species, maternal oviposition choice can influence egg survival and offspring phenotypes. According to the maternal-preference offspring-performance hypothesis, females should choose oviposition sites that are optimal for offspring fitness. However, in thermally challenging environments, maternal oviposition behaviour may be constrained by the limited availability of suitable oviposition sites. We investigated nest-site selection in a nocturnal lizard [velvet gecko Oedura lesueurii (Dumril and Bibron)] that inhabits a thermally challenging environment in south-eastern Australia. The viability of these gecko populations is critical for the persistence of an endangered snake species (Hoplocephalus bungaroides Wagler) that feeds heavily on velvet geckos. Female geckos chose nest sites nonrandomly, with 87% of nests (N = 30) being laid in deep crevices. By contrast, only 13% of clutches were laid under rocks, which were the most readily available potential nest sites. Nest success in crevices was high (100%), but no eggs hatched from nests under rocks. Temperatures in nest crevices remained relatively low and constant throughout the incubation period (mean = 22.7 C, range 21.0,24.5 C), whereas thermal regimes under rocks showed large diurnal fluctuations. Geckos selected crevices that were deeper, had less canopy cover, and were warmer than most available crevices; in 85% of cases, such crevices were used simultaneously by more than one female. The thermally distinctive attributes of nest sites, and their frequent communal use, suggest that nest sites are a scarce resource for female velvet geckos, and that the shading of rock outcrops through vegetation encroachment may influence nest success in this species. 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 250,259. [source]


Trade-off in oviposition strategy: choosing poor quality host plants reduces mortality from natural enemies for a salt marsh planthopper

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
DANIEL C. MOON
Abstract 1.,Both host plant nutrition and mortality from natural enemies have been predicted to significantly impact host plant selection and oviposition behaviour of phytophagous insects. It is unclear, however, if oviposition decisions maximise fitness. 2.,This study examined whether the salt marsh planthopper Pissonotus quadripustulatus prefers higher quality host plants for oviposition, and if oviposition decisions are made so as to minimise mortality at the egg stage. 3.,A controlled laboratory experiment and 4 years of field data were used to assess the rates of planthopper oviposition on higher quality ,green' and lower quality ,woody' stems of the host plant Borrichia frutescens. The numbers and percentages of healthy eggs and eggs that were killed by parasitoids or the host plant were recorded. 4.,In all years, including the laboratory experiment, Pissonotus planthoppers laid more eggs on lower quality woody stems than on higher quality green stems. While host plant related egg mortality was higher in woody stems, the percentage of eggs parasitised was much greater in green stems. This resulted in a lower total mortality of eggs on woody stems. 5.,The results of this study demonstrate that, although Pissonotus prefers lower quality host plants for oviposition, this actually increases fitness. These data seem to support the enemy free space hypothesis, and suggest that for phytophagous insects that experience the majority of mortality in the egg stage, oviposition choices may be made such that mortality is minimised. [source]